258 relations: Adria Airways, Aerial application, Aeroflot-Cargo, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeromagnetic survey, Air Europa, Air France, Air Malta, Air medical services, Air Serbia, Air Transport World, Air transports of heads of state and government, AirBaltic, Airbus, Airbus A310, Airbus A319, Airbus A320 family, Airbus A321, Airbus A330, Airbus A350 XWB, Aircraft livery, Airline, Airline alliance, Airline codes, Airline hub, Airspace, Alexander Lebedev, Alexander Rodchenko, Alitalia, Almaty, Antonov, Antonov An-10, Antonov An-124 Ruslan, Antonov An-140, Antonov An-148, Antonov An-2, Antonov An-24, Arbat District, Arbat Street, Associated Press, Aurora (airline), Aviation, Babyflot, Baku, BAL Bashkirian Airlines, Bangkok Airways, Battle of Stalingrad, Belgorod, Bloomberg News, Boeing, ..., Boeing 737 Classic, Boeing 737 Next Generation, Boeing 747, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Boris Bugayev, Bulgaria Air, Central Administrative Okrug, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Civil aviation, Codeshare agreement, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Council of People's Commissars, Crimea, Czech Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Deruluft, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dobrolet (low-cost airline), Dobrolyot, Donavia, Douglas DC-3, Eastern Front (World War II), European Russia, Export–Import Bank of the United States, Farnborough Airshow, Farnborough, Hampshire, Federal Agency for State Property Management, Finnair, Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union, Flag carrier, Flight International, Flightglobal, Fly-by-wire, Fokker F.III, Frequent-flyer program, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Garuda Indonesia, General aviation, Government of Russia, Government of the Soviet Union, Hammer and sickle, Havana, Holding company, Icelandair, Ilyushin, Ilyushin Il-12, Ilyushin Il-14, Ilyushin Il-18, Ilyushin Il-18 (1946), Ilyushin Il-62, Ilyushin Il-76, Ilyushin Il-86, Ilyushin Il-96, International Air Transport Association, Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000, Irkut MC-21, Irkutsk, Japan Airlines, Jet aircraft, Joint-stock company, Junkers Ju 52, Kaliningrad, Kazan, Königsberg, Kenya Airways, Khabarovsk, Kharkiv, Khodynka Aerodrome, Kiev, KLM, Kommersant, Korean Air, Korean Air Lines Flight 007, KrasAir, Kursk, List of airlines by foundation date, List of airports in Russia, Lisunov Li-2, London, LOT Polish Airlines, Low-cost carrier, Lufthansa, Maiden flight, MAKS (air show), Manchester, Manchester United F.C., McDonnell Douglas DC-10, McDonnell Douglas MD-11, Memorandum of understanding, MIAT Mongolian Airlines, Mil Mi-10, Mil Mi-26, Mineralnye Vody, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Montreal, Moscow Airways, Moscow Domodedovo Airport, Nazi Germany, Net profit, Nizhny Novgorod, Nordavia, Novaya Gazeta, Odessa, Omsk, Open joint-stock company, Operation Barbarossa, Orenair, Oryol, Paris, Paris Air Show, Perm, PFC CSKA Moscow, PMR Ltd, Pobeda (airline), Prague, Protectionism, R. E. G. Davies, Regional jet, Republics of the Soviet Union, Reuters, RIA Novosti, Riga, Ronald Reagan, Rossiya Airlines, Rostec, Rostov-on-Don, Royal Air Maroc, Russia, Russian Far East, Russian ruble, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, S7 Airlines, Saint Petersburg, Salon (website), Samara, Saratov Airlines, SAT Airlines, Saudia, Sevastopol, Sheremetyevo International Airport, Siberia, Sikorsky Ilya Muromets, Singapore, SkyTeam, Smithsonian Institution, Sochi, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Central Asia, Soviet space program, State-owned enterprise, Stockholm, Sukhoi, Sukhoi Superjet 100, Surgut, Surveillance aircraft, TAROM, Tashkent, TASS, Tatarstan Airlines, Tax exemption, Tbilisi, The Moscow Times, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, Transaero, Transport in Russia, Transport in the Soviet Union, Tupolev, Tupolev ANT-35, Tupolev Tu-104, Tupolev Tu-114, Tupolev Tu-124, Tupolev Tu-134, Tupolev Tu-144, Tupolev Tu-154, Tupolev Tu-204, Tyumen, Ufa, Ukraine, Ukrvozdukhput, United States dollar, Ural Mountains, USA Today, Vitaly Savelyev, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Putin, Vladivostok, Vladivostok Air, Vnukovo International Airport, Volgograd, VTB Bank, Wehrmacht, Wide-body aircraft, Write-off, Yakovlev Yak-40, Yakovlev Yak-42, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yekaterinburg, Yevpatoria, Zakavia, 2014 Ukrainian revolution, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Expand index (208 more) » « Shrink index
Adria Airways d.o.o., (formerly Inex-Adria Aviopromet and later Inex-Adria Airways) is the largest airline in Slovenia.
