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Adrenergic receptor

Index Adrenergic receptor

The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline). [1]

161 relations: Acepromazine, Adenylyl cyclase, Adipose tissue, Adrenaline, Adrenergic agonist, Adrenergic antagonist, Agmatine, Agonist, Alfuzosin, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1 blocker, Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2 blocker, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, Amibegron, Amitraz, Amitriptyline, Amylase, Anabolism, Anxiety disorder, Arrector pili muscle, Artery, Arturo Rosenblueth, Atenolol, Atipamezole, Beta adrenergic receptor kinase, Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2, Beta blocker, Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Beta-3 adrenergic receptor, Beta2-adrenergic agonist, Bisoprolol, Bitolterol, Blood vessel, Brain, Brimonidine, Bronchiole, Bronchodilator, Bronchus, Butaxamine, Calcium, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac output, Catecholamine, ..., Chloroethylclonidine, Chronotropic, Cirazoline, Clomipramine, Clonidine, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Detomidine, Detrusor muscle, Dexmedetomidine, Diglyceride, Dobutamine, Doxazosin, Doxepin, Dromotropic, Ergot, Fight-or-flight response, Formoterol, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Ghrelin, Gi alpha subunit, Glucagon, Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Gq alpha subunit, Gs alpha subunit, Guanfacine, H1 antagonist, Hair, Henry Hallett Dale, Histamine, Hydroxyzine, Hypertension, ICI-118,551, Idazoxan, Inositol trisphosphate, Inotrope, Insulin, Isoprenaline, Juxtaglomerular cell, Kidney, Lamina propria, Levosalbutamol, Lipolysis, Liver, Lofexidine, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Mast cell, Medetomidine, Metaraminol, Methoxamine, Metoprolol, Midodrine, Mirabegron, Mydriasis, Nebivolol, Norepinephrine, Orciprenaline, Organ (anatomy), Pancreas, Panic attack, Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Phenylephrine, Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, Phospholipase C, Platelet, Prazosin, Propranolol, Protein kinase A, Pupil, Raymond P. Ahlquist, Renal artery, Renin, Ritodrine, Romifidine, Salbutamol, Salivary gland, Salmeterol, Second messenger system, Skeletal muscle, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium, Solabegron, Sphincter, SR 59230A, Sweat gland, Sympathetic nervous system, Tamsulosin, Terazosin, Terbutaline, Timolol, Tizanidine, Trazodone, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trimipramine, Ureter, Urethral sphincters, Urinary bladder, Urothelium, Uterus, Vas deferens, Vasoconstriction, Vein, Vortioxetine, Walter Bradford Cannon, Xylazine, Xylometazoline, Yohimbine. Expand index (111 more) »


Acepromazine, acetopromazine or acetylpromazine (more commonly known as ACP, Ace, or by the trade names Atravet or Acezine 2, number depending on mg/ml dose) is a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug.

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Adenylyl cyclase

Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Adrenergic agonist

An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors.

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Adrenergic antagonist

An adrenergic antagonist is a drug that inhibits the function of adrenergic receptors.

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Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is an aminoguanidine that was discovered in 1910 by Albrecht Kossel.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Alfuzosin (INN, provided as the hydrochloride salt) is a pharmaceutical drug of the α1 blocker class.

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Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor

The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.

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Alpha-1 blocker

Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in arteries, smooth muscles, and central nervous system tissues.

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Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

The alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (α1A adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1A, formerly known also as the alpha-1C adrenergic receptor, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor

The alpha-1B adrenergic receptor (α1B adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1B, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor

The alpha-1D adrenergic receptor (α1D adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1D, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.

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Alpha-2 blocker

α2-blockers are a subset of the alpha blocker class of drugs and are antagonists to the α2 adrenergic receptor.

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Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.

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Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2C adrenergic receptor (α2C adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2C, is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Amibegron (SR-58,611A) was a drug developed by Sanofi-Aventis (now Sanofi) which acts as a selective agonist for the β3 adrenergic receptor.

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Amitraz (development code BTS27419) is a non-systemic acaricide and insecticideCorta, E., Bakkali, A., Berrueta, L. A., Gallo, B., & Vicente, F. (1999).

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Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.

