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Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.
Acqua alta (Italian for "high water") is the term used in Veneto for the exceptional tide peaks that occur periodically in the northern Adriatic Sea.
The Adige (Etsch; Àdexe; Adisch; Adesc; Athesis; Ἄθεσις) is the second longest river in Italy after the Po, rising in the Alps in the province of South Tyrol near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland, flowing through most of North-East Italy to the Adriatic Sea.
Adria is a town and comune in the province of Rovigo in the Veneto region of Northern Italy, situated between the mouths of the rivers Adige and Po.
The Adriatic Abyssal Plain, more commonly referred to as the Adriatic Basin, is an oceanic basin under the Adriatic Sea.
The Adriatic campaign was a minor theatre of war during the Napoleonic Wars in which a succession of small British Royal Navy squadrons and independent cruisers harried the combined naval forces of the First French Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, the Illyrian Provinces and the Kingdom of Naples between 1807 and 1814 in the Adriatic Sea.
The Adriatic Campaign of World War I was a naval campaign fought between the Central Powers and the Mediterranean squadrons of Great Britain, France, the Kingdom of Italy, Australia and the United States.
The Adriatic Campaign of World War II was a minor naval campaign fought during World War II between the Greek, Yugoslavian and Italian navies, the Kriegsmarine, and the Mediterranean squadrons of the United Kingdom, France, and the Yugoslav Partisan naval forces.
The Adriatic Ionian Euroregion is a Euroregion comprising countries and their subdivisions bordering the Adriatic and Ionian Sea.
The Adriatic or Apulian Plate is a small tectonic plate carrying primarily continental crust that broke away from the African plate along a large transform fault in the Cretaceous period.
The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.
The Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, or African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) is an independent international treaty developed under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme's Convention on Migratory Species.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.
An amphidromic point is a point of zero amplitude of one harmonic constituent of the tide.
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko veće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.
The Aoös (Αώος) or Vjosë is a river in northwestern Greece and southwestern Albania.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Apollonia (Apolonia; Ἀπολλωνία κατ᾿ Ἐπίδαμνον or Ἀπολλωνία πρὸς Ἐπίδαμνον, Apollonia kat' Epidamnon or Apollonia pros Epidamnon) was an ancient Greek city located on the right bank of the Aous river (modern-day Vjosë).
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
The Apulia Carbonate Platform in Apulia, Italy was a major palaeogeographic element of the southern margin of the Mesozoic Tethys Ocean.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Aquatic Botany ("An International Scientific Journal dealing with Applied and Fundamental Research on Submerged, Floating and Emergent Plants in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems") is a peer-reviewed scientific journal dedicated to research on structure, function, dynamics, and classification of plant-dominated aquatic communities and ecosystems, as well as molecular, biochemical, and physiological aspects of aquatic plants.
In Euclidean geometry, an arc (symbol: ⌒) is a closed segment of a differentiable curve.
The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro (Војска Србије и Црне Горе/Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore; ВСЦГ/VSCG) included ground forces with internal and border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces, and civil defense.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater under positive pressure.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austrian Littoral (Österreichisches Küstenland, Litorale Austriaco, Avstrijsko primorje, Austrijsko primorje, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Šibenik (Sebenico) is a historic city in Croatia, located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea.
Šibenik-Knin County (Croatian Šibensko-kninska županija) is a county in southern Croatia, located in the north-central part of Dalmatia.
RTV B92 or simply B92, is a Serbian news station and television and radio broadcaster with national coverage headquartered in Belgrade, Serbia.
Bakar (Buccari, Szádrév) is a town in the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County in western Croatia.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Ballast water discharges by ships can have a negative impact on the marine environment.
Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.
Barletta is a city, comune and capoluogo together with Andria and Trani of Apulia, in south eastern Italy.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.
The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 U.S. gallons or 158.9873 litres) of crude oil.
A baseline, as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is the line along the coast from which the seaward limits of a state's territorial sea and certain other maritime zones of jurisdiction are measured, such as a state's exclusive economic zone.
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second-largest living shark, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating shark species, along with the whale shark and megamouth shark.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).
The Battle of Krbava Field (Bitka na Krbavskom polju, Korbávmezei csata, Krbava Muharebesi) was fought between the Ottoman Empire of Bayezid II and an army of the Kingdom of Croatia, at the time in personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary, on 9 September 1493, in the Krbava field, a part of the Lika region in Croatia.
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
The Battle of Lissa (sometimes called the Battle of Vis; Bataille de Lissa; Battaglia di Lissa; Viška bitka) was a naval action fought between a British frigate squadron and a larger squadron of French and Italian frigates and smaller ships on 13 March 1811 during the Adriatic campaign of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Lissa (sometimes called Battle of Vis) took place on 20 July 1866 in the Adriatic Sea near the Dalmatian island of Lissa ("Vis" in Croatian) and was a decisive victory for an outnumbered Austrian Empire force over a numerically superior Italian force.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.