Aerial application, or what was formerly referred to as crop dusting, involves spraying crops with crop protection products from an agricultural aircraft.
CJSC "Aeroflot-Cargo" (Аэрофлот-Карго.) was a fully owned subsidiary of Aeroflot, founded in 1995.
Aerolíneas Argentinas (Argentine Airlines), formally Aerolíneas Argentinas S.A., is Argentina's largest airline and the country flag carrier.
An aeromagnetic survey is a common type of geophysical survey carried out using a magnetometer aboard or towed behind an aircraft.
Air Europa Líneas Aéreas, S.A.U. is an airline in Spain, the third largest after Iberia and Vueling.
Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France.
Air Malta plc is the flag carrier airline of Malta, with its headquarters in Gudja and its hub at Malta International Airport.
Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation, airplane or helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes.
Air Serbia (stylized as AirSERBIA; Ер Србија / Er Srbija) is the flag carrier of Serbia.
Air Transport World (ATW) is an online and print trade publication covering the global air transportation industry.
Air transports for heads of state and government are, in many countries, provided by the air force in specially equipped airliners or business jets.
airBaltic, legally incorporated as AS Air Baltic Corporation, is a state-owned Latvian low-cost carrier and the country's flag carrier, with its head office on the grounds of Riga International Airport in Mārupe municipality near Riga.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airbus A310 is a medium- to long-range twin-engined wide-body jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus, then a consortium of European aerospace manufacturers.
The Airbus A319 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A321 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus.
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus.
An aircraft livery is a set of comprehensive insignia comprising color, graphic, and typographical identifiers which operators (airlines, but also governments, air forces and occasionally private and corporate owners) apply to their aircraft.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
An airline alliance is an aviation industry arrangement between two or more airlines agreeing to cooperate on a substantial level.
This is a list of airline codes.
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
Alexander Yevgenievich Lebedev (p; born 16 December 1959) is a Russian businessman, referred to as one of the Russian oligarchs.
Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; – December 3, 1956) was a Russian artist, sculptor, photographer and graphic designer.
Alitalia – Società Aerea Italiana (Alitalia – Italian Air Company), operating as Alitalia, is the flag carrier of Italy.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Antonov State Company (Державне підприємство "Антонов"), formerly the Aeronautical Scientific-Technical Complex named Antonov (Antonov ASTC) (Авіаційний науково-технічний комплекс імені Антонова, (АНТК ім. Антонова)), and earlier the Antonov Design Bureau, is a Soviet, and later a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company.
The Antonov An-10 (Антонов Ан-10; NATO reporting name: Cat) was a four-engined turboprop passenger transport aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Antonov An-124 Ruslan (Антонов Ан-124 "Руслан") (NATO reporting name: Condor) is a strategic airlift jet aircraft.
The Antonov An-140 is a turboprop regional airliner, designed by the Ukrainian Antonov ASTC bureau as a successor to the Antonov An-24, with extended cargo capacity and the ability to use unprepared airstrips.
