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Affinity maturation

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In immunology, affinity maturation is the process by which Tfh cell-activated B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response. [1]

16 relations: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase, Antibody, Antibody mimetic, Antigen, B cell, Clonal selection, Complementarity-determining region, Follicular B helper T cells, Follicular dendritic cells, Germinal center, Immunology, Mutagen, Peptide, Phage display, Radiation, Somatic hypermutation.

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase, also known as AICDA and AID, is a 24 kDa enzyme which in humans is encoded by the AICDA gene.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antibody mimetic

Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens, but that are not structurally related to antibodies.

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Antigen

In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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Clonal selection

Clonal selection theory is a scientific theory in immunology that explains the functions of cells (lymphocytes) of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body.

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Complementarity-determining region

Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules bind to their specific antigen.

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Follicular B helper T cells

Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5.

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Follicular dendritic cells

Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell areas of the lymphoid tissue.

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Germinal center

Germinal centers or germinal centres (GCs) are sites within secondary lymphoid organs – lymph nodes and the spleen where mature B cells proliferate, differentiate, and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation aimed at achieving higher affinity), and switch the class of their antibodies (for example from IgM to IgG) during a normal immune response to an infection.

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Immunology

Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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Mutagen

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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Peptide

Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Phage display

Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein–protein, protein–peptide, and protein–DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them.

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Radiation

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Somatic hypermutation

Somatic hypermutation (or SHM) is a cellular mechanism by which the immune system adapts to the new foreign elements that confront it (e.g. microbes), as seen during class switching.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affinity_maturation

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