The Battle of the Dalmatian Channels was a three-day confrontation between three tactical groups of Yugoslav Navy ships and coastal artillery, and a detachment of naval commandos of the Croatian Navy fought on 14–16 November 1991 during the Croatian War of Independence.
The 1917 Battle of the Strait of Otranto was the result of an Austro-Hungarian raid on the Otranto Barrage, an Allied naval blockade of the Strait of Otranto.
The Bay of Kotor (Montenegrin: Бока Которска, Boka Kotorska); Bocche di Cattaro), known simply as Boka ("the Bay"), is the name of the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor has been a World Heritage Site since 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries make it a major pilgrimage site.
Bay of Mali Ston (Malostonski zaljev) is a bay in the Adriatic Sea, enclosed by the Pelješac peninsula and the mainland.
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.
The Bellum Batonianum (Latin for "war of the Batos") was a military conflict fought in the Roman province of Illyricum in which an alliance of native peoples of Illyricum revolted against the Romans.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere).
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) that a beach, marina or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its stringent standards.
The blue shark (Prionace glauca) is a species of requiem shark, in the family Carcharhinidae, that inhabits deep waters in the world's temperate and tropical oceans.
Bojana (Bunë or Buna; Montenegrin: Бојана, Bojana) is a 41 km long river in Albania and Montenegro which flows both into the Adriatic Sea.
The bora is a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind in the Adriatic Sea.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Bottom water is the lowermost water mass in a water body, by its bottom, with distinct characteristics, in terms of physics, chemistry, and ecology.
Brač (local Chakavian: Broč,; Bretia, Brattia; Brazza) is an island in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia, with an area of, making it the largest island in Dalmatia, and the third largest in the Adriatic.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
Bršica is a port village in Croatia.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
Bream is a general term for a species of freshwater and marine fish belonging to a variety of genera including Abramis (e.g., A. brama, the common bream), Acanthopagrus, Argyrops, Blicca, Brama, Chilotilapia, Etelis, Lepomis, Gymnocranius, Lethrinus, Nemipterus, Pharyngochromis, Rhabdosargus, or Scolopsis.
The Brenta is an Italian river that runs from Trentino to the Adriatic Sea just south of the Venetian lagoon in the Veneto region, in the north-east of Italy.
The Brijuni or the Brijuni Islands (also known as the Brionian Islands; Brioni) are a group of fourteen small islands in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea, separated from the west coast of the Istrian peninsula by the narrow Fažana Strait.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
Brusnik is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea.
Business.hr is a Croatian daily business newspaper and website based in Zagreb.
Butrint (Buthrōtum; from Bouthrōtón) was an ancient Greek and later Roman city and bishopric in Epirus.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Caorle (Càorle) is a coastal town in the province of Venice, Veneto, Italy, located between the estuaries of the Livenza and Lemene rivers.
The Cape of Rodon or Cape of Skanderbeg (Kepi i Rodonit or Kepi i Skenderbeut) is a rocky cape on the Adriatic Sea north of Durrës, Albania.
Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals.
Cardium pottery or Cardial ware is a Neolithic decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the cockle, an edible marine mollusk formerly known as Cardium edulis (now Cerastoderma edule).
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Carovigno (Carovignese: Carvìgni; Carbina) is a town and comune in the province of Brindisi and region of Apulia, in southern Italy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Cetina is a river in southern Croatia.
The Chattian is, in the geologic timescale, the younger of two ages or upper of two stages of the Oligocene epoch/series.
Chioggia (Venetian: Cióxa, Latin: Clodia) is a coastal town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Venice in the Veneto region of northern Italy.
Chuck Sudetic is a former writer and journalist from the United States whose work focused mainly on the lands and peoples of the now-defunct country of Yugoslavia and included books and articles on the Srebrenica massacre of 1995, international war-crimes prosecution efforts after the Balkan conflicts of the 1990s, and life from the fifth century B.C. to the present day in and around what is now the seaside town of Dubrovnik.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), or Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, is the most well-known species from the family Delphinidae.
Common dentex (Dentex dentex) is a species of Sparidae fish.
A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Corfu (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Κερκύρας) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Corpus separatum, a Latin term meaning "separated body", refers to the status of the City of Fiume (modern Rijeka, Croatia) while given a special legal and political status different from its environment under the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary.
The counties of Croatia (županije) are the primary administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Croatia.
Cres (Cherso, Kersch, Crepsa, Greek: Χέρσος, Chersos) is an Adriatic island in Croatia.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Following the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, Slovenia and Croatia became independent countries.
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of Croatia.
The Croatian Bureau of Statistics (Državni zavod za statistiku or DZS) is the Croatian national statistics bureau.
