112 relations: Acetylcholine, Adipose tissue, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Adrenalectomy, Adrenergic receptor, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Agonist, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amine, Amino acid, Anaphylaxis, Anxiety, Arteriole, Asthma, Beta blocker, Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Beta-3 adrenergic receptor, Blood plasma, Blood sugar level, Brain, Breastfeeding, British Approved Name, Calcium, Capnography, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac output, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Chromaffin cell, Cortisol, Croup, Cytosol, Dopamine, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Downregulation and upregulation, Endocrine system, Epinephrine (medication), Essential tremor, European Pharmacopoeia, Fatty acid, Fight-or-flight response, Friedrich Stolz, Glucagon, Glycogen phosphorylase, Glycogenesis, ..., Glycogenolysis, Glycolysis, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Henry Drysdale Dakin, Hormone, Insulin, International nonproprietary name, Intravenous therapy, John Jacob Abel, L-DOPA, Lipolysis, List of generic and genericized trademarks, Liver, Long-term memory, Lung, Medication, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Methyl group, Methylation, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Muscle, Napoleon Cybulski, Nebulizer, Negative feedback, Neuron, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Norepinephrine, Pancreas, Parke-Davis, Phenylalanine, Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, Pheochromocytoma, Pituitary gland, Pregnancy, Protozoa, Pupillary response, Respiratory tract, Reward system, S-Adenosyl methionine, Smooth muscle tissue, Sotalol, Splanchnic nerves, Stress (biology), Sympathetic ganglion, Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse, Takamine Jōkichi, Tyrosine, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Ulf von Euler, United States Adopted Name, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vesicular monoamine transporter 1, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Walter Bradford Cannon, William Bates (physician). Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenalectomy (sometimes written as ADX for the procedure or resulting state) is the surgical removal of one or both (bilateral adrenalectomy) adrenal glands.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the respiratory gases.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Epinephrine, also known as adrenalin or adrenaline, is a medication and hormone.
Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder.
The European Pharmacopoeia (Pharmacopoeia Europaea, Ph. Eur.) is a major regional pharmacopoeia which provides common quality standards throughout the pharmaceutical industry in Europe to control the quality of medicines, and the substances used to manufacture them.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Friedrich Stolz (6 April 1860 – 2 April 1936) was a German chemist and, in 1904, the first person to artificially synthesize epinephrine (adrenaline).
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glycogen phosphorylase is one of the phosphorylase enzymes.
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Henry Drysdale Dakin FRS (12 March 188010 February 1952) was an English chemist.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
John Jacob Abel (19 May 1857 – 26 May 1938) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
The following three lists of generic and genericized trademarks are.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Napoleon Cybulski (14 September 1854 – 26 April 1919) was a Polish physiologist and a pioneer of endocrinology and electroencephalography.
In medicine, a nebulizer or nebuliser (see spelling differences) is a drug delivery device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine (noradrenaline) to epinephrine (adrenaline).
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sotalol is a medication used to treat abnormal heart rhythms.
The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves (nerves that contribute to the innervation of the internal organs), carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system (visceral efferent fibers) as well as sensory fibers from the organs (visceral afferent fibers).
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Sympathetic ganglia are the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
was a Japanese chemist.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
Ulf Svante von Euler (7 February 1905 – 9 March 1983) was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) also known as chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT) or solute carrier family 18 member 1 (SLC18A1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A1 gene.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.
William Horatio Bates (December 23, 1860 – July 10, 1931) was an American physician who practiced ophthalmology and developed what became known as the Bates Method for better eyesight,Edited by Thomas R. Quackenbush.