The Antonov An-148 (Антонов Ан-148) is a regional jet designed and built by Antonov of Ukraine.
The Antonov An-2 (Russian nickname: "Annushka" or "Annie"; "kukuruznik" - corn crop duster; USAF/DoD reporting name Type 22, NATO reporting name Colt) is a Soviet mass-produced single-engine biplane utility/agricultural aircraft designed and manufactured by the Antonov Design Bureau beginning in 1946.
The Antonov An-24 (Russian/Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-24) (NATO reporting name: Coke) is a 44-seat twin turboprop transport/passenger aircraft designed in 1957 in the Soviet Union by the Antonov Design BureauGordon, Yefim.
Arbat District (райо́н Арба́т) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.
Arbat Street (Russian), mainly referred to in English as the Arbat, is a pedestrian street about one kilometer long in the historical centre of Moscow, Russia.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Aurora (Аврора) is a Russian Far East air carrier, subsidiary of Aeroflot.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
Babyflot is the informal name given to any airline in the former Soviet Union created from the dissolution of the Soviet airline monopoly Aeroflot in the early 1990s, at the time of the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
BAL Bashkirian Airlines («Башкирские авиалинии», Baškirskije avialinii, «БАЛ Башҡортостан авиалиниялары», BAL Başqortostan avialiniyaları) was an airline with its head office on the property of Ufa Airport in Ufa, Russia.
Bangkok Airways Public Company Limited (บางกอกแอร์เวย์) is a regional airline based in Bangkok, Thailand.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
Belgorod (p) is a city and the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Seversky Donets River north of the border with Ukraine.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing 737 Classic refers to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737.
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as 737NG, is the name given to the −600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 airliner.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
Boris Pavlovich Bugaev (Russian: Борис Павлович Бугаев; 9 July 1923 – 13 January 2007) was a Soviet military pilot and politician.
Bulgaria Air (България Ер) is the flag carrier airline of Bulgaria, with its headquarters at Sofia Airport in Sofia.
Central Administrative Okrug, or Tsentralny Administrativny Okrug (Центра́льный администрати́вный о́круг, Tsentralny administrativny okrug), is one of the twelve administrative okrugs of Moscow, Russia, located within the Kamer-Kollezhny Bank.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited (colloquially known as 东航/東航) is an airline headquartered in the China Eastern Airlines Building, on the grounds of Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport in Changning District, Shanghai.
China Southern Airlines Company Limited is an airline headquartered in Baiyun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Established on 1 July 1988 following the restructuring of the Civil Aviation Administration of China that acquired and merged a number of domestic airlines, the airline became one of China's "Big Three" airlines (alongside Air China and China Eastern Airlines), the world's sixth-largest airline measured by passengers carried and Asia's largest airline in fleet size, revenue and passengers carried. With its main hubs at Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and Beijing Capital International Airport, the airline operates more than 2,000 flights to 208 destinations daily as a member of SkyTeam. The logo of the airline consists of a kapok flower (which is also the city flower of Guangzhou) on a blue tail fin. The parent company of China Southern Airlines Company Limited is China Southern Air Holding Company, a state-owned enterprise that was supervised by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council.
Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial.
A codeshare agreement, also known as codeshare, is an aviation business arrangement in which two or more airlines share the same flight.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Czech Airlines a.s. (abbreviation: ČSA, České aerolinie, a.s.) is the national airline of the Czech Republic.
Delta Air Lines, Inc., commonly referred to as Delta, is a major United States airline, with its headquarters and largest hub at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia.
Deruluft (Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A.G., or Deruluft) was a joint German-Soviet airline, established on 11 November 1921.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dobrolet LLC (ООО «Добролёт») was a Russian low-cost airline based at Sheremetyevo International Airport and a subsidiary of Aeroflot.
Dobrolyot, or sometimes Dobrolet, is an initialism for Российское общество Добровольного воздушного флота - Добролёт (The Russian Society of Voluntary Air Fleet), an early Soviet Union air transport organisation, which was formed in 1923 and existed throughout the remainder of the 1920s.
