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Afroasiatic languages

Index Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects. [1]

166 relations: Aari language, Afroasiatic Urheimat, Agaw languages, Aharon Dolgopolsky, Ainu language, Akkadian language, Algeria, Altaic languages, Amharic, Arabic, Aramaic language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Austric languages, Bari language, Beja language, Berber languages, Berbers, Biblical Hebrew, Book of Genesis, Borean languages, Bound variable pronoun, Carl Meinhof, Caron, Causative, Central Atlas Tamazight, Chadic languages, Christopher Ehret, Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages, Circa, Circumflex, Cognate, Comparative method, Coptic language, Cushitic languages, Dené–Caucasian languages, Dime language, Dizin language, Dizoid languages, Djibouti, Dravidian languages, Egyptian language, Egyptology, Emphatic consonant, Eritrea, Eskimo–Aleut languages, Ethiopia, Eurasiatic languages, Friedrich Müller (linguist), Fula language, Gemination, ..., Gerzeh culture, Ghana, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Glottal stop, Glottolog, Gonga languages, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Hadza language, Ham (son of Noah), Harold C. Fleming, Hausa language, Hebrew language, Hermann Möller, Holger Pedersen (linguist), Horn of Africa, Igor M. Diakonoff, Indo-European languages, Indo-Semitic languages, Isaac Schapera, Israel, Japonic languages, Joseph Greenberg, Judah ibn Kuraish, Kabyle language, Karl Richard Lepsius, Kenya, Khoekhoe language, Khoisan languages, Korean language, Kujargé language, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Language family, Language isolate, Languages of Africa, Languages of Asia, Languages of Europe, Levant, Lexicostatistics, Lingua franca, Linguistic reconstruction, Linguistic typology, Linguistics, Lionel Bender, Louis Hjelmslev, Maasai language, Mao languages, Marcel Cohen, Maurice Delafosse, Meroitic language, Mixed language, Modern South Arabian languages, Modern Standard Arabic, Monophyly, Morocco, Morphology (linguistics), Nandi–Markweta languages, Neo-Aramaic languages, Niger, Niger–Congo languages, Nigeria, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nivkh language, Noah, North Africa, North Omotic languages, Nostratic languages, Noun, Old Aramaic language, Omotic languages, Ongota language, Oromo language, Palgrave Macmillan, Paranilotic languages, Paul Newman (linguist), Phoneme, Phonotactics, Possessive affix, Pronoun, Proto-Afroasiatic language, Proto-language, Robert Hetzron, Roger Blench, Sahara pump theory, Sahel, Sandawe language, Semitic languages, Sergei Starostin, Shem, Sino-Tibetan languages, Somali language, Somalia, South Cushitic languages, South Omotic languages, Sprachbund, Stratum (linguistics), Subgrouping, Subject–verb–object, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language, The Languages of Africa, Theodor Benfey, Tiaret, Tigrinya language, Tone (linguistics), University of Copenhagen, Uralic languages, Varieties of Arabic, Variety (linguistics), Verb, Verb–subject–object, Vladimir Orel, Vladislav Illich-Svitych, Vowel, West Chadic languages, Western Asia, Yukaghir languages. Expand index (116 more) »

Aari language

Aari (also rendered Ari, Ara, Aro, Aarai) is an Omotic language of a tribe of Ethiopia.

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Afroasiatic Urheimat

The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages.

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Agaw languages

The Agaw or Central Cushitic languages are spoken by small groups in Ethiopia and, in one case, Eritrea.

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Aharon Dolgopolsky

Aharon Dolgopolsky (אהרון דולגופולסקי, Арон Борисович Долгопольский; 18 November 1930 – 20 July 2012) was a Russian-Israeli linguist and one of the modern founders of comparative Nostratic linguistics.

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Ainu language

Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.

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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.

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Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

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Austric languages

Austric is a large hypothetical grouping of languages primarily spoken in Southeast Asia and Pacific.

