275 relations: ABC-CLIO, Abortion, Affirmative action, African National Congress, Afrikaans, Afrikaans Protestant Church, Afrikaner Broederbond, Afrikaner Calvinism, Afrikaner nationalism, Afrikaner-Jews, Algoa Bay, André Brink, Andries Pretorius, Angola, Anti-Apartheid Movement, Apartheid, Argentina, Arizona, Athi River (town), ATKV, Australia, Bantu languages, Bartolomeu Dias, Baster, Batavia, Dutch East Indies, Batavian Republic, Battle of Blood River, Belgians, Belgium, Ben Viljoen, Bié Plateau, Bittereinder, Blood River, Boer, Boer Republics, Boeremusiek, Botha, Brazil, Breyten Breytenbach, British diaspora in Africa, British Empire, Burgher (Boer republics), Cabinet of South Africa, Calvinism, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canary Islands, Cape Colony, Cape Coloureds, Cape Dutch, ..., Cape Malays, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Peninsula, Cape Qualified Franchise, Cape Town, Carl Niehaus, Castle of Good Hope, Catholic Church, Census in Australia, Chihuahua (state), Chivhu, Circa, Commonwealth of Nations, Comodoro Rivadavia, Constitution of South Africa, Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven, Cricket, Cullinan, Gauteng, Danes, Day of Reconciliation, Day of the Vow, Democratic Alliance (South Africa), Derek Hanekom, Dingane kaSenzangakhona, Dorsland Trek, Drakensberg, Dutch Cape Colony, Dutch East India Company, Dutch East India Company in Indonesia, Dutch East Indies, Dutch language, Dutch people, Dutch Reformed Church, Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (NGK), Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (NHK), Dutch Republic, East Africa Protectorate, East India Company, Eastern Cape, Edict of Fontainebleau, Eldoret, Elisabeth Eybers, Emigration, Ethnic group, Ethnologue, Etienne Leroux, Eugène Marais, F. W. de Klerk, Fernando de Castro, First Boer War, First language, Flanders Campaign, Flemish people, Fokofpolisiekar, Founder effect, Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, Free State (province), Freedom Front Plus, French people, Frisians, Gauteng, Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners, George McCall Theal, Georgia (country), German Namibians, German South West Africa, Germans, Golf, Great Britain, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gregory Stanton, Griqua people, Highveld, Homosexuality, Hong Kong, Huíla Province, Huguenots, Huguenots in South Africa, Humpata, Impi, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Infection, Internment, J. M. Coetzee, Jacob Zuma, James Hayes Sadler, James Lancaster, James VI and I, Jan van Riebeeck, Jan Willem Janssens, John II of Portugal, Joris van Spilbergen, Joseph Souham, Karma and Effect, Karoo, Khoikhoi, Kozhikode, Krugerrand, KwaZulu-Natal, Language change, Languages of South Africa, Limpopo, List of ethnic groups of Africa, Low German, Madagascar, Magistrate, Maputo, Maputo Bay, Maritz rebellion, Marthinus van Schalkwyk, Martinus Theunis Steyn, Mashonaland, Mexico, Mfecane, Minority rights, MK (channel), Morgen, Mossel Bay, Mozambique, Mpumalanga, Napoleon, Natalia Republic, National Party (South Africa), Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Netherlands, New Amsterdam, New Mexico, New National Party (South Africa), New Zealand, Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, North America, North West (South African province), Northern Cape, Onverwacht, Gauteng, Oorlam people, Orania, Northern Cape, Overberg, Patagonia, Paul Kruger, Piet Retief, Pieter Mulder, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese people, President of South Africa, Pretorius, Prince Henry the Navigator, Protestantism, Qatar, Reformed Churches in South Africa, Rijcklof van Goens, Robben Island, Royal Navy, Rugby union, Ryk Tulbagh, Saint Helena, Sarmiento, Chubut, Scandinavia, Scorched earth, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Second Boer War, Seether, Settler, Settler colonialism, Simon van der Stel, Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet, Slachter's Nek Rebellion, Social conservatism, Social liberalism, Sokkie, South Africa, South African English, South African farm attacks, South African general election, 1994, South African general election, 2014, South African Mint, South African National Census of 2001, South African National Census of 2011, South African Republic, South Holland, South West Africa, South West Africa campaign, Southern Africa, Sporting boycott of South Africa during the apartheid era, Starvation, Stellenbosch, Swedes, Table Bay, Texas, Torture, Treaty of Paris (1815), Trekboer, Tug of war, Union of South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, University of Nairobi, Uys Krige, Van der Merwe, Variegate porphyria, Vasco da Gama, Volkspele, Volkstaat, Voortrekkers, Voortrekkers (youth organisation), Weenen, West Africa, Western Cape, Western Europe, White Africans of European ancestry, White South Africans, White supremacy, William V, Prince of Orange, Windhoek, Working holiday visa, World War I, Xhosa people, Xhosa Wars, Zacharias Wagenaer, Zulu people, 2013 New Zealand census. Expand index (225 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
The Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk (English: Afrikaans Protestant Church), commonly abbreviated APK or AP Kerk is a South African conservative Reformed Church federation with about 35,000 adherents.
