748 relations: -stan, Aamir Khan, ABC News, Abdul Aziz Hotak, Abdul Hai Habibi, Abdul Khaliq Hazara (assassin), Abdul Rahim Sarban, Abdul Rashid Dostum, Abdullah Abdullah, Abdur Rahman Khan, ACC Twenty20 Cup, Achaemenid Empire, Afghan, Afghan (ethnonym), Afghan afghani, Afghan Air Force, Afghan Arabs, Afghan Armed Forces, Afghan Border Police, Afghan diaspora, Afghan Hound, Afghan Independence Day, Afghan Interim Administration, Afghan Jet International, Afghan National Anthem, Afghan National Army, Afghan National Civil Order Police, Afghan National Police, Afghan National Security Forces, Afghan parliamentary election, 2005, Afghan parliamentary election, 2010, Afghan Peace Jirga 2010, Afghan Post, Afghan presidential election, 2004, Afghan presidential election, 2009, Afghan presidential election, 2014, Afghan rug, Afghan Telecom, Afghan Turkestan, Afghan Wireless, Afghan–Sikh Wars, Afghanistan Cricket Board, Afghanistan Football Federation, Afghanistan International Bank, Afghanistan national 3x3 team, Afghanistan national basketball team, Afghanistan national cricket team, Afghanistan national football team, Afghanistan National Television, Afghanistan–Bangladesh relations, ..., Afghanistan–Canada relations, Afghanistan–China relations, Afghanistan–Germany relations, Afghanistan–India relations, Afghanistan–Iran relations, Afghanistan–Japan relations, Afghanistan–Pakistan relations, Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes, Afghanistan–Russia relations, Afghanistan–South Korea relations, Afghanistan–Tajikistan relations, Afghanistan–Turkey relations, Afghanistan–United Arab Emirates relations, Afghanistan–United Kingdom relations, Afghanistan–United States relations, Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge, Afghans in Iran, Afghans in Pakistan, Afghansat 1, Afsharid dynasty, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ahmad Zahir, Aimaq people, Air India, Al-Qaeda, Alexander the Great, Ali, Alokozay Kabul International Cricket Ground, Amanullah Khan, American 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The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
Aamir Khan (born Mohammed Aamir Hussain Khan on 14 March 1965) is an Indian film actor, producer, director and television talk show host.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Shāh Abdul Azīz Hotak (died 1717) (عبد العزیز هوتک) was the second ruler of the Ghilji Hotak dynasty of Kandahar, in what is now the modern state of Afghanistan.
Abdul Hai Habibi (عبدالحى حبيبي, عبدالحی حبیبی) – ʿAbd' ul-Ḥay Ḥabībi) (1910 – 9 May 1984) was a prominent Afghan historian for much of his lifetime as well as a member of the National Assembly of Afghanistan (Afghan Parliament) during the reign of King Zahir Shah. A Pashtun nationalist from Kakar tribe of Kandahar, Afghanistan, he began as a young teacher who made his way up to become a writer, scholar, politician and Dean of Faculty of Literature at Kabul University. He is the author of over 100 books but is best known for editing Pata Khazana, an "old" Pashto language manuscript that he claimed to have "discovered" in 1944; the academic community, however, does not acknowledge the manuscript as genuine.
Abdul Khaliq Hazara, (عبدالخالق هزاره) (1916 - December 18, 1933) was a Hazara student who assassinated King Mohammed Nadir Shah on 8 November 1933, during an award distribution ceremony.
Abdul-Rahim Mahmoody Sārbān (عبدالرحیم ساربان), known simply as Sarban, was an Afghan singer (1930 – April 2, 1993) Born in Kabul, Afghanistan he is known for his unique voice and music style that no other singer from Afghanistan has been able to surpass.
Abdul Rashid Dostum (عبدالرشید دوستم, Uzbek Latin: Abdul Rashid Do‘stum, Uzbek Cyrillic: Абдул Рашид Дўстум; born 1954) is an Afghan politician and general who has served as Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014.
Abdullah Abdullah (Dari/Pashto: عبدالله عبدالله, born September 5, 1960) is an Afghan politician, serving as Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since September 2014.
Abdur Rahman Khan (عبد رحمان خان) (between 1840 and 1844October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.
The ACC Twenty20 Cup is a 20-over cricket tournament organised by the Asian Cricket Council (ACC).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country.
The ethnonym Afghan (افغان) has been used in the past to denote a member of the Pashtuns, by Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation.
The afghani (sign: Afs; code: AFN; Pashto: افغانۍ; Dari افغانی) is the currency of Afghanistan, issued by the central bank Da Afghanistan Bank.
The Afghan Air Force (AAF; دافغانستان هوائی ځواک; قوای هوائی افغانستان) is the aerial warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
The term Afghan Arabs (also known as Arab-Afghans) refers mostly to Arab and other Muslim Islamist mujahideen who came to Afghanistan during and following the Soviet-Afghan War to help fellow Muslims fight Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans.
The Afghan Armed Forces are the military forces of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
The Afghan Border Police (ABP) secure Afghanistan's border with neighboring countries and all its international airports.
Afghan diaspora or Afghan Refugees are citizens of Afghanistan who have immigrated to other countries, or people of Afghan origin who are born outside Afghanistan.
The Afghan Hound is a hound that is distinguished by its thick, fine, silky coat and its tail with a ring curl at the end.
Afghan Independence Day is celebrated in Afghanistan on 19 August to commemorate the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 and relinquishment from protected state status.
The Afghan Interim Administration (AIA), also known as the Afghan Interim Authority, was the first administration of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime and was the highest authority of the country from 22 December 2001 until 13 July 2002.
Afghan Jet International Airlines (هواپیمایی بینالمللی افغان جت) was an Afghan airline.
The "Afghan National Anthem" (ملی سرود - Milli Sorud; سرود ملی - Sorude Melli, literally "National anthem") was adopted and officially announced as such by a Loya Jirga in May 2006.
The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) is a special police unit developed in July 2006 by Colonel Jack Stankiewicz, US Army, Police Reformation Directorate, CSTC-A of the law enforcement agency in Afghanistan.
The Afghan National Police (ANP; د افغانستان ملي پولیس; پلیس ملی افغانستان) is the national police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country.
The Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), also known as the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF), consist of.
Afghanistan held parliamentary and provincial council elections on 18 September 2005.
The Afghan parliamentary election, 2010 to elect members of the House of the People (Wolesi Jirga) took place on 18 September 2010.
The Afghan President Hamid Karzai announced the holding of a consultative grand council called the Afghanistan's National Consultative Peace Jirga (NCPJ) or shortly Peace Jirga in his inauguration speech on 19 November 2009, after winning elections for a second term, to end the ongoing Taliban insurgency.
Afghan Post is the national postal organization of Afghanistan.
An election to the office of President of Afghanistan was held on October 9, 2004.
Presidential elections were held in Afghanistan on 20 August 2009.
Presidential elections were held in Afghanistan on 5 April 2014, with a second round held on 14 June.
An Afghan rug (or Afghan carpet) is a type of handwoven floor-covering textile traditionally made in Afghanistan.
Afghan Telecom is a telecom company offering fixed line, wireless voice and data services under a 25-year license in Afghanistan.
Afghan Turkestan (ترکستان افغانستان) is a region in northern Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
The Afghan Wireless Communication Company, commonly referred to as Afghan Wireless or AWCC, is Afghanistan's first wireless communications company.