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Bari language

Bari is the Nilotic language of the Karo people, spoken over large areas of Central Equatoria state in South Sudan, across the northwest corner of Uganda, and into the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Beja language

Beja (Bidhaawyeet) is an Afroasiatic language of the Cushitic branch spoken on the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people.

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.

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Borean languages

Borean (also Boreal or Boralean) is a hypothetical linguistic macrofamily that encompasses almost all language families worldwide except those native to sub-Saharan Africa, New Guinea, Australia, and the Andaman Islands.

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Bound variable pronoun

A bound variable pronoun (also called a bound variable anaphor or BVA) is a pronoun that has a quantified determiner phrase (DP) – such as every, some, or who – as its antecedent.

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Carl Meinhof

Carl Friedrich Michael Meinhof (July 23, 1857 – February 11, 1944) was a German linguist and one of the first linguists to study African languages.

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A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.

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In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).

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Central Atlas Tamazight

No description.

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Chadic languages

The Chadic languages form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Christopher Ehret

Christopher Ehret (born July 27, 1941), who currently holds the position of Distinguished Research Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, is an American scholar of African history and African historical linguistics particularly known for his efforts to correlate linguistic taxonomy and reconstruction with the archeological record.

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Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages

The Chukotko-Kamchatkan or Chukchi–Kamchatkan languages are a language family of extreme northeastern Siberia.

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Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Comparative method

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.

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Coptic language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.

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Cushitic languages

The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Dené–Caucasian languages

Dené–Caucasian is a proposed broad language family that includes the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Na-Dené, Yeniseian, Vasconic (including Basque), and Burushaski language families.

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Dime language

Dime or Dima is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in the northern part of the Selamago district in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region of Ethiopia, around Mount Smith.

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Dizin language

Dizin (often called “Dizi” or “Maji” in the literature) is an Omotic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by the Dizi people, primarily in the Maji woreda of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, located in southwestern Ethiopia.

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Dizoid languages

Dizoid is a group of three North Omotic languages.

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Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Dravidian languages

The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.

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Egyptian language

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.

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Emphatic consonant

In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.

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Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Eskimo–Aleut languages

The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Eurasiatic languages

Eurasiatic is a proposed language macrofamily that would include many language families historically spoken in northern, western, and southern Eurasia.

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Friedrich Müller (linguist)

Friedrich Müller (born 6 March 1834, Jemnik, Austrian Empire (now Jemnice, Czech Republic); died 25 May 1898, Vienna) was an Austrian linguist and ethnologist who originated the term Hamito-Semitic languages for what are now called the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Fula language

Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Gerzeh culture

Gerzeh (also Girza or Jirzah) was a prehistoric Egyptian cemetery located along the west bank of the Nile.

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Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.

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Ghil'ad Zuckermann

Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.

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Gonga languages

The Gonga or Kefoid languages belong to the Afro-Asiatic family and are spoken in Ethiopia.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Hadza language

Hadza is a language isolate spoken along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania by around 1,000 Hadza people, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa.

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Ham (son of Noah)

Ham (Greek Χαμ, Kham; Arabic: حام, Ḥām), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.

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Harold C. Fleming

Harold Crane Fleming (December 23, 1926 – April 29, 2015) was an American anthropologist and historical linguist, specializing in the cultures and languages of the Horn of Africa.

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Hausa language

Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hermann Möller

Hermann Möller (13 January 1850 in Hjerpsted, Denmark – 5 October 1923 in Copenhagen) was a Danish linguist noted for his work in favor of a genetic relationship between the Indo-European and Semitic language families and his version of the laryngeal theory.

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Holger Pedersen (linguist)

Holger Pedersen (7 April 1867 – 25 October 1953) was a Danish linguist who made significant contributions to language science and wrote about 30 authoritative works concerning several languages.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Igor M. Diakonoff

Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff (И́горь Миха́йлович Дья́конов; 12 January 1915 – 2 May 1999) was a Russian historian, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East and its languages.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-Semitic languages

The Indo-Semitic hypothesis maintains that a genetic relationship exists between Indo-European and Semitic and that the Indo-European and the Semitic language families descend from a prehistoric language ancestral to them both.