JSC "Donavia" (ОАО «Донавиа»), later Aeroflot-Don (ОАО «Аэрофлот-Дон»), was an Aeroflot subsidiary airline based in Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner with tailwheel-type landing gear.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The Export–Import Bank of the United States (abbreviated as Ex-Im Bank or the Bank) is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the United States federal government.
The Farnborough International Airshow is a week-long, biennial event that combines a major trade exhibition for the aerospace and defence industries with a public airshow.
Farnborough is a town in north east Hampshire, England, part of the borough of Rushmoor and the Farnborough/Aldershot Built-up Area.
The Federal Agency for State Property Management (Rosimushchestvo) (in Russian: Федеральное агентство по управлению государственным имуществом (Росимущество)) is a subdivision of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development that manages Russia's federal state property.
Finnair (Oyj, Finnair Abp.) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland, with its headquarters in Vantaa on the grounds of Helsinki Airport, its hub.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom.
Flightglobal is an online news and information website which covers the aviation and aerospace industries.
Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.
The Fokker F.III was a single-engined high-winged monoplane aircraft produced in the 1920s by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.
A frequent-flyer program (FFP) is a loyalty program offered by an airline.
Garuda Indonesia (officially PT Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk) is the national airline of Indonesia. Named after the holy bird Garuda of Hinduism from the national emblem of Indonesia, the airline is headquartered at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta. As of 11 December 2014, the airline is rated as a 5-star airline by the international airline review firm Skytrax. The air carrier was previously known as Garuda Indonesian Airways. Founded in 1947 as KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf, the airline is now one of the world's leading airlines and the 20th member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. It operates regularly scheduled flights to a large number of destinations in Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Australia and Europe from its main hub in Jakarta, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, as well as services to Australia and Asia from Ngurah Rai International Airport (Bali) and a large number of domestic flights from both Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport (Makassar) and Kualanamu International Airport (Medan). At its peak in the late 1980s up to the mid-1990s, Garuda operated an extensive network of flights all over the world, with regularly scheduled services to Los Angeles, Paris, Rome, Fukuoka, Adelaide, Johannesburg, Cairo and other cities in Europe, Australia and Asia. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a series of financial and operational difficulties hit the airline hard, which included the in-flight murder of a human rights activist, causing it to drastically cut back services. In 2009, the airline undertook a five-year modernization plan known as the Quantum Leap, which overhauled the airline's brand, livery, logo and uniforms, as well as newer, more modern aircraft and facilities and a renewed focus on international markets, and earning the airline awards such as Most Improved Airline, 5-Star Airline, and World's Best Cabin Crew. The airline also operated a budget subsidiary Citilink, which provided low-cost flights to multiple Indonesian destinations and was spun-off in 2012.
General aviation (GA) is all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire.
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (translit) is a communist symbol that was adopted during the Russian Revolution.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
Icelandair is the flag carrier of Iceland, headquartered at Keflavík International Airport in Iceland.
Public Joint Stock Company Ilyushin Aviation Complex, operating as Ilyushin (Ilyushin) (Илью́шин) or Ilyushin Design Bureau, is a Russian aircraft manufacturer and design bureau, founded by Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin.
The Ilyushin Il-12 (NATO reporting name: Coach) was a Soviet twin-engine cargo aircraft, developed in the mid-1940s for small and medium-haul airline routes and as a military transport.
The Ilyushin Il-14 (NATO reporting name: Crate) was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950, and entered service in 1954.
The Ilyushin Il-18 (Илью́шин Ил-18; NATO reporting name: Coot) is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and durable Soviet aircraft of its era.
The Ilyushin Il-18 was a Soviet four-engined airliner designed and built by Ilyushin immediately after World War II.
The Ilyushin IL-62 (Илью́шин Ил-62; NATO reporting name: Classic) is a Soviet long-range narrow-body jet airliner conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin.
The Ilyushin Il-76 (Илью́шин Ил-76; NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union's Ilyushin design bureau.
