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Affirmative action

Index Affirmative action

Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination. [1]

163 relations: Achievement gap in the United States, Affirmative Action Around the World, Affirmative action bake sale, African National Congress, Afrikaners, All-women shortlist, Allmennaksjeselskap, Angry white male, Apartheid, Asian Journal of Women's Studies, Bantu Education Act, 1953, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Black Economic Empowerment, Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment, Bumiputera (Malaysia), California Proposition 209, Canada, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Caste system in India, Catholic Church, Cato Institute, City University of New York, Civil and political rights, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Color blindness (race), Coloureds, Commune, Constitution of France, Constitution of Slovakia, Constitutional Court of Slovakia, Constitutionality, Council of Indigenous Peoples, Cultural backwardness, David Akin, Democrats (Brazil), Department of Labour (South Africa), Disability, Discrimination, Diversity (business), Diversity training, Duke University, Economic discrimination, Education in Germany, Employment equity (Canada), Equal opportunity, Equal Protection Clause, Equality Act 2010, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Ethnic penalty, European Union, ..., Ewha Womans University Press, Executive Order 10925, Executive Order 11246, Executive Order 11375, Exploitation of labour, Fisher v. University of Texas (2013), Fisher v. University of Texas (2016), Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Gail Heriot, Gallup (company), George Sher, Good Friday Agreement, Government contractor, Gratz v. Bollinger, Grutter v. Bollinger, Gymnasium (Germany), Harrison Bergeron, Ian Ayres, Immigrant communities in Northern Ireland, Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland, India, Indian South Africans, Indiana University Press, Initiative 200, Intelligence Squared, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Israel, Jesse Rothstein, Jewish quota, John F. Kennedy, Journal of Economic Literature, JSTOR, Legacy preferences, Lyndon B. Johnson, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, Malaysian New Economic Policy, Māori people, Michigan Civil Rights Initiative, Michigan State University Press, Mines and Works Act, Ministry of Justice (Taiwan), Minority group, Minority rights, Multiculturalism, Native Building Workers Act, 1951, Nepal, New York University Law Review, New York University School of Law, Norma M. Riccucci, Northern Ireland peace process, Northwest Territories, Numerus clausus, Other Backward Class, Pew Research Center, Police Service of Northern Ireland, Policy of standardisation, Political correctness, Polynesia, Positive action, Positive liberty, Principle-policy puzzle, Progressive stack, Protestantism, Quinnipiac University, Quinnipiac University Polling Institute, Quotaism, Racial discrimination, Reasonable accommodation, Reservation in India, Reverse discrimination, Richard Sander, Romani people, SAGE Publications, Sciences Po, Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act 2002, Social justice, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spanish National Research Council, Special measures for gender equality in the United Nations, Sri Lanka, Stanford Law Review, State bar association, Strong-basis-in-evidence standard, Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa, Supreme Federal Court, Swedish language, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Tamils, The Left (Germany), The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Thomas Sowell, Titular nation, Tokenism, United Kingdom, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations Human Rights Committee, United States Commission on Civil Rights, United States Constitution, University of Brasília, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, University of Pennsylvania Law School, University of San Diego, University of Texas at Austin, USA Today, Visible minority, White guilt, Women's rights. Expand index (113 more) »

Achievement gap in the United States

The achievement gap in the United States is the observed, persistent disparity in measures of educational performance among subgroups of U.S. students, especially groups defined by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity and gender.

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Affirmative Action Around the World

Affirmative Action Around the World: An Empirical Study is a 2004 nonfiction work by economist Thomas Sowell.

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Affirmative action bake sale

An affirmative action bake sale is a type of campus protest event used by student groups to performatively criticize affirmative action policies by charging students different prices depending on which social or racial group they belong to.

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African National Congress

The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.