The Afghan–Sikh wars were a series of wars between the Afghan Pashtuns Durrani Empire, and the Sikh Empire.
Afghanistan Cricket Board (د افغانستان کريکټ بورډ; formerly Afghanistan Cricket Federation) is the official governing body of the sport of cricket in Afghanistan.
The Afghanistan Football Federation (A.F.F.) (Persian: فدراسيون فتبال افغانستان), (Pashto: د افغان فوتبال فدراسيون) is the governing body of football in Afghanistan, controlling the men's and women's national teams.
Afghanistan International Bank (AIB) is a local commercial bank in Afghanistan, with its head office in Kabul.
The Afghanistan national 3x3 team is a national basketball team of Afghanistan, administered by the Afghanistan National Basketball Federation (ANBF).
The Afghanistan national basketball team is the basketball side that represents Afghanistan in international competitions.
The Afghanistan national cricket team (د افغانستان د کريکټ ملي لوبډله) (Persian:تیم ملی کریکت افغانستان) represents is the 12th Test cricket playing Full Member nation.
The Afghanistan national football team (Pashto: د افغانستان د فوټبال ملي لوبډله Da Afghānestān da Fūṭbāl Millī Lobḍala, Dari: تیم ملی فوتبال افغانستان), also known as the Lions of Khurasan, is the national football team of Afghanistan and is controlled by the Afghanistan Football Federation.
Afghanistan National Television (ملی تلویزیون Da Afganistan Milli Telvizoon, تلویزیون ملی Telvizoon-e Milli Afganistan) is the state-owned television channel in Afghanistan, launched in 1977 and part of the Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA) public broadcaster.
Afghanistan–Bangladesh relations refer to the bilateral relations between Bangladesh and Afghanistan.
Afghanistan–Canada relations are relations between Afghanistan and Canada.
Afghanistan – People's Republic of China relations were mostly warm and friendly during most of the 20th Century but after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, relations severely deteriorated.
Relations between Afghanistan and Germany have historically been strong.
Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of India have traditionally been strong and friendly.
Afghanistan–Iran relations were established in 1935 during King Zahir Shah's reign and the Pahlavi dynasty of Persia.
Diplomatic relations between Afghanistan and Japan (د افغانستان او جاپان اړیکې, 日本とアフガニスタンの関係) were established in 1931.
Afghanistan–Pakistan relations involve bilateral relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Since 1949, a series of armed skirmishes and firefights have occurred along the Durand Line (the Afghanistan–Pakistan border) between the Afghan National Security Forces and the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Afghanistan–Russia relations (Российско-афганские отношения) refers to the relations between the nations of Afghanistan and Russia.
Bilateral relations between South Korea and Afghanistan began in 1973.
Afghanistan–Tajikistan relations refers to the relations between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of Tajikistan, which began in 1992.
Afghanistan–Turkey relations refers to bilateral relations between Afghanistan and Turkey.
Afghanistan–United Arab Emirates relations refer to bilateral relations between Afghanistan and the United Arab Emirates.
Afghanistan–United Kingdom relations refer to bilateral relations between Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Afghanistan–United States relations can be traced to 1921 but the first contact between the two occurred further back in the 1830s when the first recorded person from the United States was visiting Afghanistan.
The Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge is a road and rail bridge across the river Amu Darya, connecting the town of Hairatan in the northern Balkh province of Afghanistan with Termez in Uzbekistan.
Afghans in Iran are mostly refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan since the April 1978 Saur Revolution in Kabul.
Afghans in Pakistan (افغان مهاجرين., Afghan Muhajreen) primarily constitute refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan, but there are small numbers of Afghan asylum seekers, migrant workers, merchants, businesspeople, exchange students and diplomats..
Afghansat 1 (Pashto: افغان سټ یو, Persian: افغان ست یک), formerly named Eutelsat W2M, Eutelsat 48B, Eutelsat 28B is a telecommunications satellite operated by Afghanistan's Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Ahmad Shah Massoud (Dari Persian: احمد شاه مسعود; September 2, 1953September 9, 2001) was an Afghan political and military leader.
Ahmad Zahir (احمد ظاهر, 14 June 1946 – 14 June 1979) was a singer, songwriter, and composer from Afghanistan.
The Aimaq (ایماق), also transliterated as Aimak or Aymaq, are a collection of Persian-speaking nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes.
Air India is the flag carrier airline of India.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alokozay Kabul International Cricket Ground (د کابل الکوزی نړيوال کريکټ لوبغالی) is a cricket stadium in east Kabul, Afghanistan that was opened on 2011 and has a seating capacity of 6,000 spectators.
Amānullāh Khān (امان الله خان) was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King).
The American University of Afghanistan (Dariدانشگاه آمریکایی افغانستان) (AUAF) is Afghanistan’s first private, not-for-profit institution of higher education.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
The Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919, also known as the Treaty of Rawalpindi, was an armistice made between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan during the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
Aqina (Persian/Pashto: اقينه) is a border checkpoint and border crossing in northern Faryab Province of Afghanistan.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Arghun dynasty ruled the area between southern Afghanistan and the Sindh province of Pakistan from the late 15th century to the early 16th century.
Aria (Ἀρ(ε)ία Ar(e)ía, آريا; Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua) is the name of an Achaemenid region centered on the Herat city of present-day western Afghanistan.
Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River, compromising the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire that covered the whole of modern-day Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran and up to the Indus River in Pakistan (former Northern India).
Ariana Afghan Airlines Co.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Mohammad Ashraf Ghanī Ahmadzai (Pashto/محمد اشرف غني احمدزی, born 19 May 1949) is the current President of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
Ghazi Mohammad Ayub Khan (غازي محمد ايوب خان) (1857 – April 7, 1914, Urdu) was also known as The Victor of Maiwand or The Afghan Prince Charlie and was, for a while, the governor of Herat Province in Afghanistan.
Azizi Bank is the largest commercial bank in Afghanistan, having almost 75 branches in Kabul and throughout the provinces of the country.
Babrak Karmal (Dari/ببرک کارمل, born Sultan Hussein; 6 January 1929 – 1 or 3 December 1996) was an Afghan politician who was installed as President of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union when they invaded in 1979.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Badakhshan Province (بدخشان ولایت Badaxšān wilāyat and Velâyat-e Badakhšân) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the farthest northeastern part of the country between Tajikistan and northern Pakistan.
Bādghīs (Pashto/بادغیس) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country next to Turkmenistan.
Baghch-e-Simsim (باغچهٔ سم سم, "Sesame Garden") is a Dari- and Pashto-language children's television series launched in Afghanistan in December 2011, based on the American Sesame Street.
Baghlan (Pashto/بغلان Baġlān) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Bala Hissar (Pashto and قلعه بالا حصار), also spelt Bala Hisar, is a historic fortress located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ, Balx) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country.
Balkh University (دانشگاه بلخ) is a public university located in Mazari Sharif, capital of Balkh Province in northern Afghanistan.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Bamyan Province (ولایت بامیان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central highlands of the country.
The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
The Battle of Damghan or Battle of Mihmandoost was fought on September 29 to October 5, 1729, near the city of Damghan.
The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
The Battle of Gulnabad (Sunday, March 8, 1722) was fought between the military forces from Hotaki Dynasty and the army of the Safavid Empire.