The Ilyushin Il-86 (Илью́шин Ил-86; NATO reporting name: Camber) is a short/medium-range wide-body jet airliner.
The Ilyushin Il-96 (Илью́шин Ил-96) is a Russian four-engined long-haul wide-body airliner designed by Ilyushin in the former Soviet Union and manufactured by the Voronezh Aircraft Production Association in Russia.
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.
The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 is a United States Act of Congress signed into law by President Bill Clinton on March 14, 2000.
The Irkut MC-21 (Иркут МС-21) is a Russian single-aisle twinjet airliner, developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau and produced by its parent Irkut, a branch of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC).
Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.
, also known as, is the flag carrier airline of Japan. It is headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan; and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport), as well as Osaka's Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport.
A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
The Junkers Ju 52/3m (nicknamed Tante Ju ("Aunt Ju") and Iron Annie) is a German trimotor transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Kenya Airways Ltd., more commonly known as Kenya Airways, is the flag carrier airline of Kenya.
Khabarovsk (p;; ᠪᠣᡥᠣᡵᡳ|v.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Khodynka Aerodrome (Ходынский аэродром, Khodynskiy aerodrom), officially Frunze Central Aerodrome, often referred to as Tsentralny Aerodrome (Центральный аэродром имени М. В. Фрунзе), was an airport in Moscow, Russia located northwest of the centre of the city.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, legally Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V., is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd., operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights.
Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)KAL 007 was used by air traffic control, while the public flight booking system used KE 007 was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska.
KrasAir or Krasnoyarsk Airlines (Красноярские авиалинии) was a Russian airline with its head office on the grounds of Krasnoyarsk Yemelyanovo Airport in Krasnoyarsk.
Kursk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers.
This is a list of airlines by foundation date, founded by December 31, 1929.
List of airports in Russia (Russian Federation), sorted by location.
The Lisunov Li-2, originally designated PS-84, was a license-built version of the Douglas DC-3.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT S.A. (flight), doing business as LOT Polish Airlines, is the flag carrier of Poland.
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.
Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017.
The maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground under its own power.
MAKS (МАКС, Международный авиационно-космический салон, transliterated as Mezhdunarodnyj aviatsionno-kosmicheskij salon, "International Aviation and Space Show") is an international airshow held at Zhukovsky International Airport, the home of the Gromov Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky, southeast of Moscow, Russia.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football.
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine wide-body jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas.
The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American three-engine medium- to long-range wide-body jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is a type of agreement between two (bilateral) or more (multilateral) parties.
MIAT Mongolian Airlines (pronounced me-at, Монголын Иргэний Агаарын Тээвэр, Mongolyn Irgenii Agaaryn Teever (MIAT), Mongolian Civil Air Transport) is the Mongolian national airline, headquartered in the MIAT Building in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia.
The Mil Mi-10 (NATO reporting name Harke), given the product number izdeliye 60, is a Soviet military transport helicopter of flying crane configuration, developed from the Mi-6, entering service in 1963.
The Mil Mi-26 (Миль Ми-26, NATO reporting name: Halo) is a Soviet/Russian heavy transport helicopter.
Mineralnye Vody (p; lit. mineral waters) is a town in Stavropol Krai, Russia, located along the Kuma River and the main rail line between Rostov-on-Don in Russia and Baku in Azerbaijan.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Moscow Airways was a Russian airline that was formed as a subsidiary of Aeroflot to operate the airline's fleet of Ilyushin Il-62s.
Moscow Domodedovo Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Net profit, also referred to as the bottom line, net income, or net earnings is a measure of the profitability of a venture after accounting for all costs and taxes.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
Nordavia (Нордавиа), formerly known as Aeroflot-Nord (Аэрофлот-Норд), is an airline with its head office on the grounds of Talagi Airport in Arkhangelsk, Russia.
Novaya Gazeta (p) is a Russian newspaper well known in its country for its critical and investigative coverage of Russian political and social affairs.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.