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Afrikaners

Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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All-women shortlist

The use of all-women shortlists (AWS) is a positive action practice intended to increase the proportion of female Members of Parliament (MPs) in the United Kingdom, allowing only women to stand in particular constituencies for a particular political party.

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Allmennaksjeselskap

Allmennaksjeselskap (literally "public stock company"), or ASA, is the Norwegian term for a public limited company.

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Angry white male

Angry white male, angry white man, or angry white guy are pejorative terms used to describe white males holding what is viewed as a typically conservative to reactionary viewpoint in the context of U.S. politics, typically characterized by "opposition to liberal anti-discriminatory policies" and beliefs.

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Apartheid

Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.

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Asian Journal of Women's Studies

Asian Journal of Women's Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Ewha Womans University Press.

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Bantu Education Act, 1953

The Bantu Education Act, 1953 (Act No. 47 of 1953; later renamed the Black Education Act, 1953) was a South African segregation law which legalised several aspects of the apartheid system passed by the Apartheid regime which was really not on the side of the black community.

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Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Black Economic Empowerment

Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is a racially selective programme launched by the South African government to redress the inequalities of Apartheid by giving black (Blacks, Coloureds and Indians) South African citizens economic privileges previously not available to them under White rule.

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Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment

Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE or B-BBEE as written by the South African government) is a form of economic empowerment initiated by the South African government in response to criticism against narrow-based empowerment instituted in the country during 2003/2004.

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Bumiputera (Malaysia)

Bumiputera or Bumiputra (Jawi: بوميڤوترا) is a Malaysian term to describe Malays and other indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia, i.e. the Malay world, used similarly as in Indonesia and Brunei.

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California Proposition 209

Proposition 209 (also known as the California Civil Rights Initiative or CCRI) is a California ballot proposition which, upon approval in November 1996, amended the state constitution to prohibit state governmental institutions from considering race, sex, or ethnicity, specifically in the areas of public employment, public contracting, and public education.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (La Charte canadienne des droits et libertés), in Canada often simply the Charter, is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada.

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Caste system in India

The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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City University of New York

The City University of New York (CUNY) is the public university system of New York City, and the largest urban university system in the United States.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

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Color blindness (race)

Color blindness, in sociology, is a concept describing the ideal of a society where racial classifications do not limit a person's opportunities, as well as the kind of deliberately race-neutral governmental policies said to promote the goal of racial equality.

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Coloureds

Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.

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Commune

A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.

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Constitution of France

The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.

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Constitution of Slovakia

The Constitution of Slovakia, officially the Constitution of the Slovak Republic (Ústava Slovenskej republiky), is the current constitution of Slovakia.

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Constitutional Court of Slovakia

Building of the Constitutional Court of Slovakia in Košice The Constitutional Court of Slovakia (officially Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic, Ústavný súd Slovenskej republiky) is a special court established by the Constitution of Slovakia.

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Constitutionality

Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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Council of Indigenous Peoples

The Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP), formerly known as the Council of Aboriginal Affairs, is a ministry-level body under the Executive Yuan in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

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Cultural backwardness

Cultural backwardness (культурная отсталость) was a term used by Soviet politicians and ethnographers.

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David Akin

David Akin is a Canadian reporter.

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Democrats (Brazil)

The Democrats (Democratas, DEM) is a political party in Brazil, which is considered the main party within the right-wing spectrum.

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Department of Labour (South Africa)

The Department of Labour is the department of the South African government responsible for matters related to employment, including industrial relations, job creation, unemployment insurance and occupational health and safety.

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Disability

A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Discrimination

In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.

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Diversity (business)

The "business case for diversity" stems from the progression of the models of diversity within the workplace since the 1960s.

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Diversity training

Diversity training can be defined as any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively.

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Duke University

Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.

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Economic discrimination

Economic discrimination is discrimination based on economic factors.

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Education in Germany

The responsibility for the education system in Germany lies primarily with the states (Länder), while the federal government plays a minor role.