The Battle of Jamrud was fought between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Sikh Empire on 30 April 1837.
Battle of Kabul refers to a series of intermittent battles and sieges over the city of Kabul during the period of 1992–96.
The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place in Afghanistan from December 6, 2001 to December 17, 2001, during the opening stages of the War in Afghanistan launched by the United States following the September 11 attacks.
The Battles of Mazar-e Sharif were a part of the Afghan Civil War and took place in 1997 and 1998 between the forces of Abdul Malik Pahlawan and his Hazara allies, Junbish-e Milli-yi Islami-yi Afghanistan, and the Taliban.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
Bergamo (Italian:; Bèrghem; from Latin Bergomum) is a city in Lombardy, northern Italy, approximately northeast of Milan, and about from the Alpine lakes Como and Iseo.
This is a list of books in the English language which deal with Afghanistan and its geography, history, inhabitants, culture, biota, etc.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian:بت های باميان. – bott-hâye Bāmiyān) were 4th- and 5th-century monumental statues of Gautam Buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, northwest of Kabul at an elevation of.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
Burhānuddīn Rabbānī (Persian/Pashto: برهان الدین رباني; b. 20 September 1940, d. 20 September 2011) was an Afghan politician who served as President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996 (de jure until 2001).
A burqa (برقع), also known as chadri or paranja in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public, which covers the body and the face.
Buzkashi (بزکشی, literally "goat pulling" in Persian) is a Central Asian sport in which horse-mounted players attempt to place a goat or calf carcass in a goal.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Celina Jaitley (born 24 November 1981) is an Indian actress who mainly appears in Bollywood films.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a position within the Government of Afghanistan.
The Chief Justice of Afghanistan is the head of the Afghan Supreme Court.
A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America.
A children's hospital is a hospital which offers its services exclusively to children and adolescents.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Metallurgical Group Corporation (MCC), is a Chinese state-owned enterprise headquartered in Beijing, engaged in EPC (engineering, procurement and construction), natural resources exploitation, papermaking, equipment fabrication, real estate development.
The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)A common shortname for the corporation in Chinese, Zhongguo Shiyou (中国石油), formerly shared the same name as the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, the Republic of China (Taiwan)'s state-owned fuel corporation.
Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4.
Since the 1970s, the CIA has engaged in multiple operations in Afghanistan.
The terms city limit and city boundary refer to the defined boundary or border of a city.
During the war in Afghanistan (2001–present), over 31,000 civilian deaths due to war-related violence have been documented; 29,900 civilians have been wounded.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan, which serves as the legal framework between the Afghan government and the Afghan citizens.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corruption in Afghanistan is a widespread and growing problem in Afghan society.
The Council of Ministers was the governmental organ in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and later the Republic of Afghanistan.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
Da Afghanistan Bank (Pashto:د افغانستان بانک; Dari: بانک مرکزی افغانستان) is the central bank of Afghanistan.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
Daykundi (دایکندی, دایکنډي) sometimes spelled as Daikundi, Dāykondī, Daikondi or Daykundi, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central part of the country.
Osama bin Laden, the founder and first leader of the Islamist group Al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011 shortly after 1:00 am PKT (20:00 UTC, May 1) by United States Navy SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six).
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries.
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.
Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Dharmatama is a 1975 Hindi thriller movie and the first Bollywood film to be shot in Afghanistan.
DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post DHL providing international courier, parcel, and express mail services.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
This is a list of districts of Afghanistan, known as wuleswali (ولسوالۍ or wuləswāləi; شهرستان), which are one level below the provinces.
Divide and rule (or divide and conquer, from Latin dīvide et imperā) in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.
Dost Mohammad Khan (دوست محمد خان, December 23, 1793June 9, 1863) was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
The Durand Line (د ډیورنډ کرښه) is the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Durrani dynasty (د درانيانو کورنۍ) was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies, which at its peak included the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. The Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotak dynasty. The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
East Horizon Airlines is an Afghan airline which began operation in December 2013.
The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The economy of Afghanistan has had significant improvement in the last decade due to the infusion of billions of dollars in international assistance and remittances from Afghan expatriates.
The economy of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) combines the economies of 57 member states.
Education in Afghanistan includes K–12 and higher education, which is supervised by the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Edward Ingram, PhD (Born in Calcutta, India, in 1940) is a prominent Anglo-Canadian historian of the British Empire, long-time former editor of the International History Review, and emeritus professor at Simon Fraser University.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان امارت) was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Emirates (طَيَران الإمارات DMG: Ṭayarān Al-Imārāt) is an airline based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Escape From Taliban is a 2003 Indian film that is directed by Ujjal Chattopadhyaya.
Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly-tribal society.
Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics that studies the relationship between language and culture and how different ethnic groups perceive the world.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Emirates Telecommunication Group Company PJSC, (مؤسسة الإمارات للاتصالات, Mu'asissat al-'Imārāt lil-'Ittiṣālāt, literally, "Emirates Institute for Communications"), branded trade name Etisalat (اتصالات, literally "communications"), is a multinational Emirati based telecommunications services provider, currently operating in 16 countries across Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.
Farah (Pashto/Persian: فراه) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country next to Iran.
Farhad Darya Nashir (فرهاد دریا; born September 22, 1962) is an Afghan singer, composer and music producer.
Faryab (فاریاب) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, which is located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan.
The February 1998 Afghanistan earthquake occurred at near the Afghanistan-Tajikistan border.
FedEx Corporation is an American multinational courier delivery services company headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee.
Fergana (Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; فرغانه Farġāna/Farqâna; Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.
Feroz Khan (25 September 1939 – 27 April 2009) was an Indian actor, film editor, producer and director in the Hindi film industry.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
Filmi ("of films") music soundtracks are produced for India's mainstream motion picture industry and written and performed for Indian cinema.
The FIM-92 Stinger is a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) that operates as an infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM).
Firishta or Ferishta(فرِشتہ), full name Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (مُحمّد قاسِم ہِندُو شاہ), was a Persian historian who was born in 1560 and died in 1620.
The First Anglo-Afghan War (also known as Disaster in Afghanistan) was fought between British imperial India and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842.
First MicroFinance Bank-Afghanistan (FMFB-A) is a banking and loan institution of Aga Khan Agency for Microfinance which provides micro loans to poor and vulnerable population, particularly women.
Football is the Second most popular sport in Afghanistan, No.1 being cricket.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Foreign relations of Afghanistan are handled by the nation's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is headed by Salahuddin Rabbani.
Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and political security.
Though the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of Nepal, historically, it is the Office of Prime Minister(PMO) that has exercised the authority to formulate and conduct policies related to Nepal's foreign affairs.
Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991.
Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teachers in a systematic intentional way within a school, higher education or university.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.
The French Medical Institute for Children (FMIC) is a children's hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan, established in 2005.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a boundary.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Gardēz (ګردېز, گردیز) is the capital of the Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
George XI (Georgian: გიორგი XI) (1651 – April 21, 1709), known as Gurgin Khan in Iran, was a Georgian monarch who ruled the Kingdom of Kartli as a Safavid Persian subject from 1676 to 1688 and again from 1703 to 1709.
Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning.
Ghāzī Amānullāh International Cricket Stadium, Jalalabad (د غازي امان الله نړيوال کريکټ لوبغالی) is the first international standard cricket stadium in Afghanistan.