Croatia held an independence referendum on 19 May 1991, following the Croatian parliamentary elections of 1990 and the rise of ethnic tensions that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Croatian Littoral (Hrvatsko primorje) is a historical name (period of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) littoral for the region of Croatia comprising mostly Kvarner coastal area between traditional Dalmatia to the south, Mountainous Croatia to the north and east, and Istria and the Kvarner Gulf of the Adriatic Sea to the west.
The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.
The Croatian State Archives (Hrvatski državni arhiv) are the national archives of Croatia located in its capital, Zagreb.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba, Horvát–magyar kiegyezés, Kroatisch-Ungarischer Ausgleich) was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
Cuvier's beaked whale or the goose-beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), the only member of the genus Ziphius, is the most widely distributed of all the beaked whales.
Cymodocea nodosa is a species of seagrass in the family Cymodoceaceae and is sometimes known as little Neptune grass.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Dalmatia was a Roman province.
The Theme of Dalmatia (θέμα Δαλματίας/Δελματίας, thema Dalmatias/Delmatias) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera (later called Zara and now Zadar).
Debeli Rtič (Debeli rtič, Punta Grossa) is a cape in the northern Adriatic Sea on the border between Slovenia and Italy.
Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone).
The Diapontia Islands or Diapontian Islands (also known as Othonoi Islands) (Διαπόντια νησιά) are a Greek island complex in the Ionian Sea.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
The Dragonja (Dragogna) is a long river in the northern part of the Istrian peninsula.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The Drin (Drin or Drini; Дрим) is a river in Southern and Southeastern Europe with two distributaries one discharging into the Adriatic Sea and the other one into the Buna River.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
The Dubrovnik–Neretva County (Dubrovačko-neretvanska županija) is the southernmost Croatian county, located in south Dalmatia.
"Duchy of Croatia" (also "Duchy of the Croats", Kneževina Hrvata; "Dalmatian Croatia", Dalmatinska Hrvatska; "Littoral Croatia", Primorska Hrvatska; Greek: Χρωβατία, Chrovatía), was a medieval Croatian duchy that was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia.
The Duchy of Ferrara (Ducato di Ferrara) was a sovereign state in what is now northern Italy.
Dugi Otok (Croatian for "Long Island", Isola Lunga) is the seventh largest island in the Adriatic Sea, part of Croatia.
Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
Durrës County is a county in North-west Albania.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone (Zaštićeni ekološko-ribolovni pojas, ZERP) is a protected fishing area over Croatia's Exclusive Economic Zone.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Venice, which is situated at the far end of the Adriatic Sea, gained large scale profit of the adjacent middle European markets.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.
An emporium refers to a trading post, factory, or market of Classical antiquity, derived from the (empórion), which becomes emporium.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Eni S.p.A. is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
The ancient Greek city of Epidamnos or Epidamnus (Ἐπίδαμνος), later the Roman Dyrrachium (modern Durrës, Albania, c. 30 km W of Tirana) was founded in 627 BC in Illyria by a group of colonists from Corinth and Corcyra (modern Corfu).
Epidaurus (Επίδαυρος, Epidaurum) or Epidauros was an ancient Greek colony founded sometime in the 6th century BC, renamed to Epidaurum during Roman rule in 228 BC, when it was part of the province of Illyricum, later Dalmatia.
The equidistance principle or principle of equidistance, in maritime boundary claims, is a legal concept that a nation's maritime boundaries should conform to a median line that is equidistant from the shores of neighboring nations.
A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
Falconara Marittima is a seaside resort on the Adriatic coast, in Italy, located north of Ancona, in the Marche region, province of Ancona.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Fier County is a county located in southwestern Albania.
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also known as finback whale or common rorqual and formerly known as herring whale or razorback whale, is a marine mammal belonging to the parvorder of baleen whales.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Mithridatic War (89–85 BC) was a war challenging Rome's expanding Empire and rule over the Greek world.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
At a flat coast or flat shoreline, the land descends gradually into the sea.
Flysch is a sequence of sedimentary rock layers that progress from deep-water and turbidity flow deposits to shallow-water shales and sandstones.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) is a non-governmental, non-profit organisation promoting sustainable development through environmental education.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Free State of Fiume was an independent free state which existed between 1920 and 1924.
The Free Territory of Trieste (Territorio libero di Trieste, Svobodno tržaško ozemlje; Slobodni Teritorij Trsta) was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Friûl-Vignesie Julie; Furlanija-Julijska krajina, Friaul-Julisch Venetien; Friul-Venesia Julia; Friul-Unieja Julia) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute.
General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924.
Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
The Gargano National Park (Italian: Parco nazionale del Gargano) is a national park in the province of Foggia, southern Italy.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
The geography of Albania is defined by its location.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in Southeastern Europe, in the western Balkans.
The geography of Croatia is defined by its location— it is described as being a part of southeastern Europe.
Europe is traditionally defined as one of seven continents.
Italy is located in southern Europe and comprises the long, boot-shaped Italian Peninsula, the southern side of Alps, the large plain of the Po Valley and some islands including Sicily and Sardinia.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Crna Gora, Црна Гора, meaning "black mountain") is a small, mountainous state in south-west Balkans.