The Afrikaner Broederbond (AB) (meaning Afrikaner Brotherhood) or Broederbond was a secret, exclusively male and Afrikaner Calvinist organisation in South Africa dedicated to the advancement of Afrikaner interests.
Afrikaner Calvinism is a theoretical cultural and religious development among Afrikaners that combined elements of seventeenth-century Calvinist doctrine with a "chosen people" ideology similar to that espoused by proponents of the Jewish nation movement.
Afrikaner nationalism is a political ideology that was born in the late nineteenth century among Afrikaners in South Africa.
Afrikaner-Jews (Boere-Jode) are Jewish Afrikaners.
Algoa Bay is a bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.
André Philippus Brink, (29 May 1935 – 6 February 2015) was a South African novelist.
Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (27 November 179823 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the South African Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic, in present-day South Africa.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organisation that was at the centre of the international movement opposing the South African apartheid system and supporting South Africa's non-White population who were persecuted by the policies of apartheid.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Athi River is a town outside Nairobi, Kenya in Machakos County.
The Afrikaans Language and Culture Association (Afrikaans: Afrikaanse Taal- en Kultuurvereniging), ATKV, is a society that aims to promote the Afrikaans language and culture.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The Basters (also known as Baasters, Rehobothers or Rehoboth Basters) are a Namibian ethnic group descended from Afrikaners and indigenous tribes which formerly resided in the Dutch Cape Colony.
Batavia was the name of the capital city of the Dutch East Indies that corresponds to the present-day Central Jakarta.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
The Battle of Blood River (Slag van Bloedrivier; iMpi yaseNcome) is the name given for the battle fought between 470 Voortrekkers ("Pioneers"), led by Andries Pretorius, and an estimated "10 000 to 15 000" Zulu on the bank of the Ncome River on 16 December 1838, in what is today KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benjamin Johannes "Ben" Viljoen (7 September 1869 – 14 January 1917) was an Afrikaner-American Consul, soldier, farmer, Maderista, and Boer general.
The Bié Plateau or Central Plateau of Angola is a plateau that occupies most of central Angola.
The Bittereinders or irreconcilables were a faction of Boer guerrilla fighters, resisting the forces of the British Empire in the later stages of the Second Boer War (1899-1902).
Blood River (Bloedrivier; Ncome) is situated in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent, self-governed republics in the last half of the nineteenth century, created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Colony and their descendants, variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa.
Boeremusiek (Afrikaans: ‘Boer music’) is a type of South African instrumental folk music.
Botha is a common Afrikaans surname, derived from the Friso-Saxon Both.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breyten Breytenbach (born 16 September 1939) is a South African writer and painter known for his opposition to apartheid, and consequent imprisonment by the South African government.
The British diaspora in Africa is a population group broadly defined as English-speaking white Africans of mainly (but not only) British descent who live in or come from Sub-Saharan Africa.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
In the South African Boer republics of the 19th century, a burgher was a fully enfranchised citizen.
The Cabinet of South Africa is the most senior level of the executive branch of the Government of South Africa.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
In Southern Africa, Cape Coloureds is the name given to an ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race.
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historical class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Cape Malays are an ethnic group or community in South Africa.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The Cape Peninsula (Kaapse Skiereiland) is a generally rocky peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean at the south-western extremity of the African continent.
The Cape Qualified Franchise was the system of non-racial franchise that was adhered to in the Cape Colony, and in the Cape Province in the early years of the Union of South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Carl Niehaus (born 25 December 1959) is the former spokesman for South African ruling party the African National Congress, former spokesman for Nelson Mandela, and was a political prisoner after being convicted of treason against South Africa.
The Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop; Kasteel van Goeie Hoop) known locally as the Castlehttps://janalinesworldjourney.com/2016/03/28/torture-chambers-at-castle/ or Cape Town Castle is a bastion fort built in the 17th century in Cape Town, South Africa.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
Chivhu (called Enkeldoorn until 1982) is a small town in Zimbabwe, with an estimated population of 10,000 in 2007.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Comodoro Rivadavia is a city in the Patagonian province of Chubut in southern Argentina, located on the San Jorge Gulf, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, at the foot of the Chenque Hill.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.
Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven (13 August 1873 – 15 July 1932), who published under his initials C.J. Langenhoven, was a South African poet who played a major role in the development of Afrikaans literature and cultural history.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Cullinan is a small town east of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
The Day of Reconciliation is a public holiday in South Africa held annually on 16 December.
The Day of the Vow (Geloftedag or Dingaansdag) is the name of a religious public holiday in South Africa until 1994, when it was renamed the Day of Reconciliation.
The Democratic Alliance (DA) is a South African political party and the official opposition to the governing African National Congress (ANC).
Derek Andre Hanekom (born 13 January 1953) is the current South African Minister of Tourism serving from 27 February 2018.
Dingane kaSenzangakhona Zulu (ca. 1795–1840)—commonly referred to as Dingane or Dingaan—was a Zulu chief who became king of the Zulu Kingdom in 1828.
Dorsland Trek (Thirstland Trek) is the collective name of a series of explorations undertaken by Boer settlers from South Africa towards the end of the 19th century and in the first years of the 20th century, in search of political independence and better living conditions.
The Drakensberg (Afrikaans: Drakensberge, Zulu: uKhahlamba, Sotho: Maluti) is the name given to the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment, which encloses the central Southern African plateau.
The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India Company.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, "United East India Company"; VOC) had a presence in the Indonesian archipelago from 1603, when the first trading post was established, to 1800, when the bankrupt company was dissolved, and its possessions nationalised as the Dutch East Indies.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.
The Dutch Reformed Church (abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.
The Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (abbreviated NHK) is a Reformed Christian denomination based in South Africa.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya (approximately) from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda and the Great Rift Valley.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.
The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Eldoret is a principal city in western Kenya and the fifth largest in the country.
Elisabeth Françoise Eybers (26 February 1915 – 1 December 2007) was a South African poet.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Etienne Leroux (13 June 1922 – 30 December 1989) was an Afrikaans writer and a member of the South African Sestigers literary movement.
Eugène Nielen Marais (9 January 1871 – 29 March 1936) was a South African lawyer, naturalist, poet and writer.
Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996.
Fernando de Castro (1380 – April 1440 or 1441, off Cape St. Vincent) was a 15th-century Portuguese nobleman, diplomat and military figure.
The First Boer War (Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally "First Freedom War"), also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic (also known as Transvaal Republic; not to be confused with the modern-day Republic of South Africa).
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The Flanders Campaign (or Campaign in the Low Countries) was conducted from 6 November 1792 to 7 June 1795 during the first years of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
Fokofpolisiekar (Fuckoffpolicecar) is an Afrikaans alternative rock band from Bellville, near Cape Town, South Africa.
In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (Vierde Engels-Nederlandse Oorlog; 1780–1784) was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic.
The Free State (Vrystaat, Foreistata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a province of South Africa.
The Freedom Front Plus (FF+; Vryheidsfront Plus, VF+) is a national South African political party that was formed (as the Freedom Front) in 1994.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.
The Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners (Afrikaans for "Society of Real Afrikaners") was formed on 14 August 1875 in the town of Paarl by a group of Afrikaans speakers from the current Western Cape region.
George McCall Theal (11 April 1837, Saint John, New Brunswick – 17 April 1919, Wynberg, Cape Town), was the most prolific and influential South African historian, archivist and genealogist of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
German Namibians (Deutschnamibier) are a community of people descended from ethnic German colonists who settled in present-day Namibia.
German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gregory H. Stanton is the Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention at the George Mason University in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
The Griqua (Griekwa, sometimes incorrectly referred to as Korana or Koranna) are a subgroup of Southern Africa's heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people, who have a unique origin in the early history of the Cape Colony.
The Highveld (Afrikaans: Hoëveld) is the portion of the South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regions to the south-east of the Highveld.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Huíla is a province of Angola.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
A large number of people of European heritage in South Africa are descended from Huguenots.
Humpata is a town and municipality in the province of Huíla, Angola.
Impi is a Zulu word for any armed body of men.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
John Maxwell Coetzee (born 9 February 1940) is a South African novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.
Colonel Sir James Hayes Sadler (21 May 1827 – 9 January 1910) was a British diplomat and civil servant.
