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Aegean civilizations

Index Aegean civilizations

Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea. [1]

189 relations: Acropolis, Aegean Sea, Aegina, Akrotiri (Santorini), Alfred Biliotti, Amarna, Amorgos, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek temple, Antiparos, Archaeology, Archipelago, Argos, Armour, Art, Athens, Attica, Babylonia, Beehive tomb, Bologna, British Museum, British School at Athens, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bronze Age Europe, Brooch, Cairo, Cape Gelidonya, Cádiz, Cephalonia, Chair, Citadel, Civilization, Clay, Coffin, Column, Convention (norm), Copper, Creed, Crete, Currency, Cyclades, Cyprus, Cyrenaica, Deity, Delphi, Dendra, Dendra panoply, Dimini, ..., Diodorus Siculus, Egypt, El Lahun, Eleusis, England, Engraved gem, Enkomi, Epigraphy, Epistolary novel, Excavation (archaeology), Faience, Faiyum, Flinders Petrie, Florence, Fortification, Fresco, Frieze, Frying pans, Funeral, Furniture, Geologist, Germany, Gla, Gold, Gortyn, Gournia, Greece, Hagia Triada, Heinrich Schliemann, Helladic chronology, Heraion of Argos, Hisarlik, History of Athens, History of Greece, Homer, Ialysos, Ideogram, Iliad, Ionian Islands, Ios, Iron, Italy, Ivory, John Ruskin, Knossos, Laconia, Larissa, Legend, Lerna, Linear B, Linguistics, Lion Gate, London, Macedonia (region), Marble, Mast (sailing), Mediterranean Sea, Midea (Argolid), Milos, Minoan civilization, Minyans, Molding (decorative), Monument, Mosaic, Mount Ida, Mural, Mycenae, Mycenaean chamber tomb, Mycenaean Greece, Nafplio, National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Neolithic, Neuchâtel, Nile, Oar, Obsidian, Packaging and labeling, Palace, Palekastro, Papyrus, Paris, Pausanias (geographer), Phaistos, Philistines, Phoenicia, Pigment, Pin, Pottery, Prehistory of Southeastern Europe, Razor, Relief, Rhodes, Ritual, Rock (geology), Ruins, Salamis Island, Salamis, Cyprus, Santorini, Sardinia, Sèvres, Sculpture, Semitic languages, Shrine, Sicily, Sidon, Sifnos, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Spain, Strabo, Suez Canal, Syria, Syros, Table (furniture), Taygetus, Terracotta, Textile, Thebes, Egypt, Thebes, Greece, Thessaly, Thrace, Throne, Tiryns, Tomb, Tool, Treasury of Atreus, Troad, Tweezers, Uluburun shipwreck, Unguent, United States, Vaphio, Vase, Villa, Volcanic ash, Volos, Weapon, Wheatpaste, Zaragoza. Expand index (139 more) »


An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.

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Akrotiri (Santorini)

Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, pronounced) is a Minoan Bronze Age settlement on the volcanic Greek island of Santorini (Thera).

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Alfred Biliotti

Sir Alfred Biliotti (1833–1915) was a levantine Italian who joined the British Foreign Service and eventually rose to become one of its most distinguished consular officers in the late 19th century.

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Amarna (al-ʿamārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC).

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Amorgos (Αμοργός) is the easternmost island of the Cyclades island group, and the nearest island to the neighboring Dodecanese island group in Greece.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek temple

Greek temples (dwelling, semantically distinct from Latin templum, "temple") were structures built to house deity statues within Greek sanctuaries in ancient Greek religion.

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Antiparos (Αντίπαρος; Ὠλίαρος Oliaros) is a small island in the southern Aegean, at the heart of the Cyclades, which is less than one nautical mile (1.9 km) from Paros, the port to which it is connected with a local ferry.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

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Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Beehive tomb

A beehive tomb, also known as a tholos tomb (plural tholoi) (Greek: θολωτός τάφος, θολωτοί τάφοι, "domed tombs"), is a burial structure characterized by its false dome created by the superposition of successively smaller rings of mudbricks or, more often, stones.

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Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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British School at Athens

The British School at Athens (BSA) (Βρετανική Σχολή Αθηνών) is one of the 17 Foreign Archaeological Institutes in Athens, Greece.

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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bronze Age Europe

The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements.

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A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.