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An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

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Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Arrector pili muscle

The arrector pili muscles are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Arturo Rosenblueth

Arturo Rosenblueth Stearns (October 2, 1900 – September 20, 1970) was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist, who is known as one of the pioneers of cybernetics.

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Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases.

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Atipamezole (brand name Antisedan) is a synthetic α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist indicated for the reversal of the sedative and analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine in dogs.

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Beta adrenergic receptor kinase

Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (also referred to as βARK or BARK) is a serine/threonine intracellular kinase.

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Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2

Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (beta-ARK-2) also known as G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADRBK2 gene.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.

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Beta-3 adrenergic receptor

The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Beta2-adrenergic agonist

β2 (beta2) adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic receptor.

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Bisoprolol, marketed under the tradename Zebeta among others, is a medication most commonly used for heart diseases.

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Bitolterol mesylate (Tornalate) is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brimonidine is a drug used as eye drops under the brand names Alphagan and Alphagan-P to treat open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, and as a gel, Mirvaso, for facial skin redness in rosacea.

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The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa.

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A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.

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A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.

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Butaxamine (INN, also known as butoxamine) is a β2-selective beta blocker.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Chloroethylclonidine is an irreversible agonist for adrenergic receptors, in particular alpha1B, D, C and alpha2A/D-subtypes.

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Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time, and tropos, "a turn") are those that change the heart rate.

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Cirazoline is a full agonist at the α1A adrenergic receptor, a partial agonist at both the α1B and α1D adrenergic receptors, and a nonselective antagonist to the α2 adrenergic receptor.

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Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).

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Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Detomidine is an imidazole derivative and α2-adrenergic agonist, used as a large animal sedative, primarily used in horses.

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Detrusor muscle

The detrusor muscle, also detrusor urinae muscle, muscularis propria of the urinary bladder and (less precise) muscularis propria, is smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder.

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Dexmedetomidine, sold under the trade name Precedex among others, is an anxiety reducing, sedative, and pain medication.

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A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.

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Dobutamine is a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock.

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Doxazosin mesylate, a quinazoline compound sold by Pfizer under the brand names Cardura and Carduran, is an α1-selective alpha blocker used to treat high blood pressure and urinary retention associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

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Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).

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Dromotropic derives from the Greek word "dromos", meaning running, a course, a race.

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Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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Formoterol (INN) or eformoterol (former BAN) is a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) used in the management of asthma and COPD.

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G protein

G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.

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Gi alpha subunit

Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.

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Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).

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Gq alpha subunit

Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).

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Gs alpha subunit

The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.

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Guanfacine (trade names Estulic, Tenex, and, in extended release form, Intuniv) is a sympatholytic drug used to treat hypertension and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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H1 antagonist

H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, helping to relieve allergic reactions.

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Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.

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Henry Hallett Dale

Sir Henry Hallett Dale (9 June 1875 – 23 July 1968) was an English pharmacologist and physiologist.

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Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.

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Hydroxyzine, sold under the brand names Atarax and Vistaril among others, is a first-generation antihistamine.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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ICI-118,551 is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist.

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Idazoxan (INN) is a drug which is used in scientific research.

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Inositol trisphosphate

Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.

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An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Isoprenaline, or isoproterenol, is a medication used for the treatment of bradycardia (slow heart rate), heart block, and rarely for asthma.

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Juxtaglomerular cell

The juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells, or granular cells) are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Lamina propria

The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue that forms part of the moist linings known as mucous membranes or mucosa, which line various tubes in the body, such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract.

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Levosalbutamol, also known as levalbuterol is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lofexidine, sold under the brand name Lucemyra among others, is a medication historically used to treat high blood pressure, but more commonly used to help with the physical symptoms of opioid withdrawal.

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Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a privately held independent publishing company founded by its president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980.

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic.

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Metaraminol (INN; trade names Aramine, Metaramin, and Pressonex), also known as metaradrine, a stereoisomer of ''meta''-hydroxynorephedrine (3,β-dihydroxyamphetamine), is a potent sympathomimetic amine used in the prevention and treatment of hypotension, particularly as a complication of anesthesia.

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Methoxamine is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, somewhat similar in structure to butaxamine and 2,5-DMA.

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Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.

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Midodrine (brand names Amatine, ProAmatine, Gutron, Bramox) is a vasopressor/antihypotensive agent.