Sir James Lancaster VI (c. 1554 died 6 June 1618) was a prominent Elizabethan trader and privateer.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (21 April 1619 – 18 January 1677) was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator who founded Cape Town in what then became the Dutch Cape Colony of the Dutch East India Company.
Jhr. Jan Willem Janssens GCMWO (12 October 1762 – 23 May 1838) was a Dutch nobleman, soldier and statesman who served both as the governor of the Cape Colony and governor-general of the Dutch East Indies.
John II (Portuguese: João II,; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495.
Joris van Spilbergen (1568 in Antwerp – 1620 in Bergen op Zoom) was a Dutch naval officer.
Joseph Souham (30 April 1760 – 28 April 1837) was a French general who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Karma and Effect is the third studio album by the South African rock band Seether.
The Karoo (from a Khoikhoi word, possibly garo "desert") is a semidesert natural region of South Africa.
The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
For the Ian McNabb album, see Krugerrands. The Krugerrand is a South African gold coin, first minted in 1967 to help market South African gold and produced by the South African Mint.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
Language change is variation over time in a language's phonological, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features.
There are eleven official languages of South Africa: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, SiSwati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.
Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa.
The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Maputo (formerly named Lourenço Marques until 1976) is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.
Maputo Bay (Baía de Maputo), formerly also known as Delagoa Bay from Baía da Lagoa in Portuguese, is an inlet of the Indian Ocean on the coast of Mozambique, between 25° 40' and 26° 20' S, with a length from north to south of over 90 km long and 32 km wide.
The Maritz rebellion, also known as the Boer revolt or Five Shilling rebellionGeneral De Wet publicly unfurled the rebel banner in October, when he entered the town of Reitz at the head of an armed commando.
Marthinus Christoffel Johannes (Kortbroek) van Schalkwyk (born 10 November 1959) is a South African politician, academic, lawyer, and apartheid-era intelligence operative.
Martinus (or Marthinus) Theunis Steyn (2 October 1857 – 28 November 1916) was a South African lawyer, politician, and statesman, sixth and last president of the independent Orange Free State from 1896 to 1902.
Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mfecane (isiZulu, In another tradition transcribed. is the current IPA symbol for a dental click, not a lower-case.), also known by the Sesotho name Difaqane or Lifaqane (all meaning "crushing, scattering, forced dispersal, forced migration"), was a period of widespread chaos and warfare among indigenous ethnic communities in:southern Africa during the period between 1815 and about 1840.
Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or gender and sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.
MK was a mostly Afrikaans music channel, launched in mid-2005, as MK89, that is part of the DStv bouquet of satellite channels owned by MultiChoice/M-Net, based in South Africa.
A morgen was a unit of measurement of land area in Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and the Dutch colonies, including South Africa and Taiwan.
Mossel Bay is a harbour town of about 130,000 people on the Southern Cape (or Garden Route) of South Africa.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Mpumalanga is a province of South Africa.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Natalia Republic was a short-lived Boer republic on the coast of Southern Africa, established in 1839 by Voortrekkers shortly after the Battle of Blood River.
The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.
The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The New National Party (NNP) was a South African political party formed in 1997 as the successor to the National Party, which ruled the country from 1948 to 1994.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Abbé Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, formerly sometimes spelled de la Caille, (15 March 1713 – 21 March 1762) was a French astronomer.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North West is a province of South Africa.
The Northern Cape (Noord-Kaap; Kapa Bokone) is the largest and most sparsely populated province of South Africa.
Onverwacht (Dutch/Afrikaans for "unexpected") is a town in City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality in the Gauteng province of South Africa.
The Oorlam or Orlam people (also known as Orlaam, Oorlammers, Oerlams, or Orlamse Hottentots) are a subtribe of the Nama people, largely assimilated after their migration from the Cape Colony (today, part of South Africa) to Namaqualand and Damaraland (now in Namibia).
Orania is an Afrikaner town in South Africa located along the Orange River in the Karoo region of Northern Cape province.
Overberg is a region in South Africa to the east of Cape Town beyond the Hottentots-Holland mountains.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Stephanus Johannes Paulus "Paul" Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904) was one of the dominant political and military figures in 19th-century South Africa, and President of the South African Republic (or Transvaal) from 1883 to 1900.
Pieter Mauritz Retief (12 November 1780 – 6 February 1838) was a Voortrekker leader.
Pieter Mulder (born 26 July 1951) is a South African politician and the former leader of the Freedom Front Plus.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
Pretorius is a common Afrikaans surname.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Reformed Churches in South Africa is a Christian denomination in South Africa that was formed in 1859 in Rustenburg.