Ghāzī Amānullāh Town (غازي امان الله ښارګوټی), also known as Ghazi Amanullah Khan City, is a fully planned modern suburb on the southeastern fringe of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.
Ghazi Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in eastern Kabul, Afghanistan, mainly used to play football.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
Ghazni (غزنی; غزني) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southeastern part of the country.
The Ghilji (غلجي Ghəljī), غلزایی), also called Khaljī (خلجي), Khiljī, Ghilzai, or Gharzai (غرزی; ghar means "mountain" and zai "born of"), are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy. The Ghilji at various times became rulers of present Afghanistan region and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from c. 1000 A.D. until 1747 A.D., when power shifted to the Durranis. The Ghilji tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan, but most are concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province, with Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the center of their region. The Ghilji tribes are also settled in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilji confederacy. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, the current President of Afghanistan, also belongs to the Ghilji tribe. From 1709 to 1738, the Ghilji ruled the Hotak Empire based first in Kandahar, Afghanistan and later, from 1722–1728, in Isfahan, Persia. The founder of the Hotak Empire was Mirwais Hotak. Another famous Ghilji from the 18th century was Azad Khan Afghan, who rose to power from 1752 to 1757 in western Iran.
Ghōr (Pashto/غور), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Ghulam Farooq Wardak (born 1959) is a politician in Afghanistan, formerly serving as the Minister of Education.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
The Greater Middle East is a political term, introduced in the early 2000s, denoting a set of contiguously connected countries stretching from Morocco in the west all the way to Pakistan in the east.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (ګلبدين حکمتيار; گلبدین حکمتیار; born 1 August, 1949) is an Afghan politician and former warlord.
Gulf Air (طيران الخليج Ṭayarān al-Khalīj) is the flag carrier of Bahrain.
King Habibullah Kalakani (fa, or Bache Saqqaw, fa), 19 January 1891 – 1 November 1929), was King of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amanullah Khan He was executed nine months later by Nadir Khan.Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", page 459. Princeton University Press, 1973 Khalilullah Khalili, a Kohistani poet laureate, depicts King Habibullah Kalakani as a mujahid, a "warrior of God." Kalakani was nicknamed Bacha-e Saqaw (literally son of the water carrier) and bandit king.
Hafizullah Amin (Pashto/حفيظ الله امين; born 1 August 1929 – 27 December 1979) was an Afghan communist politician during the Cold War.
The Hajigak Pass (حاجیگک) (hajji gak "little pilgrim") is situated at a height of above sea-level in the northern part of Maidan Wardak province, connecting it with Bamyan province to the northwest.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Hamid Karzai International Airport (د حامد کرزي نړيوال هوايي ډګر; میدان هوائی بین المللی حامدکرزی) is located from the city center of Kabul in Afghanistan.
The Haqqani network is an Afghan guerrilla insurgent group using asymmetric warfare to fight against US-led NATO forces and the government of Afghanistan.
The Heray Rud River (Dari: هری رود Hari Rūd, Heray Rūd, i.e. "Herat River") is a river flowing from the mountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert forming the Tejend oasis.
Hari Singh Nalwa (Nalua) (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire.
The Hazarajat (هزارهجات) or Hazaristan (هزارستان) is a regional name for the territory inhabited by the Hazara people, which lies in the central and southern highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i-Baba mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Helmand (Pashto/Dari: هلمند), also known as Hillmand or Helman, and, in ancient times, as Hermand and Hethumand is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, in the south of the country.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
The Citadel of Herat (ارگ هرات, Pashto سکندرۍ کلا), also known as the Citadel of Alexander, and locally known as Qala Iktyaruddin (قلعه اختیارالدین), is located in the center of Herat in Afghanistan.
Herat International Airport is located 10.5 km (6.5 mi) southeast of the city of Herat in western Afghanistan, east of the Herat-Farah road, close to Guzara in the Guzara District of the Herat Province.
Herat (persian/Dari: هرات) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country.
Herāt University (Persian: دانشگاه هرات / Dānešgāhe Herāt; officially پوهنتون هرات / Pohantūne Herāt) is located in Herat, the capital of Herat Province, in western Afghanistan covering Herat, Badghis, Ghor and Farah Provinces.
Hezbi Islami (also Hezb-e Islami, Hezb-i-Islami, Hezbi-Islami, Hezb-e-Islami), meaning Islamic Party is an Islamist organization that was commonly known for fighting the Communist Government of Afghanistan and their close ally the Soviet Union.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hinduism in Afghanistan is practiced by a tiny minority of Afghans, believed to be about 1,000 individuals who live mostly in Kabul and other major cities of the country.
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The History Commons is a web site and organization that documents events and issues of great social and political significance, focusing primarily on events and issues from the 1970s to the present day.
The history of Afghanistan, (تاریخ افغانستان, د افغانستان تاريخ) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The history of Arabs in Afghanistan spans over one millennium, from the 11th century Islamic conquest when Arab ghazis arrived with their Islamic mission until recently when others from the Arab world arrived to defend fellow Muslims from the Soviet Union followed by NATO forces.
Jews are said to have resided in Afghanistan for nearly 1,500 years, but the community has been reduced greatly because of emigration.
The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
Hizb-e Wahdat-e Islami Afghanistan (حزب وحدت اسلامی افغانستان; "the Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan"), shortened to Hizb-e Wahdat (حزب وحدت), was founded in 1989.
The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.
The House of Elders or Mesherano Jirga (مشرانو جرگه), is the upper house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the lower House of the People (Wolesi Jirga).
The House of the People or Wolesi Jirga (مجلس نمایندگان افغانستان, د افغانستان ولسي جرگه) abbreviated WJ, is the lower house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the upper House of Elders.
The Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (حدود العالم "Boundaries of the World" or "Limits of the World") is a 10th-century geography book written in Persian by an unknown author from Jowzjan.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Shah Hussain Hotak, (Pashto شاه حسين هوتک), son of Mirwais Hotak, was the fifth and last ruler of the Hotak dynasty.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The Indian Institute of Health Management Research (or IIHMR) is an institute for Health and Hospital Management.
Indira Gandhi Children's hospital located in Kabul is a Children's hospital of Afghanistan.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were an ethno-linguistic group who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia.
The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty and other rulers who were a group of ancient kings from Central Asia that ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India, during or slightly before the 1st century AD.
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
An internationalized country code top-level domain is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
Internet in Afghanistan began in 2002 after the Karzai administration took office in Kabul.
Afghanistan is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia and South Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran Aseman Airlines (هواپیمایی ایران آسمان) also known as Aseman, is an airline headquartered in Tehran, Iran.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Dawah Organization of Afghanistan (د اسلامي دعوت تنظيم افغانستان,تنظیم دعوت اسلامی افغانستان, Tanzim-e Dahwat-e Islami-ye Afghanistan) is a political party in Afghanistan led by Abdul Rasul Sayyaf.
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان اسلامي امارات) was an Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
The Jamhuriat Hospital (Republic Hospital) is state-owned hospital located in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī (نورالدین عبدالرحمن جامی), also known as Mawlanā Nūr al-Dīn 'Abd al-Rahmān or Abd-Al-Rahmān Nur-Al-Din Muhammad Dashti, or simply as Jami or Djāmī and in Turkey as Molla Cami (7 November 1414 – 9 November 1492), was a Persian poet who is known for his achievements as a prolific scholar and writer of mystical Sufi literature.