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Employment equity (Canada)

Employment equity, as defined in federal Canadian law by the Employment Equity Act, requires federal jurisdiction employers to engage in proactive employment practices to increase the representation of four designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities.

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Equal opportunity

Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.

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Equal Protection Clause

The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Equality Act 2010

The Equality Act 2010 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, and has the same goals as the four major EU Equal Treatment Directives, whose provisions it mirrors and implements.

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Ethnic and Racial Studies

Ethnic and Racial Studies is a peer-reviewed social science academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on anthropology, cultural studies, ethnicity and race, and sociology.

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Ethnic penalty

Ethnic penalty in sociology is defined as the economic and non-economic disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the labour market compared to other ethnic groups.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Ewha Womans University Press

Ewha Womans University Press (이화여자대학교출판부) is a book publisher founded in 1949.

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Executive Order 10925

Executive Order 10925, signed by President John F. Kennedy on March 6, 1961, required government contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin." It established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (PCEEO), which was chaired by then Vice President Lyndon Johnson.

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Executive Order 11246

Executive Order 11246, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 24, 1965, established requirements for non-discriminatory practices in hiring and employment on the part of U.S. government contractors.

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Executive Order 11375

Executive Order 11375, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 13, 1967, banned discrimination on the basis of sex in hiring and employment in both the United States federal workforce and on the part of government contractors.

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Exploitation of labour

Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.

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Fisher v. University of Texas (2013)

Fisher v. University of Texas,, also known as Fisher I (to distinguish it from the 2016 case), is a United States Supreme Court case concerning the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Texas at Austin.

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Fisher v. University of Texas (2016)

Fisher v. University of Texas, 579 U.S. (2016) (commonly referred to as Fisher II) is a United States Supreme Court case which held that the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit correctly found that the University of Texas at Austin's undergraduate admissions policy survived strict scrutiny, in accordance with Fisher v. University of Texas (2013), which ruled that strict scrutiny should be applied to determine the constitutionality of the University's race-sensitive admissions policy.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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Gail Heriot

Gail L. Heriot is a Professor of Law at the University of San Diego School of Law.

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Gallup (company)

Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.

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George Sher

George Sher is a moral philosopher and political philosopher who has taught at Rice University since 1991.

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Good Friday Agreement

The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Government contractor

A government contractor is a company (privately owned or publicly traded but not a state-owned enterprise)either for profit or non-profitthat produces goods or services under contract for the government.

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Gratz v. Bollinger

Gratz v. Bollinger, was a United States Supreme Court case regarding the University of Michigan undergraduate affirmative action admissions policy.

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Grutter v. Bollinger

Grutter v. Bollinger,, was a landmark case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School.

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Gymnasium (Germany)

Gymnasium (German plural: Gymnasien), in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary schools, the others being Realschule and Hauptschule. Gymnasium strongly emphasizes academic learning, comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States.

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Harrison Bergeron

"Harrison Bergeron" is a satirical and dystopian science-fiction short story written by Kurt Vonnegut and first published in October 1961.

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Ian Ayres

Ian Ayres is an American lawyer and economist.

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Immigrant communities in Northern Ireland

During the Troubles levels of immigration to Northern Ireland were low.

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Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland

The Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland was established in 1998 as part of the Belfast Agreement, intended as a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian South Africans

Indian South Africans are citizens and residents of South Africa of Indian descent.

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Indiana University Press

Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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Initiative 200

Initiative 200 was a Washington State initiative to the Legislature promoted by California affirmative-action opponent Ward Connerly, and filed by Scott Smith and Tim Eyman, a mail-order salesman from Mukilteo, Washington.

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Intelligence Squared

Intelligence Squared is an organisation that stages debates around the world.

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International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jesse Rothstein

Jesse Rothstein is an economist, and currently Associate Professor of Public Policy and Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Jewish quota

A Jewish quota was a racial quota limiting the number of Jews in various establishments to a certain percentage.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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Journal of Economic Literature

The Journal of Economic Literature is a peer-reviewed academic journal, published by the American Economic Association, that surveys the academic literature in economics.