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Isaac Schapera

Isaac Schapera (23 June 1905 Garies, Cape Colony – 26 June 2003 London, England), was a social anthropologist at the London School of Economics specialising in South Africa.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Japonic languages

The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.

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Joseph Greenberg

Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.

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Judah ibn Kuraish

Judah ibn Kuraish (יהודה אבן קריש, يهوذا بن قريش), was a North African Jewish grammarian and lexicographer.

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Kabyle language

Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.

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Karl Richard Lepsius

Karl or Carl Richard Lepsius (23 December 1810– 10 July 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Egyptologist and linguist and pioneer of modern archaeology.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Khoekhoe language

The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.

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Khoisan languages

The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Kujargé language

The Kujargé language is spoken in seven villages in Chad near Jebel Mirra and in Sudan in villages scattered along the lower Wadi Salih and Wadi Azum.

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Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew

Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.

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Languages of Asia

There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates.

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Languages of Europe

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Lexicostatistics is a method of comparative linguistics that involves comparing the percentage of lexical cognates between languages to determine their relationship.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistic reconstruction

Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Lionel Bender

Marvin Lionel Bender (August 18, 1934 – February 19, 2008) was an American author and linguist.

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Louis Hjelmslev

Louis Trolle Hjelmslev (3 October 1899, Copenhagen – 30 May 1965, Copenhagen) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Copenhagen School of linguistics.

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Maasai language

Maasai (Masai) or Maa (autonym: ɔl Maa) is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania by the Maasai people, numbering about 800,000.

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Mao languages

The Mao languages are a branch of the Omotic languages spoken in Ethiopia.

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Marcel Cohen

Marcel Samuel Raphaël Cohen (February 6, 1884 – November 5, 1974) was a French linguist.

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Maurice Delafosse

Maurice Delafosse (December 20, 1870 – November 13, 1926) was a French ethnographer and colonial official who also worked in the field of the languages of Africa.

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Meroitic language

Meroitic also called Kushite after the apparent attested endoethnonym transcribed in Egyptian as k3š ← "Meroitic",. The commonly used scholarly name "Meroitic" derives from the royal city of Meroë of the Kingdom of Kush.

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Mixed language

Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.

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Modern South Arabian languages

The Modern South Arabian languages (Eastern South Semitic or Eastern South Arabian) are spoken mainly by small populations inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula, in Yemen and Oman.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Nandi–Markweta languages

The Nandi languages, or Kalenjin proper, are a dialect cluster of the Kalenjin branch of the Nilotic language family.

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Neo-Aramaic languages

The Neo-Aramaic or Modern Aramaic languages are varieties of the Semitic Aramaic, that are spoken vernaculars from the medieval to modern era that evolved out of Imperial Aramaic via Middle Aramaic dialects, around AD 1200 (conventional date).

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Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.

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Nivkh language

Nivkh or Gilyak (self-designation: Нивхгу диф Nivkhgu dif) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria, in the basin of the Amgun (a tributary of the Amur), along the lower reaches of the Amur itself, and on the northern half of Sakhalin.

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In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North Omotic languages

The North Omotic or Nomotic languages belong to the Omotic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family and are spoken in Ethiopia.

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Nostratic languages

Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Old Aramaic language

Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).

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Omotic languages

The Omotic languages are group of languages spoken in southwestern Ethiopia.

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Ongota language

Ongota (also known as Birale, Birayle) is a moribund language of southwest Ethiopia.

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Oromo language

Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Paranilotic languages

Paranilotic is a group of languages proposed by Carl Meinhof.

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Paul Newman (linguist)

Paul Newman (born 1937) is an American linguist active in the study of African languages.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Possessive affix

In linguistics, a possessive affix is a suffix or prefix attached to a noun to indicate it is possessor, much in the manner of possessive adjectives.