Slovenia is situated in Central Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
The Government of the Republic of Slovenia (Vlada Republike Slovenije) exercises executive authority in Slovenia pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of Slovenia.
The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), also known as the grey whale,Britannica Micro.: v. IV, p. 693.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The Gulf of Piran or Piran Bay (Piranski zaliv, Piranski zaljev or, recently, Savudrijska vala, Baia di Pirano) is located in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, and is a part of the southernmost tip of the Gulf of Trieste.
The Gulf of Trieste (Golfo di Trieste, Tržaški zaliv, Tršćanski zaljev, Golf von Triest) is a very shallow bay of the Adriatic Sea, in the extreme northern part of the Adriatic Sea.
The Gulf of Venice is a gulf that borders modern-day Italy, Slovenia and Croatia, and is at the north of the Adriatic Sea between the delta of the Po river in northern Italy and the Istria peninsula in Croatia.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The term hake refers to fish in either of.
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton (Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
The Illyrian Provinces was an autonomous province of France during the First French Empire that existed under Napoleonic Rule from 1809 to 1814.
The Illyrian Wars were a set of wars fought in the period 229–168 BC between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).
INA-Industrija nafte, d.d. (INA, d.d.) is a Croatian multinational oil company.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a nation's internal waters include waters on the landward side of the baseline of a nation's territorial waters, except in archipelagic states.
International arbitration is arbitration between companies or individuals in different states, usually by including a provision for future disputes in a contract.
The International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU) at Durham University in the United Kingdom integrates theory and practice in an academic setting.
The International Cartographic Association (ICA) (Association Cartographique Internationale, ACI), is an organization formed of national member organizations, to provide a forum for issues and techniques in cartography and GIScience.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
The Isole Tremiti are an archipelago in the Adriatic Sea, north of the Gargano Peninsula.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
Istria County (Istarska županija; Regione istriana, "Istrian Region") is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (out of, or 89%).
The Italian governorate of Montenegro (Governatorato del Montenegro) existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II.
An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian) was held in Italy on 2 June 1946,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 a key event of Italian contemporary history.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italian Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro) was a self-proclaimed state in the city of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia) led by Gabriele d'Annunzio between 1919 and 1920.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Izola (Isola) is an old fishing town and a municipality in southwestern Slovenia on the Adriatic coast of the Istrian peninsula.
Jabuka (which means apple in Croatian) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Adriatic Sea, west of the island of Vis.
John Dory, St Pierre or Peter's Fish, refers to fish of the genus Zeus, especially Zeus faber, of widespread distribution.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The Journal of Physical Oceanography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Jutarnji list is a Croatian daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in Zagreb since April, 6, 1998, by EPH (Europapress holding, owned by Ninoslav Pavić) which eventually changed name in Hanza Media, when bought by Marijan Hanžeković.
The Karaburun Peninsula (Gadishulli i Karaburunit) is a peninsula located in the southwestern Albania.
The Karaburun-Sazan Marine Park (Parku Detar Karaburun-Sazan) is a marine park in Vlorë County in southwestern Albania.
Karavasta Lagoon (Laguna e Karavastasë) is the largest lagoon in Albania and one of the largest in the Mediterranean Sea, spanning an area of.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kessinger Publishing LLC is an American print on demand publishing company located in Whitefish, Montana that specializes in rare, out of print books.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia (without western Istria and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Regnum Croatiae Horvát Királyság Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Klek is the name of a small peninsula in the Adriatic Sea located southwest of Neum, Bosnia Herzegovina.
Komiža (Comisa) is a Croatian coastal town lying on the western coast of the island of Vis in the central part of the Adriatic Sea.
Koper (Capodistria) is a city in southwestern Slovenia, with the other Slovenian coastal towns Ankaran, Izola, Piran, and Portorož, situated along the country's 47-kilometre coastline, in the Istrian Region, approximately five kilometres from its border with Italy.
Korčula (is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea. It has an area of; long and on average wide — and lies just off the Dalmatian coast. Its 15,522 inhabitants (2011) make it the second most populous Adriatic island after Krk and the most populous Croatian island not connected to the mainland by a bridge. The population are almost entirely ethnic Croats (95.74%). The island is twinned with Rothesay in Scotland.
The Kornati archipelago of Croatia, also known as the Stomorski islands, is located in the northern part of Dalmatia, south from Zadar and west from Šibenik, in the Šibenik-Knin county.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор,; Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro.
Krk (Vegl; Curicta; Veglia; Vegliot Dalmatian: Vikla; Ancient Greek Kyrikon, Κύρικον) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of Primorje-Gorski Kotar county.
Krka is a river in Croatia's Dalmatia region, known for its numerous waterfalls.