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Mirabegron (trade name Myrbetriq in the US and Betmiga in Europe and Australia) is a drug for the treatment of overactive bladder.

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Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.

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Nebivolol is a β1 receptor blocker with nitric oxide-potentiating vasodilatory effect used in treatment of hypertension and, in Europe, also for left ventricular failure.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Orciprenaline, also known as metaproterenol, is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of asthma.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

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Phenoxybenzamine (marketed under the trade name Dibenzyline) is a non-selective, irreversible alpha blocker.

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Phentolamine (Regitine) is a reversible nonselective α-adrenergic antagonist.

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Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.

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Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or PtdIns(4,5)P2, also known simply as PIP2 or PI(4,5)P2, is a minor phospholipid component of cell membranes.

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Phospholipase C

Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Prazosin, trade names Minipress, Vasoflex, Lentopres and Hypovase, is a sympatholytic drug used to treat high blood pressure, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.

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Protein kinase A

In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).

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The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.

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Raymond P. Ahlquist

Raymond Perry Ahlquist (July 26, 1914 in Missoula, Montana – April 15, 1983 in Augusta, Georgia) was an American pharmacist and pharmacologist.

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Renal artery

The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.

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Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.

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Ritodrine (trade name Yutopar) is a tocolytic drug used to stop premature labor.

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Romifidine is a drug that is used in veterinary medicine as a sedative mainly in large animals such as horses, although it may be used in a wide variety of species.

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Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.

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Salivary gland

The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.

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Salmeterol is a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) used in the maintenance and prevention of asthma symptoms and maintenance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms.

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Second messenger system

Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

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Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solabegron (code name GW-427,353) is a drug which acts as a selective agonist for the β3 adrenergic receptor.

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A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.

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SR 59230A

SR 59230A is a selective antagonist of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor, but was subsequently shown to also act at α1 adrenoceptors at high doses.

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Sweat gland

Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Tamsulosin, sold under the trade name Alna ® / Flomax ®, is a medication used to treat symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis, help with the passage of kidney stones, and for urinary retention along with other measures.

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Terazosin (marketed as Hytrin or Zayasel) is a selective alpha-1 antagonist used for treatment of symptoms of an enlarged prostate (BPH).

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Terbutaline (trade names "Bronclyn",Brethine, Bricanyl, Brethaire, or Terbulin) is a β2 adrenergic receptor agonist, used as a "reliever" inhaler in the management of asthma symptoms and as a tocolytic (anti-contraction medication) to delay preterm labor for up to 48 hours.

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Timolol is a medication used either by mouth or as eye drops.

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Tizanidine (trade names Zanaflex (Acorda Therapeutics), Sirdalud (Novartis), Relentus (Beximco Pharma) Is a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist used as a muscle relaxant. It is used to treat the spasms, cramping, and tightness of muscles caused by medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, ALS, spastic diplegia, back pain, or certain other injuries to the spine or central nervous system. It is also prescribed off-label for migraine headaches, as a sleep aid, and as an anticonvulsant. It is also prescribed for some symptoms of fibromyalgia. Tizanidine has been found to be as effective as other antispasmodic drugs and is more tolerable than baclofen and diazepam. Tizanidine can be very strong even at the 2 mg dose and may cause hypotension, so caution is advised when it is used in patients who have a history of orthostatic hypotension, or when switching from gel cap to tablet form and vice versa. Tizanidine can occasionally cause acute liver failure. Clinical trials show that up to 5% of patients treated with tizanidine had elevated liver function test values, though symptoms disappeared upon withdrawal of the drug. Care should be used when first beginning treatment with tizanidine with regular liver tests for the first six months of treatment. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is US$100200.

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Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.

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Tricyclic antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.

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Trimipramine, sold under the brand name Surmontil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.

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In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

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Urethral sphincters

The urethral sphincters are two muscles used to control the exit of urine in the urinary bladder through the urethra.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urothelium (or uroepithelium) is an example of transitional epithelium.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Vas deferens

The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.

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Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Vortioxetine is an antidepressant medication that is prescribed to treat depression.

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Walter Bradford Cannon

Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.

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Xylazine is an analogue of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor.

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Xylometazoline, also spelled xylomethazoline, is a medication which is used to improve symptoms of nasal congestion, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis.

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Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenergic_receptor

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