Jamayat-E-Islami (also rendered as Jamiat-e-Islami and Jamiati Islami; جمعیت اسلامی افغانستان; "Islamic Society"), sometimes shortened to Jamiat, is a Muslim political party in Afghanistan.
Jinnah Hospital (جناح روغتون; شفاخانه جناح) is a 400-bed hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Jowzjan, sometimes spelled as Jawzjan or Jozjan (ولایت جوزجان, جوزجان ولايت), is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Battle of Kabul was part of a punitive campaign undertaken by the British against the Afghans following the disastrous retreat from Kabul.
Kabul Express (Hindi: काबुल एक्स्प्रेस, Urdu) is an Indian dystopian-adventure film written and directed by documentary film maker Kabir Khan and produced by Aditya Chopra under Yash Raj Films was released on 15 December 2006.
Kābul (translit, translit), situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called ShahiyaSehrai, Fidaullah (1979).
Kabul University (KU) (Pashto دکابل پوهنتون Da Kābul Pohantūn / Dari پوهنتون کابل Pohantūn-e Kābul) is located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.
The Kabul–Jalalabad Road is a highway running between the Afghan cities of Kabul (the national capital) and Jalalabad, the largest city in eastern Afghanistan and capital of Nangarhar Province.
The Kabul–Kandahar Highway is a road linking Afghanistan's two largest cities, Kabul and Kandahar, passing through Maidan Shar, Saydabad, Ghazni, and Qalati Ghilji.
Kabulistan (Pashto/کابلستان) is a historical regional name referring to the territory that is centered on present-day Kabul Province of Afghanistan.
Kader Khan (born 11 December 1937) is an Afghan-born Indian-Canadian film actor, screenwriter, comedian, and director.
Kāfiristān, or Kāfirstān (کافرستان), is a historical region that covered present-day Nuristan Province in Afghanistan and its surroundings.
Kam Air (Pashto/Dari: کام ایر) is an airline headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Kandahar International Airport (د کندهار نړيوال هوايي ډګر; referred to by ISAF as Kandahar Airfield, KAF) is located south-east of Kandahar City in Afghanistan.
Kandahar (کندھار; قندهار) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan.
Kandahar University (د کندهار پوهنتون; Persian: دانشگاه قندهار) is a government funded higher learning institution in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
Kapisa (Pashto/Persian: کاپيسا) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan.
K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, indicates the sum of primary and secondary education in several nations, including India, the United States, Canada, Ecuador, South Korea, Turkey, Philippines, Egypt, Australia, Afghanistan, and Iran for publicly supported school grades prior to college.
Kerki is a town in eastern Turkmenistan.
Khaf (خواف; also Romanized as Khvāf and Khāf; also known as Qaşabeh-ye Rūd, Rūd, Rūi Khāf, and Rūy) is a city and capital of Khaf County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.
Khalilullah Khalili (1907 – 1987; خلیلالله خلیلی - Ḫalīlallāḥ Ḫalīlī; alternative spellings: Khalilollah, Khalil Ullah) was Afghanistan's foremost 20th century poet as well as a noted historian, university professor, diplomat and royal confidant.
The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320.
Khalq (خلق, meaning "Masses" or "People") was a faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
Khanashin, or Khan Neshin, (other names: Khān Neshīn, Khannesin, Khan Nashin, Khān Nashīn, Khan Nashim, Khānnešīn) is a village located in the Reg District of Helmand Province, Afghanistan at at 642 altitude.
The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) (خانات بخارا; Buxoro Xonligi) was a Central Asian state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century.
The Khmer Rouge period (1975–1979) refers to the rule of Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, Khieu Samphan and the Communist Party of Kampuchea over Cambodia, which the Khmer Rouge renamed Democratic Kampuchea.
Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
Khost (خوست) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, and the largest city of Loya Paktia.
Khost (خوست, خوست) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of Afghanistan.
Khost University (د خوست پوهنتون) (nickname: Shaikh Zayed University) is in the border town of Khost in eastern Afghanistan.
Khuda Gawah is a 1992 Indian epic drama film, written and directed by Mukul S. Anand.
Khushāl Khān Khattak (1613 – 25 February 1689; خوشحال خان خټک Khʷushḥāl Khān Khaṭṭak), also called Khushāl Bābā (خوشحال بابا), was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, chief, and freedom fighter from the Khattak tribe of the Pashtuns.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
The Kidarites (Chinese: 寄多羅 Jiduolo) were a dynasty of the "Ki" clan named after their ruler Kidara.
The Kingdom of Afghanistan (د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian:, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan.
Kochis or Kuchis (from the Persian word: کوچ koch; meaning "migration") are Afghan nomads primarily from the Ghilji tribal confederacy.
Kunar (کونړ, کنر) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country.
Kunduz (کندز; قندوز) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province.
Kunduz (Pashto/کندز) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northern part of the country next to Tajikistan.
Kunduz University (دانشگاه قندوز, د کندز پوهنتون) is located in Kunduz province Afghanistan.
The Kurt dynasty, also known as the Kartids was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Kushano-Sassanids (also called Kushanshas or Indo-Sassanians) were a branch of the Sassanid Persians who established their rule in Bactria and in northwestern Pakistan during the 3rd and 4th centuries at the expense of the declining Kushans.
Laghman (Pashto/Persian: لغمان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Lashkargāh (لښکرګاه; لشکرگاه), historically called Bost or Boost (بست، بوست), is a city in southwestern Afghanistan and the capital of Helmand Province.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Law enforcement in Afghanistan is one of three major components of the nation's criminal justice system, along with courts and corrections.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a partial list of Afghan security forces killed in the War in Afghanistan (2001–present).
The only city in Afghanistan with over 1 million population is its capital, Kabul.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.
This is a table chart of the current governors of Afghanistan.
Dams and reservoirs in Afghanistan are used for irrigation, water supply, hydro-electric power generation or combination of these.
This is a list of hospitals in Afghanistan.
Radio has been the most popular form of media in Afghanistan since the 1920s, which is mostly in Dari (Persian) and Pashto languages.
This is a list of rivers wholly or partly in Afghanistan, arranged geographically by river basin.
The following is an incomplete list of universities in Afghanistan, sorted by province and in alphabetical order.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
Logar (Pashto/لوگر) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Professor Louis Dupree (August 23, 1925 – March 21, 1989) was an American archaeologist, anthropologist, and scholar of Afghan culture and history.
Madrassas of Pakistan are Islamic seminaries in Pakistan, known as Madaris-e-Deeniya in Urdu.
Mahboba's Promise is an Australian non-profit organisation dedicated to helping the women and the large number of orphaned children of Afghanistan.
Shāh Mahmūd Hotak, (شاه محمود هوتک), also known as Shāh Mahmūd Ghiljī (شاه محمود غلجي) (lived 1697 – April 22, 1725), was an Afghan ruler of the Hotak dynasty who overthrew the heavily declined Safavid dynasty to briefly become the king of Persia from 1722 until his death in 1725.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Mahmud Shah Durrani (1769 – April 18, 1829; Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic) was born Prince and the ruler of the Durrani Empire (Afghanistan) between 1801 and 1803, and again between 1809 and 1818.
Mahmud Beg Tarzi (محمود طرزۍ, Dari Persian: محمود بیگ طرزی; August 23, 1865 – November 22, 1933) was a politician and one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals.