The Kvarner Gulf (or, Sinus Flanaticus or Liburnicus sinus), sometimes also Kvarner Bay, is a bay in the northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istrian peninsula and the northern Croatian Littoral mainland.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
Lastovo (Lagosta, Augusta, Augusta Insula, Ladestanos, Illyrian: Ladest) is an island municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Croatia.
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
The Late Triassic is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic Period in the geologic timescale.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lecce (or; Salentino: Lècce; Griko: Luppìu, Lupiae, translit) is a historic city of 95,766 inhabitants (2015) in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Lecce, the second province in the region by population, as well as one of the most important cities of Apulia.
The Lessepsian migration (also called Erythrean invasion) is the migration of marine species across the Suez Canal, usually from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and more rarely in the opposite direction.
The Levantine Sea is the easternmost part of the Mediterranean Sea.
Lezhë County (Qarku i Lezhës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania.
Lika-Senj County (Ličko-senjska županija) is a county in Croatia that includes most of the Lika region and some northern coastline of the Adriatic near the town of Senj, including the northern part of the Pag island.
The Lim bay and valley is a peculiar geographic feature found near Rovinj and Vrsar on the western coast of Istria, south of Poreč, Croatia.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
This list of ancient peoples living in Italy summarises groupings existing before the Roman expansion and conquest.
Historical earthquakes is a list of significant earthquakes known to have occurred prior to the beginning of the 20th century.
In the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea, there are 718 islands, 389 islets and 78 reefs, making the Croatian archipelago the largest in the Adriatic Sea and the second largest in the Mediterranean Sea, the Greek archipelago being the largest.
There are more than 1200 islands in the Adriatic Sea, 69 of which are inhabited.
This is the List of Wetlands of International Importance as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value.
Lošinj (Lussino; Lusin; Lötzing) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, in the Kvarner Gulf.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Lophius piscatorius, commonly known as the angler, is a monkfish in the family Lophiidae.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
The Maiella (or Majella) is a massif in the Central Apennines, in Abruzzo, central Italy.
Manfredonia is a town and comune of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Foggia, from which it is northeast by rail.
Manta rays are large rays belonging to the genus Manta.
Marano lagoon is a huge lagoon in northeastern Italy.
Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater.
A marina (from Spanish, Portuguese and Italian: marina, "coast" or "shore") is a dock or basin with moorings and supplies for yachts and small boats.
Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes.
Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A mediterranean sea is, in oceanography, a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of water with outer oceans and with water circulation dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Merluccius merluccius, the European hake, is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), also referred to as the Messinian Event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, was a geological event during which the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of partly or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian age of the Miocene epoch, from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma (million years ago).
Metković is a civil parish in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia, located in the southeast of the country, on the banks of the river Neretva and on the border with Herzegovina.
Metres above the Adriatic (Metri sopra l'Adriatico, Meter über Adria, Metara iznad Jadrana) is the mean sea level datum used in Austria, in the former Yugoslavian states of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, in the Kosovo territory, as well as in Albania to measure elevation, referring to the average water level of the Adriatic Sea at the Sartorio mole in the Port of Trieste.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In the geologic timescale, the Middle Triassic is the second of three epochs of the Triassic period or the middle of three series in which the Triassic system is divided.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Ministry of Culture is a department ministry of the Albanian government responsible for the implementation of government tourism, cultural affairs, youth and sports policy.
The Ministry of Culture (Ministarstvo kulture) is a ministry of the Croatian government in charge of preserving the country's natural and cultural heritage and overseeing its development.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Energy of the Republic of Croatia (Ministarstvo zaštite okoliša i energetike) is the ministry in the Government of Croatia which is in charge of environmental protection.
The Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure of the Republic of Croatia (Ministarstvo pomorstva, prometa i infrastrukture Republike Hrvatske, MPPI RH) is a ministry in the Government of Croatia.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mira Zore-Armanda (6 January 1930 – 8 April 2012) was a Croatian oceanographer.
Miramare Castle (Castello di Miramare; Schloss Miramar; Grad Miramar) is a 19th-century castle on the Gulf of Trieste near Trieste, northeastern Italy.
The Mirna (Quieto) is a river in Istria, Croatia.
Mljet (Melita, Meleda) is the southernmost and easternmost of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia region of Croatia.
Molise is a region of Southern Italy.
Monfalcone (Bisiacco: Mofalcòn; Monfalcon; Tržič; archaic Falkenberg) is a town and comune of the province of Gorizia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, northern Italy, located on the Gulf of Trieste.
Monte Conero (Mount Conero), also known as Monte d'Ancona;, is a promontory in Italy, situated directly south of the port of Ancona on the Adriatic Sea.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured.
The Morean War (Guerra di Morea) is the better-known name for the Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War.
MOSE (MOdulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico, Experimental Electromechanical Module) is a project intended to protect the city of Venice, Italy and the Venetian Lagoon from flooding.
The mullets or grey mullets are a family (Mugilidae) of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and some species in fresh water.