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JSTOR

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.

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Legacy preferences

Legacy preference or legacy admission is a preference given by an institution or organization to certain applicants on the basis of their familial relationship to alumni of that institution, with college admissions being the field in which legacy preferences are most controversially used.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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Malays (ethnic group)

Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

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Malaysian Chinese

The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.

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Malaysian Indians

The Malaysian Indians or Indian Malaysians (Tamil: மலேசிய இந்தியர்கள்) consist of people of full or partial Indian through paternal descent —particularly Tamil Indians who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia from Tamil Nadu.

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Malaysian New Economic Policy

The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Dasar Ekonomi Baru (DEB)) was a social re-engineering and affirmative action program formulated by the National Operations Council (NOC) in the aftermath of 13 May Incident in Malaysia.

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Michigan Civil Rights Initiative

The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (MCRI), or Proposal 2 (Michigan 06-2), was a ballot initiative in the U.S. state of Michigan that passed into Michigan Constitutional law by a 58% to 42% margin on November 7, 2006, according to results officially certified by the Michigan Secretary of State.

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Michigan State University Press

Michigan State University Press is the scholarly publishing arm of Michigan State University, the nation’s pioneer land-grant university (the institution that served as the prototype for schools established under the Morrill Land-Grant Acts of 1862).

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Mines and Works Act

The Mines and Work Act was a piece of legislation in South Africa, originally passed in 1911 and amended in 1912 and 1926 before undergoing further changes in 1956 and 1959.

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Ministry of Justice (Taiwan)

The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of China (MOJ) is a ministerial level governmental body of the Republic of China (Taiwan), responsible for carrying out various judicial functions.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Minority rights

Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or gender and sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.

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Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.

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Native Building Workers Act, 1951

The Native Building Workers Act, 1951 (Act No. 27 of 1951; subsequently renamed the Bantu Building Workers Act, 1951 and the Black Building Workers Act, 1951) formed part of the apartheid system of racial segregation in South Africa.

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Nepal

Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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New York University Law Review

The New York University Law Review is a flagship generalist law review journal publishing legal scholarship in all areas, including legal theory and policy, environmental law, legal history, international law, and more.

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New York University School of Law

The New York University School of Law is the law school of New York University.

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Norma M. Riccucci

Norma M. Riccucci is a Distinguished Professor of Public Administration at the School of Public Affairs and Administration at Rutgers University in Newark.

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Northern Ireland peace process

The Northern Ireland peace process is often considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Good Friday (or Belfast) Agreement of 1998, and subsequent political developments.

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.

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Numerus clausus

Numerus clausus ("closed number" in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university.

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Other Backward Class

Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are socially or educationally or economically disadvantaged.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Police Service of Northern Ireland

The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI; Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots: Polis Servis o Norlin Airlan) is the police force that serves Northern Ireland.

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Policy of standardisation

The policy of standardization was a policy implemented by the Sri Lankan government in 1971 to rectify disparities created in university enrollment in Sri Lanka under Colonial rule.

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Political correctness

The term political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated to PC or P.C.) is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society.

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Polynesia

Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

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Positive action

In Europe, positive action are measures which are targeted at protected groups in order to enable or encourage members of those groups to overcome or minimise disadvantage; or to meet the different needs of protected group; or to enable or encourage persons in protected groups to participate in an activity.

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Positive liberty

Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.

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Principle-policy puzzle

In political science, a principle-policy puzzle is a disconnect between support for a principle and support for a policy supporting that principle.

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Progressive stack

A progressive stack is a technique used to give marginalized groups a greater chance to speak.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Quinnipiac University

Quinnipiac University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university located in Hamden, Connecticut, at the foot of Sleeping Giant State Park.