Maidan Wardak Province (د ميدان وردگ ولايت, ولایت میدان وردک), also called Maidan Wardag or simply Wardak Province, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central east region of Afghanistan.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
The Marshal Fahim National Defense University is located in the Qargha (or Qargheh) district of Kabul on a 105-acre site on a plateau to the west of the Kabul city centre near Police District 5.
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mazar-i-Sharif (Dari/مزار شریف), often called just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate between 577,500 and 693,000.
Mazar-i-Sharif International Airport (میدان هوائی مزار شریف, Meydâne Havâyeye Mazâre Šarif; مزار شریف نړیوال هوايي ډګر), locally known as Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī International Airport, is located 9 km east of Mazar-i-Sharif in northern Afghanistan, a journey of 15 minutes by taxi from the center of the city.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.
Mercedes-Benz has been making buses since 1895 in Mannheim in Germany.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Michael Edward O'Hanlon (born May 16, 1961) is a senior fellow at The Brookings Institution, specializing in defense and foreign policy issues.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives.
The Minaret of Jam is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in western Afghanistan.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mining in Afghanistan is controlled by the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum, which is headquartered in Kabul with regional offices in other parts of the country.
The Ministry of Counter Narcotics (د مخدره موادو پر ضد وزارت / وزارت مبارزه عليه مواد مخدر) is a ministry within the government of Afghanistan.
The Afghan Ministry of Defense (Pashto: د افغانستان ملی دفاع وزارت) is an organ of the Government of Afghanistan, overseeing the Afghan Armed Forces.
The Afghan Ministry of Education (د افغانستان د پوهنې وزارت)is responsible for policy formulation, the organization and supervision of education in Afghanistan.
The Ministry of Finance of Afghanistan is responsible for the implementation and execution of the budget, collection of taxes, organization, and control of public expenses in Afghanistan; it also controls the management of the Custom Affairs.
The Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) (وزارت خارجه افغانستان د افغانستان د بهرنیو چارو وزارت) is the ministry responsible for managing the Foreign relations of Afghanistan.
The Afghan Ministry of Higher Education is the Government ministry that is in charge of regulating, expanding and developing Afghanistan's institutions of higher education.
The Ministry of Interior Affairs (د افغانستان د کورنیو چارو وزارت) is headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan, and is responsible for law enforcement in Afghanistan.
Afghan Ministry of Public Health is the ministry of the government of Afghanistan which deals with matters concerning the health of Afghanistan's population.
Mīrwais Khān Hotak (مير ويس خان هوتک), also known as Shāh Mirwais Ghiljī (شاه ميرويس غلجي) (1673 – November 1715), was an influential tribal chief of the Ghilji Pashtuns from Kandahar, Afghanistan, who founded the Hotak dynasty that existed from 1709 to 1738.
Ustād Mohammad Hussain Sarāhang (استاد محمدحسین سرآهنگ - Sarāhang; 1924–1983) was an Afghan ghazal singer and an exponent of Indian classical music from Kabul, Afghanistan.
Najibullah Ahmadzai (ډاکټر نجیب ﷲ احمدزی; February 1947 – 27 September 1996), commonly known as Najibullah or Dr.
Mohammed Daoud Khan or Daud Khan (July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978) was the Prime Minister of Afghanistan from 1953 to 1963 and later the President of Afghanistan.
Muhammad Nadir Shah (محمد نادر شاه, محمد نادر شاه – born Muhammad Nadir Khan; 9 April 1883 – 8 November 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933.
Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.
The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, (14 February 1850 – 8 June 1924) was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
MTN Group Limited, formerly M-Cell, is a South Africa-based multinational mobile telecommunications company, operating in many African, European and Asian countries.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Mundigak (مونډي ګاګ), in Kandahar, Afghanistan, is an archaeological site in Kandahar province in Afghanistan.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
The Music of Afghanistan comprises many varieties of classical music, folk music, and modern popular music.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan began during the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Arab Muslims were drawn eastwards to Khorasan, Sistan and Transoxiana.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.
Naghma Shaperai (Pashto: نغمه ښاپېرۍ, born 1 January 1964) is a prominent Afghan singer who started her career in the early 1980s.
The name Afghānistān (افغانستان, Afġānestān, Pashto: افغانستان, Afġānistān) means "land of the Afghans", which originates from the ethnonym "Afghan".
Nana (Kushan Greek: Νανα, Ναναια, Ναναϸαο, Sogdian nny) was a Kushan female divinity from ancient Bactria, a variation of pan-Asiatic Nana, a conflation of Sumero-Babylonian Inanna-Ishtar with a local divinity, in her Kushan form with the indigenous (Zoroastrian) Harahvati Aredvi Sura Anahita.
Nangarhār (ننګرهار; ننگرهار) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
Nangarhar University (د ننګرهار پوهنتون) (Dari: پوهنتون ننگرهار) is a government-funded higher learning institution in Jalalabad, Afghanistan.
Naseeruddin Shah (born 20 July 1950) is an Indian film and stage actor and director, and a prominent figure in Indian parallel cinema.
Nashenas is the nome de plume of Dr.
The National Assembly (ملی شورا Mili Shura, شورای ملی Shura-i Milli), also known as the Afghan Parliament, is Afghanistan's national legislature.
The National Directorate of Security (NDS, Riyāsat-e Amniyat-e Milli) is the primary intelligence agency of Afghanistan.
National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.
The National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (جنبش ملی اسلامی افغانستان, Junbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan), sometimes called simply Junbish, is an Uzbek political party in Afghanistan.
The National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA) (د افغانستان ملي نظامي اکادمۍ آکادمی نظامی ملی افغانستان) is one of three academic institutions of the Marshal Fahim National Defense University.
The National Museum of Afghanistan (Persian: موزیم ملی افغانستان, Mūzīyam-e mellī-ye Afghānestān; د افغانستان ملی موزیم, Də Afghānistān Millī Mūzīyəm), also known as the Kabul Museum, is a two-story building located 9 km southwest of the center of Kabul in Afghanistan.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan (NTM-A) is a multinational military organisation, activated in November 2009, tasked with providing a higher-level training for the Afghan National Army (ANA) and Afghan Air Force (AAF), including defense colleges and academies, as well as being responsible for doctrine development, and training and advising Afghan National Police (ANP).
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural-gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Kabul Bank is a bank in Afghanistan that has its main branch in the capital city of Kabul.
Nimruz (Balochi/ولایت نیمروز; نيمروز ولايت) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.
Noshaq (also called Nowshak or Nōshākh; Persian/نوشاخ) is the second highest peak in the Hindu Kush Range (after Tirich Mir) at.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
Nur Muhammad Taraki (15 July 1917 – 8 October 1979) was an Afghan statesman during the Cold War who served as President of Afghanistan from 1978 to 1979.
Nuristan, also spelled Nurestan or Nooristan, (Nuristani: نورستان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
The Nuristani languages (نورستاني) are one of the three groups within the Indo-Iranian language family, alongside the much larger Indo-Aryan and Iranian groups.
The Nuristanis are an ethnic group native to the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan, who speak Indo-Iranian languages, including Nuristani.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the mujahideen, in Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, prior to and during the military intervention by the USSR in support of its client, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan has been the world's leading illicit opium producer since 1992 (excluding the year 2001).