Mullus barbatus (red mullet) is a species of goatfish found in the Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea and the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, where its range extends from Scandinavia to Senegal.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Nacional is a Croatian weekly news magazine published in Zagreb.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
The NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a series of actions undertaken by NATO whose stated aim was to establish long-term peace during and after the Bosnian War.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nautical tourism is tourism that combines sailing and boating with vacation and holiday activities.
Nephrops norvegicus, known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, langoustine (compare langostino) or scampi, is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe".
The Neretva (Неретва), also known as the Narenta, is the largest river of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin.
Neum (Неум) is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
The North Adriatic Ports Association (NAPA) is an association of four North Adriatic seaports: Port of Koper, Port of Rijeka, Port of Trieste and Port of Venice.
The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis, which means "good, or true, whale of the ice") is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species.
Nova TV is a Croatian commercial television network launched in November 2000.
Novi list is the oldest Croatian daily newspaper published in Rijeka.
Croatia (HR) is included in the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) of the European Union.
In oceanography, a gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Oil in place (OIP) (not to be confused with original oil-in-place (OOIP)) is a specialist term in petroleum geology that refers to the total oil content of an oil reservoir.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The Ombla is a short river in Croatia, northeast of Dubrovnik.
Omišalj (Castel Muschio; Moschau) is a small coastal town in the north-west of the island of Krk in Croatia.
Operation Maritime Guard was a NATO blockade, in the international waters of the Adriatic Sea, of the former Yugoslavia.
Ortona (Abruzzese: Urtónë; Órtōn) is a coastal town and municipality of the Province of Chieti in the Italian region of Abruzzo, with some 23,000 inhabitants.
The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman–Venetian wars were a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice that started in 1396 and lasted until 1718.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Palagruža (Pelagosa) is a small, remote Croatian archipelago in the middle of the Adriatic Sea.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; Preßburger Frieden; Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December).
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters – being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore – in contrast with demersal fish, which do live on or near the bottom, and reef fish, which are associated with coral reefs.
Pelješac (local Chakavian dialect: Pelišac; Sabbioncello) is a peninsula in southern Dalmatia in Croatia.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Pesaro is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, on the Adriatic.
Pescara (Abruzzese: Pescàrë; Pescarese: Piscàrë) is the capital city of the Province of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region of Italy.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The Piave (Plavis) is a river in northern Italy.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Ploče (Porto Tolero) is a town and a notable seaport in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
A pontoon boat is a flattish boat that relies on pontoons to float.
The Port of Bar (Montenegrin: Luka Bar, Лука Бар, MNSE) is Montenegro's main sea port.
The port of Brindisi is located in Brindisi, Italy.
The Port of Durrës (Porti i Durrësit) is the largest seaport of Albania.
Port of Koper (Luka Koper, Porto di Capodistria) is a public limited company, which provides port and logistics services in the only Slovenian port, in Koper.
The Port of Ploče (Luka Ploče) is a seaport in Ploče, Croatia, near the mouth of the Neretva river on the Adriatic Sea coast.
The Port of Ravenna (Porto di Ravenna) is an Italian seaport on the North Adriatic Sea in Ravenna, Italy.
The Port of Rijeka (Luka Rijeka) is a seaport in Rijeka, Croatia, located on the shore of the Kvarner Gulf in the Adriatic Sea.
The Port of Split (Luka Split) is a port in the central Dalmatian city of Split, Croatia.
The Free Port of Trieste is a port in the Adriatic Sea in Trieste, Italy.
The Port of Vlorë or Vlorë Harbor (Porti i Vlorës) is a port of Albania in the city of Vlorë, Albania.
Porto Palermo Castle (Albanian: Kalaja e Porto Palermos) is a castle near Himarë in southern Albania.
Posidonia oceanica (commonly known as Neptune grass or Mediterranean tapeweed) is a seagrass species that is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea.
Prevlaka is a small peninsula in southern Croatia, near the border with Montenegro, at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor on the eastern Adriatic coast.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
Primorje-Gorski Kotar County (Primorsko-goranska županija) is a county in western Croatia that includes the Bay of Kvarner, the surrounding Northern Croatian Littoral, and the mountainous region of Gorski kotar.
The Principality of Montenegro (Књажевина Црнa Горa/Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910.
In sedimentary geology and geomorphology, the term progradation refers to the growth of a river delta farther out into the sea over time.
The main protected areas of Croatia are national parks, nature parks and strict reserves.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Pula or Pola (Italian and Istro-Romanian: Pola; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Hungarian: Póla, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia and the eighth largest city in the country, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 in 2011.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Raša, (Arsia, Italian: Arsa) in Croatian Istria is a major river of Croatia's Istria County.
Rabac (Porto Albona) is a Croatian resort town on Kvarner Bay, just southeast of Labin, in Istria.
Raiffeisen Zentralbank Österreich A.G. was the central institution of the Raiffeisen Banking Group Austria (RBG).