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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Cape Gelidonya

Cape Gelidonya (Gelidonya Burnu or Taşlık Burnu, from Χελιδωνία, Chelidonia; Chelidonium promontorium), formerly Kilidonia or Killidonia is a cape or headland on the Teke Peninsula in the chain of Taurus Mountains, located on the southern coast of Anatolia between the Gulf of Antalya and the Bay of Finike.

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Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Cephalonia or Kefalonia (Κεφαλονιά or Κεφαλλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (Κεφαλληνία), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th larger island in Greece after Crete, Evoia, Lesvos, Rhodes and Chios.

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A chair is a piece of furniture with a raised surface supported by legs, commonly used to seat a single person.

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A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.

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A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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A coffin is a funerary box used for viewing or keeping a corpse, either for burial or cremation.

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A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.

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Convention (norm)

A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.

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Dendra (Δενδρά) is a prehistoric archaeological site situated outside the village with the same name belonging to the municipality of Midea in the Argolid, Greece.

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Dendra panoply

The Dendra panoply or Dendra armour is an example of Mycenaean-era panoply (full-body armor) made of bronze plates uncovered in the village of Dendra in the Argolid, Greece.

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Dimini (Διμήνι; older form: Diminion) is a village near the city of Volos, in Thessaly (central Greece), in Magnesia.

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Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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El Lahun

El Lahun (اللاهون El Lāhūn, alt. Illahun, Lahun, or Kahun) is a village in Faiyum, Egypt.

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Eleusis (Ελευσίνα Elefsina, Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσίς Eleusis) is a town and municipality in West Attica, Greece.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Engraved gem

An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.

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Enkomi (Έγκωμη; Tuzla) is a village near Famagusta in Cyprus.

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Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.

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Epistolary novel

An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents.

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Excavation (archaeology)

In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.

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Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body.

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Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.

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Flinders Petrie

Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942), commonly known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.

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In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.

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Frying pans

For the modern utensil, see frying pan.

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A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.

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Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).

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A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gla (rarely Glas; Γλα or Γλας) was an important fortified site of the Mycenaean civilization, located in Boeotia, mainland Greece.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion.

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Gournia (Γουρνιά) is the site of a Minoan palace complex on the island of Crete, Greece, excavated in the early 20th century by the American archaeologist, Harriet Boyd-Hawes.

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No description.

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Hagia Triada

Hagia Triada (also Ayia Triada, Agia Triada, Agia Trias, — Holy Trinity) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan settlement.

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Heinrich Schliemann

Heinrich Schliemann (6 January 1822 – 26 December 1890) was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology.

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Helladic chronology

Helladic chronology is a relative dating system used in archaeology and art history.

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Heraion of Argos

The Heraion of Argos (Ἡραῖον Ἄργους) is an ancient temple in Argos, Greece.

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Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for the generally agreed-upon site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion, and is located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale.

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History of Athens

Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.

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History of Greece

The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Ialysos (Greek: Ιαλυσός, before 1976: Τριάντα Trianta) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece.

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An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Ionian Islands

The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.

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Ios (Ίος,, locally Nios Νιός) is a Greek island in the Cyclades group in the Aegean Sea.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.

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John Ruskin

John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.

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Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.

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Laconia (Λακωνία, Lakonía), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.

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Larissa (Λάρισα) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fourth-most populous in Greece according to the population results of municipal units of 2011 census and capital of the Larissa regional unit.

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Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.

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In classical Greece, Lerna (Λέρνη) was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos.

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Linear B

Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Lion Gate

The Lion Gate was the main entrance of the Bronze Age citadel of Mycenae, southern Greece.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.

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Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

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Mast (sailing)

The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Midea (Argolid)

Midea (Μιδέα) is the name given to a Bronze Age citadel standing above the village of the same name in the Argolid in Greece.

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Milos or Melos (Modern Greek: Μήλος; Μῆλος Melos) is a volcanic Greek island in the Aegean Sea, just north of the Sea of Crete.

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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

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According to Greek mythology and legendary prehistory of the Aegean region, the Minyans (Μινύες, Minyes) were an autochthonous group inhabiting the Aegean region.

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Molding (decorative)

Moulding (also spelled molding in the United States though usually not within the industry), also known as coving (United Kingdom, Australia), is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration.

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A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.

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A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.

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Mount Ida

In Greek mythology, two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida, the "Mountain of the Goddess": Mount Ida in Crete; and Mount Ida in the ancient Troad region of western Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey) which was also known as the Phrygian Ida in classical antiquity and is the mountain that is mentioned in the Iliad of Homer and the Aeneid of Virgil.