Robben Island (Robbeneiland) is an island in Table Bay, west of the coast of Bloubergstrand, Cape Town, South Africa.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Ryk Tulbagh (14 May 1699, Utrecht – 11 August 1771, Cape Town) was Governor of the Dutch Cape Colony from 27 February 1751 to 11 August 1771 under the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
Sarmiento is a town in the province of Chubut, Argentina.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Seether are a South African rock band founded in May 1999 in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism which seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers.
Simon van der Stel (14 October 1639 – 24 June 1712) was the last Commander and first Governor of the Cape Colony, the Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.
General Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet GCB (6 December 1757 – 18 August 1829) was a British military leader.
The Slachter's Nek Rebellion was an uprising by Boers in 1815 on the eastern border of the Cape Colony.
Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Sokkie is a style of music and dance that is unique to Southern Africa and popular mostly with Afrikaners.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
In attacks on South African farms, predominantly white farmers and black farm workers are subjected to violent crime, including murder.
General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.
The 2014 South African general election was held on 7 May 2014, to elect a new National Assembly and new provincial legislatures in each province.
The South African Mint is a privately owned mint in South Africa responsible for minting all coins of the South African rand on behalf of the South African Reserve Bank.
The National Census of 2001 was the 2nd comprehensive national census of the Republic of South Africa, or Post-Apartheid South Africa.
The South African National Census of 2011 is the 3rd comprehensive census performed by Statistics South Africa.
The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.
South Holland (Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas.
South West Africa (Suidwes-Afrika; Zuidwest-Afrika; Südwestafrika) was the name for modern-day Namibia when it was subsumed under South Africa, from 1915 to 1990.
The South West Africa Campaign was the conquest and occupation of German South West Africa (Namibia) by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the beginning of the First World War.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
South Africa under apartheid was subjected to a variety of international boycotts, including on sporting contacts.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
Stellenbosch Thomas Baldwin, 1852.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
Table Bay (Afrikaans Tafelbaai) is a natural bay on the Atlantic Ocean overlooked by Cape Town (founded 1652 by Van Riebeeck) and is at the northern end of the Cape Peninsula, which stretches south to the Cape of Good Hope.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Treaty of Paris of 1815, was signed on 20 November 1815 following the defeat and second abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte.
In the history of Southern Africa, the Trekboere (now referred to as "Trekboer" in English; pronounced) were nomadic pastoralists descended from European settlers on the frontiers of the Dutch Cape Colony.
Tug of war (also known as war of tug, tug o' war, tug war, rope war, rope pulling, tugging war or toutrek) is a sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Nairobi (UoN) is a collegiate research university based in Nairobi.
Mattheus Uys Krige (4 February 1910 – 10 August 1987) was a South African writer of novels, short stories, poems and plays in both Afrikaans and English.
Van der Merwe is a common Afrikaans surname, derived from the Dutch van der Merwen ("from the Merwede").
Variegate porphyria, also known by several other names, is an autosomal dominant porphyria that can have acute (severe but usually not long-lasting) symptoms along with symptoms that affect the skin.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Volkspele is a South African folk dance tradition.
"Volkstaat" (an Afrikaans word meaning "people's state", literally "people-state") is a term used to describe proposals to establish self-determination for Afrikaners in South Africa, either on federal principles or as a fully independent Boer/Afrikaner homeland.
The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans and Dutch for pioneers, or "pathfinders" or "fore-trekkers") were Boer pastoralists from the frontiers of the Cape Colony who migrated eastwards during the Great Trek.
The Voortrekkers is an Afrikaner youth organisation founded in South Africa in 1931.
Weenen (ancient Dutch for "to weep") is the second oldest European settlement in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
White Africans are people of European descent residing in, or hailing from, Africa who identify themselves as (or are identified as) white.
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.
Windhoek (Windhuk; ǀAiǁgams; Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia.
A working holiday visa is a residence permit allowing travellers to undertake employment (and sometimes study) in the country issuing the visa to supplement their travel funds.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.
The Xhosa Wars (also known as the Cape Frontier Wars, or Africa's 100 Years War) were a series of nine wars or flare-ups (from 1779 to 1879) between the Xhosa tribes and European settlers in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Zacharias Wagenaer (also known as Wagener, Wagenaar or Wagner) (10 May 1614 – 12 October 1668) was a clerk, illustrator, merchant, member of the Court of Justice, opperhoofd of Deshima and the only German governor of the Dutch Cape Colony.
The Zulu (amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.
The 2013 New Zealand census was the thirty-third national census.