Rain dust or snow dust, traditionally known as muddy rain, red rain, or coloured rain, is a variety of rain (or any other form of precipitation) which contains enough desert dust for the dust to be visible without using a microscope.
A raised beach, coastal terrace,Pinter, N (2010): 'Coastal Terraces, Sealevel, and Active Tectonics' (educational exercise), from or perched coastline is a relatively flat, horizontal or gently inclined surface of marine origin,Pirazzoli, PA (2005a): 'Marine Terraces', in Schwartz, ML (ed) Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Dordrecht, pp.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
A rare species is a group of organisms that are very uncommon, scarce, or infrequently encountered.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
The Royal Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
The Reno is a river of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of Ragusa was a maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik (Ragusa in Italian, German and Latin; Raguse in French) in Dalmatia (today in southernmost Croatia) that carried that name from 1358 until 1808.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley.
The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML".
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
The Rječina (Eneo; Flaum), also known as the Fiumara, is a river in Croatia that flows into the Adriatic Sea at the city of Rijeka (Fiume).
Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
The Roman navy (Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rough Guides Ltd is a British travel guidebook and reference publisher, since November 2017 owned by APA Publications.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rovinj-Rovigno (Croatian; Rovigno, Ancient Greek: Ρυγίνιον (Ryginion), Ruginium) is a city in Croatia situated on the north Adriatic Sea with a population of 14,294 (2011).
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
RTL Televizija is a Croatian commercial broadcaster with national availability that has been broadcasting since 30 April 2004.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
San Francisco Bay salt ponds salar'' is rich in lithium, and the mine concentrates the brine in the ponds Contemporary solar evaporation salt pans on the island of Lanzarote at Salinas de Janubio Solar evaporation ponds in the Atacama Desert Solar evaporation ponds in the Salt Valley of Añana, Spain Solar evaporation ponds in the Salt Valley of Añana, Spain A salt evaporation pond is a shallow artificial salt pan designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines.
Santa Maria di Leuca, often spelled simply Leuca (from Leukos, "white"), is a frazione of the comune of Castrignano del Capo, in the province of Lecce (Apulia), southern Italy.
"Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish in the herring family Clupeidae.
Scorpaena scrofa, common name the red scorpionfish, Bigscale scorpionfish, or large-scaled scorpion fish is a venomous marine species of fish in the family Scorpaenidae, the "scorpionfish".
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
Sečovlje Saltpans Natural Park (Krajinski park Sečoveljske soline, Parco ambientale delle saline di Sicciole) is a natural park in southwestern Slovenia covering the Sečovlje Saltpans near the village of Sečovlje.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A seiche is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water.
Senj (Segna, Senia, Zengg) is an old town on the upper Adriatic coast in Croatia, in the foothills of the Mala Kapela and Velebit mountains.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
The Serbian Empire (Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
Shkodër County (Qarku i Shkodrës) is a county in northwestern Albania, with the capital in Shkodër.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Zara or Siege of Zadar (Opsada Zadra, Zára ostroma; 10–24 November 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
Sirocco, scirocco,, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Xaloc; Sciroccu; Σορόκος; Siroco; Siròc, Eisseròc; Jugo, literally southerly; Libyan Arabic: Ghibli; Egypt: khamsin; Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.
Slobodna Dalmacija is a Croatian daily newspaper published in Split.
Slovene Istria (slovenska Istra, Istria slovena) is a region in southwest of Slovenia.
The Slovene Littoral (Primorska,; Litorale; Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti (SAZU)) is the national academy of Slovenia, which encompasses science and the arts and brings together the top Slovene researchers and artists as members of the academy.
The Soča (in Slovene) or Isonzo (in Italian; other names Lusinç, Sontig, Aesontius or Isontius) is a long river that flows through western Slovenia and northeastern Italy.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
The spiny dogfish, spurdog, mud shark, or piked dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is one of the best known species of the Squalidae (dogfish) family of sharks, which is part of the Squaliformes order.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Split-Dalmatia County (Splitsko-dalmatinska županija) is the central-southern Dalmatian county in Croatia.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SORS) (Slovene: Statistični urad Republike Slovenije, SURS) is an independent Slovenian state institution in charge of official statistical surveying.
The Strait of Otranto (Kanali i Otrantos; Canale d'Otranto; Otranska Vrata) connects the Adriatic Sea with the Ionian Sea and separates Italy from Albania.
The Strait of Sicily (also known as Sicilian Strait, Sicilian Channel, Channel of Sicily, Sicilian Narrows and Pantelleria Channel; Canale di Sicilia or the Stretto di Sicilia; Canali di Sicilia or Strittu di Sicilia) is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia.
Sušak (in Italian Sussak) is a part of the city of Rijeka in Croatia, where it composes the eastern part of the city, separated from the city center by the Rječina river, which in former times served as an international border.
Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) is a hydrological process which commonly occurs in coastal areas.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Tagliamento is a braided river in north-east Italy, flowing from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea at a point between Trieste and Venice.
