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Advanced and retracted tongue root

Index Advanced and retracted tongue root

In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian. [1]

41 relations: Adjarian's law, Akan language, Armenian language, Diacritic, East Africa, Fante dialect, Faucalized voice, Formant, Front vowel, German language, Glottis, Harsh voice, International Phonetic Alphabet, Kabiye language, Kazakh language, Languages of Europe, Laryngoscopy, Larynx, Lip, Maasai language, Mongolian language, Murmured voice, Nasal vowel, Oghuz languages, Open vowel, Optical fiber, Pharyngealization, Pharynx, Phonation, Phonetics, Stop consonant, Tenseness, Togo, Tongue, Twi, Uvular consonant, Voice (phonetics), Voiced uvular stop, Vowel, Vowel harmony, West Africa.

Adjarian's law

Adjarian's law is a sound law for Armenian: in certain dialects, initial-syllable vowels are fronted after consonants and so reflect the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) voiced aspirates.

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Akan language

Akan is a Central Tano language that is the principal native language of the Akan people of Ghana, spoken over much of the southern half of that country, by about 58% of the population, and among 30% of the population of Ivory Coast.

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.

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Fante dialect

Fantse (Mfantse, Fante, Fanti) is one of the three formal literary dialects of the Akan language.

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Faucalized voice

Faucalized voice, also called hollow voiceTucker, A. N., & Bryan, M. A. (1966).

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Formant

A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glottis

The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).

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Harsh voice

Harsh voice, also called ventricular voice or (in some high-tone registers) pressed voice, is the production of speech sounds (typically vowels) with a constricted laryngeal cavity, which generally involves epiglottal co-articulation.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Kabiye language

Kabiye (also rendered Kabiyé, Kabiyè, Kabye, Kabyé, Kabyè, Cabrais) is an Eastern Gurunsi Gur language spoken primarily in northern Togo.

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Kazakh language

Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.

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Languages of Europe

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.

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Laryngoscopy

Laryngoscopy is endoscopy of the larynx, a part of the throat.

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Larynx

The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

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Lip

Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals.

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Maasai language

Maasai (Masai) or Maa (autonym: ɔl Maa) is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania by the Maasai people, numbering about 800,000.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Murmured voice

Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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Oghuz languages

The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 110 million people.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Pharyngealization

Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.

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Pharynx

The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Phonation

The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.

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Phonetics

Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Tenseness

In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.

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Togo

Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.

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Tongue

The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.

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Twi

Twi (pronounced, or Akan Kasa) is a dialect of the Akan language spoken in southern and central Ghana by about 6–9 million Ashanti people as a first and second language.

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Uvular consonant

Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced uvular stop

The voiced uvular stop or voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel harmony

Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Redirects here:

+ATR, -ATR, Advanced tongue root, Retracted tongue root, Tongue-root advancement, ̘, ̙, −ATR.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_and_retracted_tongue_root

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