A public joint-stock company, abbreviated PJSC (Публичное акционерное общество, abbreviated ПАО) or open joint-stock company, abbreviated OJSC (Открытое акционерное общество, abbreviated ОАО), is a type of company in many successor states of the Soviet Union, in particular in Russia.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Orenburg Airlines or JSC Orenair (Оренбургские авиалинии) was a Russian airline with its head office on the property of Orenburg Tsentralny Airport in Orenburg.
Oryol or Orel (p, lit. eagle) is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River, approximately south-southwest of Moscow.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Air Show (Salon international de l'aéronautique et de l'espace de Paris-Le Bourget, Salon du Bourget) is the largest Air Show before UK's Farnborough, followed by Dubai Air Show or Singapore Airshow.
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
PFC Central Sport Club of the Army Moscow (Профессиональный футбольный клуб – ЦСКА) is a Russian professional football club.
PMR - British-American company providing market information, advice and services to international businesses interested in Central and Eastern Europe as well as other emerging markets.
Pobeda Airlines LLC (Победа, Budget Carrier, LLC) is a Russian low-cost airline and a wholly owned subsidiary of Aeroflot.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Ronald Edward George Davies (3 July 1921 – 30 July 2011) was an English specialist in airline and air transport history, and commercial aviation economic research.
A regional jet (RJ) is a class of short to medium-range turbofan powered regional airliners.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rossiya Airlines OJSC retrieved 2016-09-19 (АО «Авиакомпания „Россия“», AO Aviakompaniya "Rossiya"), sometimes branded as Rossiya - Russian Airlines («Россия — Российские авиалинии», Rossiya — Rossiyskie avialinii), is a Russian airline headquartered in Saint Petersburg with its hub at Pulkovo Airport.
Rostec (Rostekh), formerly Rostekhnologii (Ростехнологии) is a Russian state corporation established in late 2007 to consolidate strategically important companies with the ultimate goal of capitalizing them and bringing them to an IPO.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
Royal Air Maroc (الخطوط الملكية المغربية,, literally Royal Moroccan Lines or Royal Moroccan Airlines; ⴰⵎⵓⴷⴷⵓ ⵓⴳⴻⵏⵏⴰ ⴰⴳⴻⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⴻⵔⵔⵓⴾ, Amuddu Ugenna Ageldan Umerruk), more commonly known as RAM, is the Moroccan national carrier, as well as the country largest airline.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
S7 Airlines, legally PJSC Siberia Airlines (ПАО «Авиакомпания "Сибирь"» "PАО Aviakompania Sibir"), is an airline headquartered in Ob, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia, with offices in Moscow.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.
Saratov Airlines (Saratov Airlines Joint Stock Company, Саратовские авиалинии, Saratovskiye avialinii) was a Russian airline headquartered in Saratov and based at Saratov Tsentralny Airport.
OJSC "SAT Airlines — Sakhalinskie Aviatrassy" (Сахалинские Авиатрассы), commonly known as SAT Airlines, was an airline based in Sakhalin, Russia. It provided scheduled regional air services in Russia's Far East and to destinations in China, South Korea and Japan. Other services included charter flights, search and rescue operations, firefighting and aerial patrols. Its main base was Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport. The airline was amalgamated with Vladivostok Air to form new carrier Aurora in October 2013, the new company retained SAT Airlines IATA and ICAO codes.
Saudia (السعودية), also known as Saudi Arabian Airlines (الخطوط الجوية العربية السعودية), is the national carrier airline of Saudi Arabia, based in Jeddah.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
Sheremetyevo International Airport (p) is an international airport located in Molzhaninovsky District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia, northwest of central Moscow.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Sikorsky Ilya Muromets (Сикорский Илья Муромец) (Sikorsky S-22, S-23, S-24, S-25, S-26 and S-27) were a class of Russian pre-World War I large four-engine commercial airliners and military heavy bombers used during World War I by the Russian Empire.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
SkyTeam is an airline alliance.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991).
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The JSC Sukhoi Company (ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, and designs both civilian and military aircraft.