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The location of Afghanistan An enlargeable map of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Afghanistan: Afghanistan – landlocked sovereign country located in Central Asia.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.
Pajhwok Afghan News (پژواک خبري اژانس) (آژانس خبرى پژواک) is Afghanistan's largest independent news agency.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly referred to by the abbreviation PIA (پیآئیاے) is the national flag carrier of Pakistan.
Paktia (پکتيا – Paktyā) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the east of the country.
Paktika (پکتیکا) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southeastern part of the country.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Pamir Airways was a privately owned airline headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan, operating scheduled passenger flights out of Kabul International Airport.
The Pamir languages are an areal group of the Eastern Iranian languages, spoken by numerous people in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
The Pamiris (پامیری; Помири) are an Iranian ethnic group who are native to the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of eastern Tajikistan, the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan, the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in Xinjiang, China, and the Chitral and Gilgit Baltistan regions of northern Pakistan.
Panjshir (پنجشیر, literally "Five Lions", also spelled as Panjsher) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country.
Parcham (Pashto/پرچم, meaning "Banner" or "Flag") was the name of one of the factions of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Parwān (Persian/Pashto: پروان), also spelled Parvān, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan.
Parween Pazhwak (born in 1967 in Kabul) is an Afghan artist from Afghanistan and a modern poet and writer of the Persian language.
Pashayi or Pashai is a group of languages spoken by the Pashai people in parts of Kapisa, Laghman, Nuristan, Kunar, and Nangarhar Provinces in Northeastern Afghanistan.
Pashayi or Pashai (Persian: مردم پشهای) are a Dardic ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern Afghanistan.
Pashtany Bank is the firm controlled by the Afghan government that controls the Central Bank of Afghanistan, the Afghan national insurance company and Ariana Afghan Airlines.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Pashto literature and poetry (پښتو ليكنې) refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language.
Pashtun culture (پښتني هڅوب) is based on Islam and Pashtunwali, which is an ancient way of life, as well as speaking of the Pashto language and wearing Pashtun dress.
Pashtunization (پښتون جوړونه), also called Pathanization, is a process of cultural or linguistic change in which someone or something non-Pashtun becomes accultured to Pashtun influence.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pashtunwali (پښتونوالی) or Pakhtunwali is a non-written ethical code and traditional lifestyle which the indigenous Pashtun people follow.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, Hezb-e dimūkrātĩk-e khalq-e Afghānistān, د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, Da Afghanistān da khalq dimukrātīk gund; abbreviated PDPA) was a political party established on 1 January 1965.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
Persianization or persification is a sociological process of cultural change in which something becomes "Persianate".
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) is a US-based not-for-profit human rights NGO that uses medicine and science to document and advocate against mass atrocities and severe human rights violations around the world.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
Pomegranate production in Afghanistan is a significant contributor to the Afghan agricultural economy.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) is a private, nonprofit organization that was founded in 1929 by Guy Burch.
The Karzai administration was the government of Afghanistan under President Hamid Karzai, who became the head of state of Afghanistan in December 2001 after the Taliban government was overthrown.
The President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is Ashraf Ghani.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of Afghanistan was a post in the Afghan government.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Afghanistan is made up of 34 provinces (ولايت wilåyat).
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qargha (بند قرغه) is a dam and reservoir in Afghanistan near Kabul.
Quhistan (persian:.قهستان) or Kohistan (کهستان, "mountainous land") was a region of medieval Persia (Iran), essentially the southern part of Khurasan.
Rābi'a bint Ka'b al-Quzdārī (رابعه بنت کعب), popularly known as Rābi'a Balkhī (رابعه بلخی) and Zayn al-'Arab (زین العرب), is a semi-legendaryG.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Radio Kabul is the public radio station of Afghanistan.
Abdur Rahmān Mohmand (1632–1706) (عبدالرحمان بابا), or Rahmān Bābā (رحمان بابا), was a renowned Pashtun Sufi Dervish and poet from Peshawar in the Mughal Empire (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan).
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
Afghanistan is an Islamic republic where Islam is practiced by 99.7% of its population.
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
The Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان,; د افغانستان جمهوریت) was the name of the first republic of Afghanistan, created in 1973 after Mohammed Daoud Khan deposed his cousin, King Mohammad Zahir Shah, in a non-violent coup.
Resolute Support Mission or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led train, advise and assist mission consisting of over 13,000 troops in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Roshan (روشن) is a leading Afghan telecommunications provider, serving nearly 6.0 million active subscribers.
Rula Ghani (born Rula F. Saadah; Afghan name: Bibi Gul) is the current First Lady of Afghanistan and wife of the incumbent President of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The South Asian Football Federation Championship or SAFF Championship, also called SAFF Suzuki Cup for sponsorship reasons (previously known as South Asian Association of Regional Corporation Gold Cup and SAFF Gold Cup), is the main association football competition of the men's national football teams governed by the South Asian Football Federation.
The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).
Dubai and Kabul-based Safi Airways Co. (صافي هوايي شرکت; خطوط هوایی صافی) is the first and largest privately owned airline from Afghanistan.
Saif Ali Khan (born Sajid Ali Khan on 16 August 1970) is an Indian film actor and producer.
Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan (born 27 December 1965), credited as Salman Khan (pronunciation) is an Indian film actor, producer, singer and television personality.
Samangan (سمنگان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Hakim Abul-Majd Majdūd ibn Ādam Sanā'ī Ghaznavi (حکیم ابوالمجد مجدود بن آدم سنایی غزنوی) was a Persian poet who lived in Ghazni between the 11th century and the 12th century in what is now Afghanistan.
Sar-e Pol, also spelled Sari Pul (سرپل; سرپل), is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country.
Mohammad Sarwar Danish (سرور دانش) (born 1961) is an Afghan politician who has been Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Saur Revolution (إنقلاب ثور or ۷ ثور (literally 7th Saur); د ثور انقلاب), also called the April Revolution or April Coup, was a coup d'état (or self-proclaimed revolution) led by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against the rule of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978.
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.
Scotland Yard (officially New Scotland Yard) is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), the territorial police force responsible for policing most of London.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sesame Street is an American educational children's television series that combines live action, sketch comedy, animation and puppetry.
Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan (سردار شاه محمود خان - b:1890 d: 27 December 1959) was the Prime Minister of Afghanistan from May 1946 to 7 September 1953.
Shah Rukh Khan (born Shahrukh Khan; 2 November 1965), also known as SRK, is an Indian film actor, producer and television personality.
Shuja Shah Durrani Khan (also known as Shāh Shujāʻ, Shah Shuja, Shoja Shah, Shuja al-Mulk) (4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
Shamshad TV is a satellite television station in Afghanistan, which was launched in early 2006.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sheberghān or Shaburghān (Uzbek, Pashto, شبرغان), also spelled Shebirghan and Shibarghan, is the capital city of the Jowzjan Province in northern Afghanistan.
Shia Islam in Afghanistan is practiced by a minority of the population; estimates vary from 7% to 15% or 20%.
Shortugai (Shortughai) was an Indus civilization trading colony established around 2000 BC on the Oxus river near the lapis mines in northern Afghanistan.
The Blue Mosque is a mosque located in the center of Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan.