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Quinnipiac University Polling Institute

The Quinnipiac University Poll is a public opinion polling center based at Quinnipiac University in Connecticut.

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Quotaism

Quotaism is the concept of organising society by a quota system, whether by racial, gender, language or another demographic attribute.

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Racial discrimination

Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.

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Reasonable accommodation

A reasonable accommodation is an adjustment made in a system to accommodate or make fair the same system for an individual based on a proven need.

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Reservation in India

The system of reservation in India comprises a series of measures, such as reserving access to seats in the various legislatures, to government jobs, and to enrollment in higher educational institutions.

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Reverse discrimination

Reverse discrimination is discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group, in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group.

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Richard Sander

Richard Henry Sander is a professor of law at the UCLA School of Law and a critic of affirmative action, primarily known for the mismatch theory.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Sciences Po

The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).

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Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms contains guaranteed equality rights.

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Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act 2002

The Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act 2002 (c.2) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish National Research Council

The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.

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Special measures for gender equality in the United Nations

The United Nations Secretariat, in September 1999, promulgated Administrative Instruction (AI) on "Special Measures for the Achievement Of Gender Equality" (ST/AI/1999/9 also Gender Equality A/I), to strengthen and expedite measures to achieve gender equality, especially in posts in the Professional category.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Stanford Law Review

The Stanford Law Review (SLR) is a legal journal produced independently by Stanford Law School students.

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State bar association

A state bar association is a bar association that represents or seeks to represent the attorneys practicing law in a particular U.S. state.

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Strong-basis-in-evidence standard

In United States law, City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co. (1989) established the basic principle that a governmental actor must provide a strong basis in evidence for its conclusion that remedial action is necessary.

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Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa

The Supreme Court of Appeal or SCA (formerly known as the Appellate Division) is an appellate court in South Africa.

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Supreme Federal Court

The Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal,, abbreviated STF) is the supreme court (court of last resort) of Brazil, serving primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Taiwanese indigenous peoples

Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.

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Tamils

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.

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The Left (Germany)

The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thomas Sowell

Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.

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Titular nation

The titular nation is the single dominant ethnic group in the state, typically after which the state was named.

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Tokenism

Tokenism is the practice of making only a perfunctory or symbolic effort to be inclusive to members of minority groups, especially by recruiting a small number of people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of racial or sexual equality within a workforce.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations Economic and Social Council

The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.

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United Nations Human Rights Committee

The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year for four-week sessions (spring session at UN headquarters in New York, summer and fall sessions at the UN Office in Geneva) to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by 169 UN member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR, and any individual petitions concerning 116 States parties to the Optional Protocol.

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United States Commission on Civil Rights

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is a bipartisan, independent commission of the United States federal government, created in 1957, that is charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations concerning civil rights issues in the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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University of Brasília

The University of Brasília (Universidade de Brasília, UnB) is a Brazilian public university funded by the Brazilian federal government.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law

The University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law is a scholarly journal focusing on issues of constitutional law published in print and electronically by an organization of second- and third-year J.D. students at the University of Pennsylvania Law School.

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University of Pennsylvania Law School

The University of Pennsylvania Law School, commonly known as Penn Law, is the law school of the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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University of San Diego

The University of San Diego (USD) is a private Roman Catholic research university in San Diego, California, United States.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

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Visible minority

A visible minority is defined by the Canadian government as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".

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White guilt

White guilt is the individual or collective guilt felt by some white people for harm resulting from racist treatment of ethnic minorities by other white people both historically and currently in the United States and to a lesser extent in Canada, South Africa and the United Kingdom.

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Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.

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Redirects here:

Affarmative Action, Affermative action, Affirmative Action, Affirmative action program, Affirmative-action, Affirmitive action, Afirmative action, Criticism of affirmative action, Discriminative action, Diversity hiring, Employment Equity, Employment equity, Mismatching, Positive discrimination, Preferential Hiring.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affirmative_action

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