251 relations: Aardklop, Aardvark, Abu Bakr Effendi, Affix, Afrikaans, Afrikaans Language Monument, Afrikaans literature, Afrikaans speaking population in South Africa, Afrikaners, Alfred Dunhill, Alveolar consonant, Analytic language, Apartheid, Approximant consonant, Arabic Afrikaans, Arabic alphabet, Archaism, Argentina, Asian South Africans, Associated Press, Back vowel, Backpacking (wilderness), Bakgat, Banana, Bantu languages, Bantustan, BB Keet, Beauty (2011 film), Bible, Bible translations, Bible translations into Afrikaans, Billionaire, Bophuthatswana, Botswana, Brazil, Breyten Breytenbach, Burgersdorp, Call centre, Calvinism, Cambridge University Press, Cant (language), Cape Argus, Cape Coloureds, Cape Dutch, Cape Malays, Cape Peninsula, Cape Province, Cape Town, Cartier (jeweler), Central Intelligence Agency, ..., Central vowel, Charlize Theron, Citrus unshiu, Close vowel, Code-switching, Coloureds, Comparison of Afrikaans and Dutch, Constitution of South Africa, Creole language, Creolization, ǁKaras Region, Danish language, Daughter language, Department of Arts and Culture (South Africa), Dialect, Die Presse, Die Taalkommissie, Diminutive, Dioecy, Diphthong, Diplomatic mission, District 9, Doggerel, Dorsal consonant, Double negative, DStv, Dutch Cape Colony, Dutch East Indies, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch Republic, Dutch-based creole languages, Eastern Cape, Emigration, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, English-speaking world, Ethnic group, Euronews, Final-obstruent devoicing, Flanders, Free State (province), Fricative consonant, Frisian languages, Front vowel, Garderen, Gauteng, Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners, German language, German language in Namibia, Germanic languages, Glottal consonant, Gospel of Mark, Grammatical conjugation, Greek language, Grey crowned crane, Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal, Hardap Region, Historical present, History of South Africa (1994–present), Hollandic dialect, Huguenots, Huisgenoot, Hyparrhenia, IJ (digraph), India, Indigenous peoples of Africa, Indo-European languages, Indonesia, Infinitive, International Phonetic Alphabet, Islam, Jacket, Johann Rupert, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Karen Zoid, Khoikhoi, Khoisan, Khoisan languages, Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunstefees, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, KykNET, Labial consonant, Lancaster University, Languages of Namibia, Languages of South Africa, Latin, Latin script, Lesotho, Limpopo, Lingua franca, List of Afrikaans singers, List of Afrikaans-language poets, List of English words of Afrikaans origin, Livery, Lobolo, Longman, Lord's Prayer, Low Franconian languages, Low German, Madagascar, Malawi, Malay language, Manually coded language in South Africa, Mid vowel, MK (channel), Modal verb, Monster (2003 film), Montblanc (company), Morphology (linguistics), Mpumalanga, Muslim, Mutual intelligibility, Namibia, Namlish, Nasal consonant, Near-open vowel, Netherlands, Nguni languages, North West (South African province), Northern Cape, Obstruent, Official Languages of the Union Act, 1925, Onomatopoeia, Open vowel, Orthography, Outsourcing, Oxford University Press, Paarl, Palgrave Macmillan, Paljas, Phonology (journal), Pickup truck, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Preterite, Psalm 23, Queen Margaret University, Radboud University Nijmegen, Radio Pretoria, Radio Sonder Grense, Received Pronunciation, Regional variations of barbecue, Rhotic consonant, Richemont, Roundedness, Schwa, Sclerocarya birrea, Second language, Sharlto Copley, Somerville, Massachusetts, South Africa, South African Airways, South African Border War, South African braille, South African Broadcasting Corporation, South African Constitution (1983), South African Constitution of 1961, South African English, South African Translators' Institute, South Holland, Southern American English, Soweto, Soweto uprising, Spirostachys africana, Statenvertaling, Stephanus Jacobus du Toit, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Swaziland, Swedish language, Synod of Dort, The Advocate (Stamford), Totius (poet), Transvaal (province), Tsotsitaal and Camtho, United Arab Emirates, University of Groningen, University of Kentucky, University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle, University of Pretoria, Upington, Van Cleef & Arpels, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel length, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Wallpaper (magazine), Walter de Gruyter, West Flanders, West Frisian language, West Germanic languages, Western Cape, Windhoek, Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal, World Digital Library, Yiddish, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Zulu language. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
Aardklop is an annual South African arts festival held since 1998 in the town of Potchefstroom in the North-West province of South Africa.