The Sukhoi Superjet 100, also known by its abbreviation SSJ100, is a fly-by-wire twin-engine regional jet with 8 (VIP) to 108 (all economy) passenger seats.
Surgut (p) is a city in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River near its junction with the Irtysh River.
A surveillance aircraft is an aircraft used for surveillance—collecting information over time.
Compania Națională de Transporturi Aeriene Române TAROM S.A., doing business as TAROM (pronounced "ta-rom"), is the flag carrier and oldest currently operating airline of Romania, based in Otopeni near Bucharest.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
Tatarstan Airlines (r; Татарстан Һава Юллары) was the regional airline of the Republic of Tatarstan, part of the Russian Federation.
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
Transaero (Трансаэро), officially OJSC Transaero Airlines (ОАО «АК «ТРАНСАЭРО», Открытое акционерное общество "Авиационная компания "ТРАНСАЭРО") was a Russian airline.
The transport network of the Russian Federation is one of the world's most extensive transport networks.
Transport in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was an important part of the nation's economy.
Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
The Tupolev ANT-35 was a 1930s Soviet twin-engined light transport monoplane that entered service with Aeroflot in 1937 as the Tupolev PS-35.
The Tupolev Tu-104 (NATO reporting name: Camel) was a twinjet medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner.
The Tupolev Tu-114 Rossiya (Tyполев Тy-114 Poccия) (NATO reporting name Cleat) was a turboprop-powered long-range airliner designed by the Tupolev design bureau and built in the USSR from May 1955.
The Tupolev Tu-124 (NATO reporting name: Cookpot) was a 56-passenger short-range twinjet airliner built in the Soviet Union.
The Tupolev Tu-134 (NATO reporting name: Crusty) is a twin-engined, narrow-body, jet airliner built in the Soviet Union from 1966 to 1989.
The Tupolev Tu-144 (Tyполев Ту-144; NATO reporting name: Charger) is a retired jet airliner and commercial supersonic transport aircraft (SST).
The Tupolev Tu-154 (Tyполев Ту-154; NATO reporting name: "Careless") is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev.
The Tupolev Tu-204 (Туполев Ту-204) is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
Tyumen (a) is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River east of Moscow.
Ufa (p; Өфө) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrpovitroshliach (Ukrainian Society of Airways, Ukrains'kyi povitrianyi shliakh') was an airline based in Kharkiv, Ukrainian SSR during the interbellum.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vitaly Gennadyevich Savelyev (Виталий Геннадьевич Савельев; born January 18, 1954) is a Russian businessman.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
JSC Vladivostok Air (also Vladivostok Avia; ОАО Владивосток Авиа) was an independent airline with its head office at the airport in Artyom, Primorski Krai, Russia.
Vnukovo International Airport (p), is a dual-runway international airport located southwest of the centre of Moscow, Russia.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
VTB Bank (Russian: ПАО Банк ВТБ, former Vneshtorgbank, lit. foreign trade bank) is one of the leading universal banks of Russia.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
A wide-body aircraft is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles, also known as twin-aisle aircraft, with seven or more seats abreast.
A write-off is a reduction of the recognized value of something.
The Yakovlev Yak-40 (Яковлев Як-40; NATO reporting name: Codling) is a small, three-engined jet airliner.
The Yakovlev Yak-42 (Яковлев Як-42; NATO reporting name: "Clobber") is a 100/120-seat three-engined mid-range passenger jet.
Yakutsk (p; Дьокуускай, D'okuuskay) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about south of the Arctic Circle.
Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
Yevpatoriya is a city of regional significance in Crimea, Ukraine (as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea).
Zakavia (Transcaucasian Society of Air Transport, Закавиа, Закавказское общество воздушных сообщений) was an airline in Georgia and later in Azerbaijan, formed in 1923 and ceased in 1929.
The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 (also known as the Euromaidan Revolution or Revolution of Dignity; Революція гідності, Revoliutsiia hidnosti) took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of the democratically elected Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, and the overthrow of the Ukrainian Government.
The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during the period 14–25 February 1956.
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