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# Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. [1]

128 relations: Aeroelasticity, Aeronautics, Aerostatics, Air conditioning, Airplane, Amenity, Ancient Greek, Archimedes, Aristotle, Association football, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric circulation, Automotive engineering, Aviation, Bell X-1, Bernoulli's principle, Body force, Boundary layer, Bridge, Car, Charles Renard, Circulation (fluid dynamics), Cold War, Compressibility, Compressible flow, Computational fluid dynamics, Computer simulation, Concorde, Conservation of energy, Conservation of mass, Conservative vector field, Continuum mechanics, Cricket, Critical Mach number, Daedalus, Daniel Bernoulli, Density, Differential equation, Drag (physics), Duct (flow), Equation of state, Ernst Mach, Euler equations (fluid dynamics), Flow velocity, Fluid dynamics, Fluid mechanics, Francis Herbert Wenham, Frederick W. Lanchester, Friction, George Cayley, ... Expand index (78 more) »

## Aeroelasticity

Aeroelasticity is the branch of physics and engineering that studies the interactions between the inertial, elastic, and aerodynamic forces that occur when an elastic body is exposed to a fluid flow.

## Aeronautics

Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.

## Aerostatics

A subfield of fluid statics, aerostatics is the study of gases that are not in motion with respect to the coordinate system in which they are considered.

## Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

## Airplane

An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.

## Amenity

In real estate and lodging, an amenity is something considered to benefit a property and thereby increase its value.

## Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

## Archimedes

Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

## Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

## Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

## Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

## Atmospheric circulation

Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth.

## Automotive engineering

Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.

## Aviation

Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.

## Bell X-1

The Bell X-1 was a rocket engine–powered aircraft, designated originally as the XS-1, and was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics–U.S. Army Air Forces–U.S. Air Force supersonic research project built by Bell Aircraft.

## Bernoulli's principle

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

## Body force

A body force is a force that acts throughout the volume of a body.

## Boundary layer

In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.

## Bridge

A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.

## Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

## Charles Renard

Charles Renard (1847–1905) born in Damblain, Vosges, was a French military engineer.

## Circulation (fluid dynamics)

In fluid dynamics, circulation is the line integral around a closed curve of the velocity field.

## Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

## Compressibility

In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.

## Compressible flow

Compressible flow (gas dynamics) is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with flows having significant changes in fluid density.

## Computational fluid dynamics

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.

## Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

## Concorde

The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.

## Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

## Conservation of mass

The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.

## Conservative vector field

In vector calculus, a conservative vector field is a vector field that is the gradient of some function, known in this context as a scalar potential.

## Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.

## Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).

## Critical Mach number

In aerodynamics, the critical Mach number (Mcr or M*) of an aircraft is the lowest Mach number at which the airflow over some point of the aircraft reaches the speed of sound, but does not exceed it.

## Daedalus

In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Δαίδαλος Daidalos "cunningly wrought", perhaps related to δαιδάλλω "to work artfully"; Daedalus; Etruscan: Taitale) was a skillful craftsman and artist.

## Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.

## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

## Duct (flow)

Ducts are conduits or passages used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) to deliver and remove air.

## Equation of state

In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.

## Ernst Mach

Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.

## Euler equations (fluid dynamics)

In fluid dynamics, the Euler equations are a set of quasilinear hyperbolic equations governing adiabatic and inviscid flow.

## Flow velocity

In continuum mechanics the macroscopic velocity, also flow velocity in fluid dynamics or drift velocity in electromagnetism, is a vector field used to mathematically describe the motion of a continuum.

## Fluid dynamics

In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.

## Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.

## Francis Herbert Wenham

Francis Herbert Wenham (1824, Kensington – 1908), commonly referred to as Frank, was a British marine engineer who studied the problem of human flight and wrote a perceptive and influential academic paper which he presented to the first meeting of the Royal Aeronautical Society in London in 1866.

## Frederick W. Lanchester

Frederick William Lanchester LLD, Hon FRAeS, FRS (23 October 1868 – 8 March 1946), was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to Automotive engineering and to Aerodynamics, and co-invented the topic of operations research.

## Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

## George Cayley

Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was an English engineer, inventor, and aviator.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

## Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

## Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

## Heat transfer

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.

## Hugh Latimer Dryden

Hugh Latimer Dryden (July 2, 1898 – December 2, 1965) was an American aeronautical scientist and civil servant.

## HVAC

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.

## Hypersonic speed

In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.