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
Telašćica is a bay that is situated in the southeastern portion of the island of Dugi Otok, Croatia in the Adriatic Sea.
The Ten-Day War (desetdnevna vojna) or the Slovenian Independence War (slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna), was a brief war of independence that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991.
Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
Thesprotia (Θεσπρωτία) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Third Italian War of Independence (Terza Guerra d'Indipendenza Italiana) was a war between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire fought between June and August 1866.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
A thrust fault is a break in the Earth's crust, across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
A tide gauge (also known as mareograph or marigraph, as well as sea-level recorder) is a device for measuring the change in sea level relative to a vertical datum.
Tirana County (Qarku i Tiranës) is one of the 12 counties of the Republic of Albania, with the capital in Tirana.
Tisno is a town and a municipality in Šibenik-Knin County, Dalmatia, Croatia.
Tivat (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Тиват) is a coastal town in southwest Montenegro, located in the Bay of Kotor.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Treaty of London (1913) was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912–13.
London Pact (Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and the Kingdom of Italy.
The Treaty of Osimo was signed on 10 November 1975 by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Italian Republic in Osimo, Italy, to definitely divide the Free Territory of Trieste between the two states.
The Treaty of Peace with Italy (one of the Paris Peace Treaties) was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities.
The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the former Austrian Littoral in the upper Adriatic, and in Dalmatia.
The Treaty of Rome of January 27, 1924, was an agreement by which Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes agreed that Fiume would be annexed to Italy as the Province of Fiume, while the town of Sušak was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
The Treaty of Schönbrunn (Traité de Schönbrunn; Friede von Schönbrunn), sometimes known as the Peace of Schönbrunn or Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria at Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna on 14 October 1809.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
A tripoint, trijunction, triple point or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet.
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member States.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) was established on 15 January 1996 in Security Council Resolution 1038 as a peacekeeping mission to monitor the demilitarization of the disputed Prevlaka peninsula by carrying out daily foot and vehicle patrols on both sides of the border between Croatia and FR Yugoslavia (specifically, its federal unit Montenegro).
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
University of Primorska (Slovenian Univerza na Primorskem, Italian Università del Litorale) is the third university in Slovenia.
The University of Salento (Università del Salento, called until 2007 Università degli Studi di Lecce) is a university located in Lecce, Italy.
The University of Zadar (Sveučilište u Zadru, Universitas Studiorum Iadertina) is a university located in Zadar, Croatia.
The University of Zagreb (Sveučilište u Zagrebu,; Universitas Studiorum Zagrabiensis) is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe.
The Venetian Lagoon (Laguna di Venezia; Łaguna de Venesia) is an enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea, in northern Italy, in which the city of Venice is situated.
The Venetian Province (Provincia Veneta, Provinz Venedig) was the name of the territory of former Republic of Venice ceded by the French First Republic to the Habsburg Monarchy under the terms of the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio that ended the War of the First Coalition.
The Venetian–Genoese Wars were a series of struggles between the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, at times allied with other powers, for dominance in the Mediterranean Sea between 1256 and 1381.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Via Egnatia (Greek: Ἐγνατία Ὁδός) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC.
Vijesti (English translation: News) is a Montenegrin daily newspaper.
Vis (Latin: Issa, Lissa) is a small Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea.
Vis (Italian: Lissa) is a town on the eponymous island in the Adriatic Sea in southern Croatia.
Vjesnik was a Croatian state-owned daily newspaper published in Zagreb which ceased publication in April 2012.
Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
Vlorë County (Qarku i Vlorës) is one of the 12 counties of the Republic of Albania, with the capital in Vlorë.
The War of Chioggia (Guerra di Chioggia) was a conflict between Genoa and Venice which lasted from 1378 to 1381, from which Venice emerged triumphant.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The term water bird, waterbird or aquatic bird (not to be confused with wading birds) is used to refer to birds that live on or around water.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) is a forum for the travel and tourism industry.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yugoslav Navy (Jugoslavenska Ratna Mornarica, Југословенска Pатна Mорнарица), was the navy of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
Zadar County (Zadarska županija) is a county in Croatia, it encompasses northern Dalmatia and southeastern Lika.
Zadarski list is a Croatian daily newspaper.
Zostera is a small genus of widely distributed seagrasses, commonly called marine eelgrass or simply eelgrass.
Zostera marina is a species of seagrass known by the common names common eelgrass and seawrack.
Zrmanja is a river in southern Lika and northern Dalmatia, Croatia.
The earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667 was one of the two most devastating earthquakes to hit the area of modern Croatia in the last 2,400 years, since records began.
The 1979 Montenegro earthquake occurred on 15 April at 06:19 UTC with a moment magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme).
The 2013 enlargement of the European Union saw Croatia join the European Union as its 28th member state on 1 July 2013.
The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 45th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 45 degrees north of Earth's equator.