The aardvark (Orycteropus afer) is a medium-sized, burrowing, nocturnal mammal native to Africa.
Sheikh Abu Bakr Effendi (1814–1880) was an Osmanli qadi who was sent in 1862 by the Ottoman sultan Abdülmecid I at the request of the British Queen Victoria to the Cape of Good Hope, in order to teach and assist the Muslim community of the Cape Malays.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
The Afrikaans Language Monument (Afrikaanse Taalmonument) is located on a hill overlooking Paarl, Western Cape Province, South Africa.
Afrikaans literature is literature written in Afrikaans.
South African census figures suggest a growing number of first language Afrikaans speakers in all nine provinces, a total of 6.85 million in 2011 compared to 5.98 million a decade earlier.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Alfred Dunhill (30 September 1872 – 2 January 1959) was an English tobacconist, entrepreneur and inventor.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic Afrikaans (Arabiese Afrikaans, اَرابيسي اَفريكانس) was a form of Afrikaans that was written in Arabic script.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Asian South Africans are South Africans of Asian descent.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Backpacking is the outdoor recreation of carrying gear on one's back, while hiking for more than a day.
Bakgat! is a 2008 South African teen comedy film directed by Henk Pretorius and written by Pretorius and Danie Bester.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
A Bantustan (also known as Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state or simply homeland) was a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia), as part of the policy of apartheid.
Beauty (Skoonheid) is a 2011 South African film directed by Oliver Hermanus.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
Arnoldus Pannevis proposed an Afrikaans Bible translation in 1872 in a letter to a newspaper.
A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person with a net worth of at least one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually major currencies such as the United States dollar, the euro or the pound sterling.
Bophuthatswana (meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"), officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana (Tswana: Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana; Afrikaans: Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a Bantustan ("homeland"; an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity) and nominally independent (independence was recognized only by South Africa) parliamentary democracy in the northwestern region of South Africa.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breyten Breytenbach (born 16 September 1939) is a South African writer and painter known for his opposition to apartheid, and consequent imprisonment by the South African government.
Burgersdorp is a medium-sized town in Gariep in the Joe Gqabi District Municipality of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for receiving or transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cant (or cryptolect, or secret language) is the jargon or argot of a group, often employed to exclude or mislead people outside the group.
Co-founded in 1857 by Saul Solomon, the Cape Argus is a daily newspaper published by Sekunjalo in Cape Town, South Africa.
In Southern Africa, Cape Coloureds is the name given to an ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race.
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historical class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Cape Malays are an ethnic group or community in South Africa.
The Cape Peninsula (Kaapse Skiereiland) is a generally rocky peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean at the south-western extremity of the African continent.
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope (Provinsie van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province (Kaapprovinsie) and colloquially as The Cape (Die Kaap), was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Société Cartier is a French luxury goods conglomerate company which designs, manufactures, distributes, and sells jewellery and watches.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Charlize Theron (born 7 August 1975) is a South African and American actress and film producer.
Citrus unshiu is a seedless and easy-peeling citrus species, also known as unshu mikan, cold hardy mandarin, satsuma mandarin, satsuma orange, and tangerine.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch and—unlike Netherlands Dutch, Belgian Dutch and Surinamese Dutch—a separate standard language rather than a national variety.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World.
The ǁKaras Region, also spelled !Karas Region, is the southernmost and least densely populated of the 14 regions of Namibia; its capital is Keetmanshoop.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In historical linguistics, a daughter language or son language, also known as offspring language, is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent.
The Department of Arts and Culture is one of the departments of the South African government.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Die Presse is a German language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Vienna, Austria.
Die Taalkommissie is an arm of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South-African Academy for Science and Arts) that serves as the technical committee of the Nasionale Taalliggaam vir Afrikaans (NTLA, National Language Body for Afrikaans), which is the language regulator of the Afrikaans language.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
Dioecy (Greek: διοικία "two households"; adjective form: dioecious) is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
District 9 is a 2009 science fiction action horror film directed by Neill Blomkamp, written by Blomkamp and Terri Tatchell, and produced by Peter Jackson and Carolynne Cunningham.
Doggerel is poetry that is irregular in rhythm and in rhyme, often deliberately for burlesque or comic effect.
Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum).
A double negative is a grammatical construction occurring when two forms of negation are used in the same sentence.
DStv (Digital Satellite Television) is a Sub-Saharan African direct broadcast satellite service owned by MultiChoice.
The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India Company.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
A Dutch creole is a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language.
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The Free State (Vrystaat, Foreistata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a province of South Africa.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Garderen is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland.
