95 relations: Abaza language, Abkhaz language, Abzakh Adyghe dialect, Abzakhs, Adyge mak', Adygea, Adyghe people, Affricate consonant, Al Jazeera, Alphabet, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Amman, Approximant consonant, Arabic script, Çanakkale, Bidental consonant, Biga, Çanakkale, Black Sea, Bzhedug Adyghe dialect, Bzhedugs, Central vowel, Chemirgoys, Cherkesogai, Circassia, Circassian languages, Circassians, Circassians in Iraq, Circassians in Israel, Circassians in Syria, Close-mid vowel, Cyrillic script, Ejective consonant, English language, Ergative–absolutive language, Fricative consonant, Georgian scripts, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Golan Heights, Hakuchi Adyghe dialect, Hatuqwai people, Hausa language, Hussein of Jordan, International Phonetic Alphabet, Israel, Jordan, Kabardian language, Krasnodar Krai, Kuban River, ..., Labial consonant, Labialization, Lateral consonant, Latin script, Latinisation in the Soviet Union, List of kings of Jordan, Literary language, Louis Loewe, Mamkhegh, Nasal consonant, Natukhajs, Northwest Caucasian languages, October Revolution, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Palatalization (phonetics), Palato-alveolar ejective fricative, Palochka, Pharyngeal consonant, Postalveolar consonant, Rehaniya, Retroflex consonant, Russia, Russian language, Russo-Circassian War, Shapsug Adyghe dialect, Shapsugs, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Trill consonant, Turkey, Ubykh language, UNESCO, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Velar ejective, Vertical vowel system, Voice (phonetics), Voiced velar stop, Voiceless bidental fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Voicelessness, Zhaney. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
The Abaza language (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; абазэбзэ) is a Northwest Caucasian language in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
The Abzakh dialect (Абдзахабзэ; Абдзахэбзэ) is one of the Adyghe language dialects.
The Abzakh (Circassian: абдзах, Russian: абадзехи), also known as Abdzakhs or Abadzekhs, are one of the twelve Adyghe tribes (sub-ethnic groups) of the Circassian people.
Adyge mak (lit, lit. The Adyghe Voice) is the main Adyghe language newspaper.
The Republic of Adygea (r; Адыгэ Республик, Adygæ Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), with its territory enclaved within Krasnodar Krai.
The ethnonym "Adyghe" (Адыгэ/Adygè, Ады́ги) is used as an endonym by the Caucasian-speaking Circassians of the North Caucasus and as a demonym for the inhabitants of the Republic of Adygea, a federal subject of Russia located in the southwestern part of European Russia, enclaved within Krasnodar Krai, where it is also rendered as Adygeans (Адыгейцы).
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Çanakkale (pronounced) is a city and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian) coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point.
Bidental consonants are consonants pronounced with both the lower and upper teeth.
Biga is a town and district of Çanakkale Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bzhedug dialect (Бжъэдыгъубзэ) is a dialect of Adyghe.
Bzhedug or Bazdug (Бжъэдыгъу, Bz̄edyğw,; Бжедуги, Bžedugi) are one of the 12 tribal divisions of the Adyghe Circassians.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Temirgoy or Chemirgoy or Kemgui (КIэмгуй,; or КIэмыргъуэй,; or Кӏьэмгуе,; Темиргоевцы) are one of the Adyghe tribes (sub-ethnic groups) of the Circassian people.
Cherkesogai (Черкесогаи) or Circassian Armenians (չերքեզահայեր cherk'ezahayer; черкесские армяне; Circassian: Адыгэ-ермэлы), sometimes referred to as Ermeli (Circassian: Ермэлы), Mountainous Armenians (горские армяне) or Transkuban Armenians (закубанские армяне), are ethnic Armenians who have inhabited Russia's Krasnodar Krai and Republic of Adyghea since as early as the 8th century and spoke the Adyghe language (currently, most of them speak Russian as their first language), apart from other Armenians living in the region.
Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
Circassians in Iraq are people of North Caucasian origin in Iraq, including Adyghes, Chechens and Dagestanis.
Circassians in Israel (Адыгэхэу Исраэл исыхэр; הצ'רקסים בישראל) refers to the Circassian people who live in Israel.
The Circassians in Syria (Circassian: Сирием ис адыгэхэр) refers to the Circassian diaspora, some of whom settled in Syria (then part of the Ottoman Empire) in the 19th century.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Hakuchi (Xakuchi; Хьакӏуцубзэ Kh′ak′ucubză or Къарацхаибзэ Qaracxaibză in Hakuchi Adyghe) is a variety of the Shapsug sub-dialect of West Adyghe dialect of Adyghe language spoken in Turkey.
The Hatuqwai (self-designation: translit; حتوقاي; Хатукай, Xatykaj, Гатюкай, Gatjukaj, Hatukay) are a tribe of the Adyghe people.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.
The Kuban River (p; Circassian: Псыжъ or Псыжь,; Къвбина, Q̇vbina; Karachay–Balkar: Къобан, Qoban; Nogai: Кобан, Qoban) is a river in the Northwest Caucasus region of European Russia.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In the USSR, latinisation (латиниза́ция) was the name of the campaign during the 1920s–1930s which aimed to replace traditional writing systems for numerous languages with systems that would use the Latin script or to create Latin-script based systems for languages that, at the time, did not have a writing system.
The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is Jordan's head of state and monarch.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
Louis Loewe (1809–1888) was a Silesian linguist.
The Mamkhegh or Mamheg (Мамхыгъ or Мамхэгъ; Мамхеги) are a people of Adyghe branch of the Circassian people originally from the North Caucasus.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The Natukhai (translit, with the possible sense нэ-тхуэ-джэ eye-white-with, 'With Light Eye(s)', the /-a-/s in the name being phonologically predictable) are one of the twelve main Adyghe tribes.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
The palato-alveolar ejective fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (r, literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Rehaniya (רִיחָנִיָּה, الريحانية, Рихьаные) is a predominantly Circassian village in northern Israel.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russo-Circassian War (1763–1864) involved a series of battles and wars in Circassia, the northwestern part of the Caucasus, in the course of the Russian Empire's conquest of the Caucasus.
The Shapsug dialect (Шапсыгъабзэ; Шапсыгъэбзэ) is a dialect of Adyghe.
The Shapsug (шапсыгъ, шапсуги, Şapsığlar, الشابسوغ, שפסוגים), also known as the Shapsugh or "Shapsogh", are one of the twelve tribes of the Circassian people.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A vertical vowel system is the system of vowels in a language that requires only vowel height to phonemically distinguish vowels.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless bidental fricative is a rare consonantal sound used in some languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
The Zhaney (translit; translit), or Janes, are one of the twelve Adyghe tribes (sub-ethnic groups) of the Circassian people.