## Icarus

In Greek mythology, Icarus (the Latin spelling, conventionally adopted in English; Ἴκαρος, Íkaros, Etruscan: Vikare) is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus, the creator of the Labyrinth.

## Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.

## Index of aerospace engineering articles

This is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to aerospace engineering.

## Insect flight

Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.

## Internal combustion engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

## Inviscid flow

Inviscid flow is the flow of an inviscid fluid, in which the viscosity of the fluid is equal to zero.

## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

## Jakob Ackeret

Jakob Ackeret, FRAeS (17 March 1898 – 27 March 1981) was a Swiss aeronautical engineer.

## Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

## Jet engine

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

## John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.

## Knudsen number

The Knudsen number (Kn) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a representative physical length scale.

## Laminar flow

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.

## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

## Lift (force)

A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.

## Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

## Ludwig Prandtl

Ludwig Prandtl (4 February 1875 &ndash; 15 August 1953) was a German engineer.

## Mach number

In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.

## Martin Wilhelm Kutta

Martin Wilhelm Kutta (3 November 1867 – 25 December 1944) was a German mathematician.

## Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

## Moment (physics)

In physics, a moment is an expression involving the product of a distance and a physical quantity, and in this way it accounts for how the physical quantity is located or arranged.

## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

## NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

## Navier–Stokes equations

In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.

## Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

## Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky

Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (p; – March 17, 1921) was a Russian scientist, mathematician and engineer, and a founding father of modern aero- and hydrodynamics.

## Nose cone design

Given the problem of the aerodynamic design of the nose cone section of any vehicle or body meant to travel through a compressible fluid medium (such as a rocket or aircraft, missile or bullet), an important problem is the determination of the nose cone geometrical shape for optimum performance.

## Numerical weather prediction

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) uses mathematical models of the atmosphere and oceans to predict the weather based on current weather conditions.

## Otto Lilienthal

Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 &ndash; 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the flying man.

## Outline of engineering

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to engineering: Engineering is the discipline and profession that applies scientific theories, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to design, create, and analyze technological solutions cognizant of safety, human factors, physical laws, regulations, practicality, and cost.

## Pierre Henri Hugoniot

Pierre-Henri Hugoniot (born in Allenjoie, Doubs, France on June 5, 1851 – died in Nantes, France in February 1887) who mostly lived in Montbéliard, (Franche-Comté).

## Potential flow

In fluid dynamics, potential flow describes the velocity field as the gradient of a scalar function: the velocity potential.

## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

In atmospheric science (meteorology, climatology and related fields), the pressure gradient (typically of air, more generally of any fluid) is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure increases the most rapidly around a particular location.

## Reversible process (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process whose direction can be "reversed" by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system via its surroundings, with no increase in entropy.

## Reynolds number

The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.

## Rocket

A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

## Sailing

Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.

## Scalar (mathematics)

A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.

## Shock wave

In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.

## Sound

In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

## Sound barrier

The sound barrier or sonic barrier is a popular term for the sudden increase in aerodynamic drag and other effects experienced by an aircraft or other object when it approaches supersonic speed.

## Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

## Stagnation point

In fluid dynamics, a stagnation point is a point in a flow field where the local velocity of the fluid is zero.

## Stagnation pressure

In fluid dynamics, stagnation pressure (or pitot pressure) is the static pressure at a stagnation point in a fluid flow.

## Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

## Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines

Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines are field lines in a fluid flow.

## Structural engineering

Structural engineering is that part of civil engineering in which structural engineers are educated to create the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures.

## Supersonic speed

Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).

## Surface force

Surface force denoted fs is the force that acts across an internal or external surface element in a material body.

## Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

## Theodore von Kármán

Theodore von Kármán ((szőllőskislaki) Kármán Tódor; 11 May 1881 – 6 May 1963) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, aerospace engineer, and physicist who was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics and astronautics.

## Thrust

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

## Transonic

In aeronautics, transonic (or transsonic) flight is flying at or near the speed of sound (at sea level under average conditions), relative to the air through which the vehicle is traveling.

## Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

## Urban planning

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

## Weight

In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.

## William John Macquorn Rankine

Prof William John Macquorn Rankine LLD (5 July 1820 – 24 December 1872) was a Scottish mechanical engineer who also contributed to civil engineering, physics and mathematics.

## Wind

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

## Wind tunnel

A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.

## Wind turbine design

Wind turbine design is the process of defining the form and specifications of a wind turbine to extract energy from the wind.

## Work (physics)

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

## Wright brothers

The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane.

## References

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