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.
The Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners (Afrikaans for "Society of Real Afrikaners") was formed on 14 August 1875 in the town of Paarl by a group of Afrikaans speakers from the current Western Cape region.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Namibia is a multilingual country wherein German is recognised as a national language (a form of minority language).
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The grey crowned crane (Balearica regulorum) is a bird in the crane family, Gruidae.
Understanding the history of the HAT requires an understanding of the relationship between the HAT and the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (the WAT), initially known as Die Afrikaanse Woordeboek.
Hardap is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia, its capital is Mariental.
In linguistics and rhetoric, the historical present or historic present (also called dramatic present or narrative present) is the employment of the present tense when narrating past events.
South Africa since 1994 transitioned from the system of apartheid to one of majority rule.
Hollandic or Hollandish is, together with Brabantian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Huisgenoot (Afrikaans for House Companion) is a weekly Afrikaans-language general interest family magazine.
Hyparrhenia is a genus of grasses.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The indigenous people of Africa are those people of Africa whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalization within modern African states (namely "politically underprivileged group who have been an ethnic entity in the locality before the present ruling nation took over power").
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
A jacket is a mid-stomach–length garment for the upper body.
Johann Peter Rupert (born 1 June 1950) is a South African-born entrepreneur, who is the eldest son of business tycoon Anton Rupert and his wife Huberte.
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.
Karen Zoid (born Karen Louise Greeff on 10 August 1978) is a South African rock singer, guitarist, and songwriter.
The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
The Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunstefees (Afrikaans for Little Karoo National Arts Festival and usually abbreviated to KKNK) is an Afrikaans language arts festival that takes place yearly in the South African town of Oudtshoorn.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
kykNET is a South African Afrikaans-language television channel.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Lancaster University, also officially known as the University of Lancaster, is a public research university in the City of Lancaster, Lancashire, England.
Namibia, despite its scant population, is home to a wide diversity of languages, from multiple language families: Indo-European, Bantu, and the various Khoisan families.
There are eleven official languages of South Africa: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, SiSwati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of singers who have performed in the Afrikaans language.
This list of Afrikaans language poets includes poets who write, or wrote, in the Afrikaans language.
Words of Afrikaans origin have entered other languages.
A livery is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body.
Lobola in Zulu, Swazi, Xhosa and northern and southern Ndebele (Mahadi in Sesotho, Roora in Shona, and Magadi in Northern Sotho, Lovola in Xitsonga), sometimes referred to as either "bride wealth" or as "bride price", is property in cash or kind, which a prospective husband or head of his family undertakes to give to the head of a prospective wife’s family in consideration of a customary marriage.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch, Niederfränkisch, Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
In South Africa, manually coded language is used in education, as a bridge between South African Sign Language (SASL) and the eleven official oral languages of the country.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
MK was a mostly Afrikaans music channel, launched in mid-2005, as MK89, that is part of the DStv bouquet of satellite channels owned by MultiChoice/M-Net, based in South Africa.
A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is: likelihood, ability, permission and obligation, and advice.
Monster is a 2003 biographical crime drama film written and directed by Patty Jenkins.
Montblanc International GmbH (pronounced: or) is a German manufacturer of luxury writing instruments, watches, jewellery and leather goods, often identified by their "Snow peak" logo.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Mpumalanga is a province of South Africa.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Namlish (a portmanteau of the words Namibian and English) is a form of English spoken in Namibia.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A near-open vowel or a near-low vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Nguni languages are a group of Bantu languages spoken in southern Africa by the Nguni people.
North West is a province of South Africa.
The Northern Cape (Noord-Kaap; Kapa Bokone) is the largest and most sparsely populated province of South Africa.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
The Official Languages of the Union Act, 1925 (Act No. 8 of 1925) was an act of the Parliament of South Africa that included Afrikaans as a variety of Dutch.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paarl (Afrikaans: or more commonly; derived from Parel, meaning Pearl in Dutch) is a city with 191,013 inhabitants in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Paljas (meaning "magic" or to cast a spell) is an Afrikaans language South African film that was released in 1997.
Phonology is a British peer-reviewed journal of phonology published by Cambridge University Press, the only journal devoted exclusively to this subfield of linguistics.
A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.
Psalm 23 is the 23rd psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "The Lord is my Shepherd".
Queen Margaret University (formerly Queen Margaret University College and Queen Margaret College) is a public university located in Musselburgh, East Lothian near Edinburgh in Scotland.