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Proto-Afroasiatic language

The Proto–Afroasiatic language is the reconstructed proto-language from which all modern Afroasiatic languages are descended.

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A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.

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Robert Hetzron

Robert Hetzron, born Herzog (31 December 1937, Budapest – 12 August 1997, Santa Barbara, California), was a Hungarian-born linguist known for his work on the comparative study of Afro-Asiatic languages, as well as for his study of Cushitic and Ethiopian Semitic languages.

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Roger Blench

Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.

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Sahara pump theory

The Sahara pump theory is a hypothesis that explains how flora and fauna migrated between Eurasia and Africa via a land bridge in the Levant region.

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The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.

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Sandawe language

Sandawe is a "click language" spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Sergei Starostin

Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and philologist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.

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Shem (שֵׁם Šēm; Σήμ Sēm; Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic: سام Sām) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.

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Sino-Tibetan languages

The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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South Cushitic languages

The South Cushitic or Rift languages of Tanzania belong to the Afro-Asiatic family.

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South Omotic languages

The South Omotic or Somotic languages belong to the Afro-Asiatic family and are spoken in Ethiopia.

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A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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Subgrouping in linguistics is the division of a language family into its constituent branches.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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The Horse, the Wheel, and Language

The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World is a 2007 book by David W. Anthony, in which the author describes his "Revised Steppe Theory." He explores the origins and spread of the Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian steppes throughout Western Europe, and Central and South Asia.

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The Languages of Africa

The Languages of Africa is a 1963 book of essays by Joseph Greenberg, in which the author sets forth a genetic classification of African languages that, with some changes, continues to be the most commonly used one today.

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Theodor Benfey

Theodor Benfey (28 January 1809, in Nörten near Göttingen – 26 June 1881, in Göttingen) was a German philologist.

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Tiaret (Berber: Tahert or Tihert, ⵜⴰⵀⴻⵔⵜ, i.e. "Lioness"; تاهرت / تيارت) is a major city in central Algeria that gives its name to the wider farming region of Tiaret Province.

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Tigrinya language

Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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University of Copenhagen

The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Varieties of Arabic

There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).

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Vladimir Orel

Vladimir Orël (Владимир Эммануилович Орëл; February 9, 1952 – August 5, 2007) was a Russian linguist.

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Vladislav Illich-Svitych

Vladislav Markovich Illich-Svitych (Владисла́в Ма́ркович И́ллич-Сви́тыч, also transliterated as Illič-Svityč; September 12, 1934 – August 22, 1966) was a linguist and accentologist, also a founding father of comparative Nostratic linguistics.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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West Chadic languages

The West Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken principally in Niger and Nigeria.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Yukaghir languages

The Yukaghir languages (also Yukagir, Jukagir) are a small family of two closely related languages—Tundra and Kolyma Yukaghir—spoken by the Yukaghir in the Russian Far East living in the basin of the Kolyma River.

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Afrasan, Afrasan languages, Afrasian, Afrasian languages, Afrasian people, Afrasians, African-Asiatic, African-Asiatic languages, Afro Asiatic, Afro asiatic languages, Afro-Asiatic, Afro-Asiatic Languages, Afro-Asiatic family, Afro-Asiatic language, Afro-Asiatic language family, Afro-Asiatic languages, Afro-Asiatic languages language, Afro-Asiatic people, Afro-Asiatic peoples, Afro-asiatic, Afro-asiatic language, Afro-asiatic languages, AfroAsiaticLanguages, Afroasiatic, Afroasiatic family, Afroasiatic language, Afroasiatic language family, Chamito-Semitic, Hamito-Semitic, Hamito-Semitic languages, ISO 639:afa, Lisramic, List of Afro-Asiatic languages, Origin of Afro-Asian language, Semito-Hamitic, Semito-Hamitic languages.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afroasiatic_languages

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