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A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.

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Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.

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Mycenaean chamber tomb

The Mycenaean chamber tomb is the type of chamber tomb that was built by ancient Mycenaeans.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Nafplio (Ναύπλιο, Nauplio or Nauplion in Italian and other Western European languages) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf.

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National Archaeological Museum, Athens

The National Archaeological Museum (Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο) in Athens houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel; (neu(f) "new" and chatel "castle" (château); Neuenburg; Neuchâtel; Neuchâtel or Neufchâtel)The city was also called Neuchâtel-outre-Joux (Neuchâtel beyond Joux) to distinguish it from another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion.

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Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.

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Packaging and labeling

Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.

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A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.

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Palekastro (Παλαίκαστρο; also transliterated as Palaikastro; Godart and Olivier abbreviation PK) is a small village at the east end of the Mediterranean island Crete.

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Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

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Phaistos (Φαιστός,; Ancient Greek: Φαιστός), also transliterated as Phaestos, Festos and Latin Phaestus, currently refers to a Bronze Age archaeological site at modern Phaistos, a municipality in south central Crete.

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The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together.

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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Prehistory of Southeastern Europe

The prehistory of Southeastern Europe, defined roughly as the territory of the wider Balkan peninsula (including the territories of the modern countries of Albania, Croatia, Kosovo, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Bosnia, Romania, Bulgaria, and European Turkey covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic, beginning with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area some 44,000 years ago, until the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity, in Greece as early as the 8th century BC. Human prehistory in Southeastern Europe is conventionally divided into smaller periods, such as Upper Paleolithic, Holocene Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic, Neolithic Revolution, expansion of Proto-Indo-Europeans, and Protohistory. The changes between these are gradual. For example, depending on interpretation, protohistory might or might not include Bronze Age Greece (2800–1200 BC), Minoan, Mycenaean, Thracian and Venetic cultures. By one interpretation of the historiography criterion, Southeastern Europe enters protohistory only with Homer (See also Historicity of the Iliad, and Geography of the Odyssey). At any rate, the period ends before Herodotus in the 5th century BC.

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A razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving.

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Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.

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A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Ruins are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction.

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Salamis Island

Salamis (Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient and Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís), is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus and about west of Athens.

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Salamis, Cyprus

Salamis (Σαλαμίς) is an ancient Greek city-state on the east coast of Cyprus, at the mouth of the river Pedieos, 6 km north of modern Famagusta.

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Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.

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Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.

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Sifnos (Σίφνος; the spelling Siphnos is obsolete in English but still by convention often used to refer to the island in ancient times) is an island municipality in the Cyclades island group in Greece.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syros (Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea.

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Table (furniture)

A table is an item of furniture with a flat top and one or more legs, used as a surface for working at, eating from or on which to place things.

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The Taygetus, Taugetus, Taygetos or Taÿgetus (Taygetos) is a mountain range in the Peloponnese peninsula in Southern Greece.

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Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Thebes, Egypt

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.

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Thebes, Greece

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.

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Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.

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Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.

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Tiryns or (Ancient Greek: Τίρυνς; Modern Greek: Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, some kilometres north of Nafplio.

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A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.

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A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.

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Treasury of Atreus

The Treasury of Atreus or Tomb of Agamemnon is a large "tholos" tomb on the Panagitsa Hill at Mycenae, Greece, constructed during the Bronze Age around 1250 BC.

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The Troada or Troad (Anglicized; or; Τρωάδα, Troáda), or Troas (Τρωάς, Troás), is the historical name of the Biga Peninsula (modern Turkish: Biga Yarımadası) in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey.

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Tweezers are small tools used for picking up objects too small to be easily handled with the human fingers.

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Uluburun shipwreck

The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the east shore of Uluburun (Grand Cape), and about miles southeast of Kaş, in south-western Turkey.

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An unguent is a soothing preparation spread on wounds, burns, rashes, abrasions or other topical injuries (i.e. damage to the skin).

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vaphio is an ancient site in Laconia, Greece, on the right bank of the Eurotas, some five miles south of Sparta.

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A vase is an open container.

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A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.

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Volcanic ash

Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.

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Volos (Βόλος) is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greek mainland, about north of Athens and south of Thessaloniki.

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A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.

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Wheat paste (also known as flour paste, or simply paste) is a gel or liquid adhesive made from wheat flour or starch and water.

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Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aegean_civilizations

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