Radboud University Nijmegen (abbreviated as RU, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, formerly Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen) is a public university with a strong focus on research located in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
PretoriaFM is a community-based radio station in Pretoria, South Africa, whose programmes are aimed at Afrikaners.
Radio Sonder Grense (RSG), i.e. Radio Without Borders, is an Afrikaans-language radio service run by the South African Broadcasting Corporation for the whole of South Africa.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Barbecue varies by the type of meat, sauce, rub, or other flavorings used, the point in barbecuing at which they are added, the role smoke plays, the equipment and fuel used, cooking temperature, and cooking time.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Compagnie Financière Richemont SA is a Switzerland-based luxury goods holding company founded in 1988 by South African businessman Johann Rupert.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Sclerocarya birrea, commonly known as the marula, (Ancient Greek σκληρός, sklērós, "hard", and κάρυον, káryon, "nut", in reference to the stone inside the fleshy fruit) is a medium-sized dioecious tree, indigenous to the miombo woodlands of Southern Africa, the Sudano-Sahelian range of West Africa, and Madagascar.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Sharlto Copley (born 27 November 1973) is a South African actor.
Somerville is a city located directly to the northwest of Boston, in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South African Airways (SAA) is the flag carrier airline of South Africa.
The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, and sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a largely asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia (then South West Africa), Zambia, and Angola from 26 August 1966 to 21 March 1990.
Several braille alphabets are used in South Africa.
The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state broadcaster in South Africa, and provides 19 radio stations (AM/FM) as well as 5 television broadcasts to the general public.
The Constitution of 1983 (formally the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1983) was South Africa's third constitution.
The Constitution of 1961 (formally the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1961) was the fundamental law of South Africa for two decades.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
The South African Translators' Institute (SATI) is the largest association in South Africa representing professional, academic and amateur translators and other language practitioners.
South Holland (Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
Soweto is a township of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality in Gauteng, South Africa, bordering the city's mining belt in the south.
The Soweto uprising was a series of demonstrations and protests led by black school children in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976.
Spirostachys africana is a medium-sized (about tall) deciduous tree with a straight, clear trunk, occurring in the warmer parts of Southern Africa.
The Statenvertaling (States Translation) or Statenbijbel (States Bible) was the first translation of the Bible from the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek languages to Dutch, ordered by the government of the Protestant Dutch Republic and first published in 1637.
The Reverend Stephanus Jacobus du Toit (9 October 1847 – 29 May 1911) was a controversial South African nationalist, theologian, journalist and failed politician.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Synod of Dort (also known as the Synod of Dordt or the Synod of Dordrecht) was an international Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618–1619, by the Dutch Reformed Church, to settle a divisive controversy initiated by the rise of Arminianism.
The Advocate is a seven-day daily newspaper based in Stamford, Connecticut.
Jacob Daniël du Toit (21 February 1877 – 1 July 1953), better known by his pen name Totius, was an Afrikaner poet.
The Province of the Transvaal (Provinsie van die Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until the end of apartheid in 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it.
Tsotsitaals are a variety of mixed languages mainly spoken in the townships of Gauteng province (such as Soweto), but also in other agglomerations all over South Africa.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The University of Groningen (abbreviated as UG; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, abbreviated as RUG) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands.
The University of Kentucky (UK) is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky.
The New Sorbonne University (French: Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, also known as Paris III) is a public university in Paris, France.
The University of Pretoria (Universiteit van Pretoria, Yunibesithi ya Pretoria) is a multi-campus public research university in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa.
Upington is a town founded in 1884 and located in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, on the banks of the Orange River.
Van Cleef & Arpels is a French jewelry, watch, and perfume company.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel is a Dutch-speaking university located in Brussels, Belgium.
Wallpaper, stylized Wallpaper*, is a Time Inc. publication focusing on design and architecture, fashion, travel, art, and lifestyle.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen; West Flemish: West Vloandern; French: (Province de) Flandre-Occidentale; German: Westflandern) is the most western province of the Flemish Region, in Belgium.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
Windhoek (Windhuk; ǀAiǁgams; Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia.
Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language), generally known as the WAT, is the largest descriptive Afrikaans dictionary.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
Africaans, Africkaans, Afrikaan, Afrikaans (Eastern Cape dialect), Afrikaans (Northern Cape dialect), Afrikaans (Western Cape dialect), Afrikaans Language, Afrikaans alphabet, Afrikaans language, Afrikans, Dialects of Afrikaans, Historical dialects of Afrikaans, ISO 639:af, ISO 639:afr, Kaapse Afrikaans, Oosgrens-Afrikaans, Oosgrensafrikaans, Oranjerivier-Afrikaans, South African Dutch.