The Shrine of the Cloak (خرقه شريفه Kherqa Sharīfa) is located adjacent to the main mosque in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਫੌਜ (Sikh Khalsa Phauj), Persian:سیک ارتش خالصا-ارتش لاهور), also known as the Army of Lahore, Punjab Army, Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Sikh Empire, formed in 1799 with the capture of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. From then on the army was modernized on Franco-British principles. It was divided in three wings: the Fauj-i-Khas (elites), Fauj-i-Ain (regular force) and Fauj-i-Be Qawaid (irregulars). Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia. Ranjit Singh changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganized responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship. He reformed the staffing to emphasize steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery. He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.
Sikhism in Afghanistan is limited to small populations, primarily in major cities, with the largest numbers of Afghan Sikhs living in Jalalabad, Ghazni, Kabul, and to a lesser extent Kandahar.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Sistan Basin is an inland endorheic basin encompassing large parts of southwestern Afghanistan and minor parts of southeastern Iran, one of the driest regions in the world and an area subjected to prolonged droughts.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Solar Hijri calendar (gāh-shomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; لمريز لېږدیز کلیز), also called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Standard Chartered PLC is a British multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in London, England.
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is an Indian state-owned steel making company based in Kolkata, India.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Court of Afghanistan or Stera Mahkama (ستره محكمه) is the court of last resort in Afghanistan.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Surya (सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Takhar (تخار; تخار ولايت) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeast of the country next to Tajikistan.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 War in Afghanistan.
Tāloqān (Persian/Pashto: طالقان, also transcribed Tāleqān or Tāluqān) is the capital of Takhar Province, in northeastern Afghanistan.
Türkmendemirýollary (Turkmen Railways) is a state-owned operator of railways in Turkmenistan.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Area codes in Afghanistan are two digits long.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Brunei Times was an independent English-language daily compact broadsheet newspaper published in Brunei Darussalam from 2006 to 2016.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Najib-ud-daulah Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
TOLO (طلوع) is a commercial television station operated by MOBY Group in Afghanistan. Launched in 2004, it became one of the first commercial stations in the country and laid the foundation for an accessible media outlet by offering a large library of shows. It is a Persian-language channel and is currently Afghanistan's most popular television channel. TOLO was first launched in Kabul but as of November 2007, has broadcasts in 14 cities in Afghanistan on free-to-air and throughout the region by terrestrial and satellite. Its sister channels are TOLOnews, which broadcasts news all day, and Lemar TV, which is a Pashto-language channel. TOLO was the subject of documentary film in 2012 called The Network, by Eva Orner. The film saw limited international release in 2013.
Torghundi (تورغونډۍ, Tōrghūnḍəi) is a border checkpoint and border crossing in northern Herat province of Afghanistan.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The U.S.–Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement, officially titled Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the United States of America, is an agreement between Afghanistan and the United States of America that provides the long-term framework for the relationship between Afghanistan and the United States of America after the drawdown of U.S. forces in the Afghanistan war.
Ubaidullah Jan Kandaharai, or simply known as Obaidullah Jan, was a prominent Pashto singer from Kandahar, Afghanistan.
UNdata is an Internet search engine, retrieving data series from statistical databases provided by the UN System.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) is a political UN mission established at the request of the Government of Afghanistan to assist it and the people of Afghanistan in laying the foundations for sustainable peace and development.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urōzgān (اروزګان، روزګان; اروزگان), also spelled as Uruzgan, Oruzgan, Orozgan, or Rozgan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The Wakhan Corridor (واخان دهلېز Wāxān Dahléz, دالان واخان) is a narrow strip of territory in northeastern Afghanistan that extends to China and separates Tajikistan from Pakistan.
This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Wazīr Akbar Khān (1816–1845; وزير اکبر خان), born Mohammad Akbar Khān (محمد اکبر خان) and also known as Amīr Akbar Khān (امير اکبر خان), was an Afghan prince, general, and finally emir for about three years until his death.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
Major-General William George Keith Elphinstone CB (1782 – 23 April 1842) was an officer of the British Army during the 19th century.
WordNet is a lexical database for the English language.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zablon Simintov (born 1959) is an Afghan carpet trader and restaurateur who is believed to be the last remaining Jew living in Afghanistan.
Zabul (Persian and زابل) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the south of the country.
Zalmai Rassoul (زلمی رسول; born 11 May 1943) is an Afghan politician who served as Foreign Minister of Afghanistan from January 2010 to October 2013.
Shah Zaman Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic), (c. 1770 – 1844) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1793 until 1800.
Zaranj or Zarang (Persian/Pashto/زرنج) is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of 160,902 people as of 2015.
Zareen Khan, (born 14 May 1987) also known as Zarine Khan is an Indian actress and model who mainly works in the Hindi film industry, though has also appeared in Tamil and Punjabi films.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
Zunbil, also written as Zhunbil, was a royal dynasty south of the Hindu Kush in present southern Afghanistan region.
.af is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Afghanistan.
The 1842 retreat from Kabul (or Massacre of Elphinstone's army) took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
The 1973 Afghan coup d'etat took place on July 17, 1973 in Kabul, Afghanistan when forces led by then-army commander Lieutenant General Mohammed Daoud Khan and then-Chief of Staff General Abdul Karim Mustaghni overthrew the monarchy in a somewhat bloodless coup.
The 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes struck in northern Afghanistan during the month of March.
The 2009 Afghan avalanches occurred near Kabul, Afghanistan on 16 January 2009.
The 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier was a cricket tournament that took place in April 2009 in South Africa.
The 2009–10 ICC Intercontinental Cup was the fifth edition of the ICC Intercontinental Cup tournament, an international first-class cricket competition between nations who had not been awarded Test status by the International Cricket Council.
The 2010 Afghanistan earthquake occurred on April 18 with a moment magnitude of 5.6.
The 2010 ICC World Cricket League Division One was a cricket tournament which took place in July 2010 in the Netherlands.
The 2010 ICC World Twenty20 was the third ICC World Twenty20 competition, an international Twenty20 cricket tournament that was held in the West Indies between 30 April and 16 May 2010.
The 2010 South Asian Games, officially the XI South Asian Games, was a major multi-sport event that took place from 29 January to 8 February 2010 in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The 2015 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2015) was the 11th Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand from 14 February to 29 March 2015.
The 29th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 29 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 39th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
3x3 basketball at the 2012 Asian Beach Games was held from 17 June to 19 June 2012 in Haiyang, China.
The meridian 60° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 75° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
A-Stan, AFGHANISTAN, Afeganistao, Affghanistan, Afgahanistan, Afganhistan, Afganistan, Afghanastan, Afghanestan, Afghanista, AfghanistaN, Afghanistan (1911 Encyclopedia), Afghanistan, I.S. of, Afghanistan, Rep. of., Afghanistan-Central Asia, Afghanistan/Article from the 1911 Encyclopedia, Afghanistna, Afghansitan, Afghanstan, Afghinastan, Afghnistan, Afghānistān, Afgjanistan, Afğānistān, Afġānistān, Avghanistaun, Da Afghanistan Islami Dawlat Dawlat-e Eslami-e Afghanestan, Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat, Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat, Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan, Etymology of Afghanistan, I.R.O.A., ISO 3166-1:AF, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Islamic Transitional Government of Afghanistan, Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānestān, Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān, Kinetic action, Soviet-occupied Afghanistan, The Graveyard of Empires, The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, افغانستان, د افغانستان اسلامي دولت دولت اسلامی افغانستان.