111 relations: Agar, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Ascomycota, Axenic, Bacilli, Bile esculin agar, Brucella, Bunsen burner, Candida albicans, Carbon, Casein, Casein nutrient agar, Cetrimide agar, Chocolate, Chocolate agar, Cloning, Colony (biology), Colony-forming unit, Corynebacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Crystal violet, Cysteine, Cystine–lactose–electrolyte-deficient agar, Cytokinin, Deep sea, Deoxycholic acid, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Enzyme, Eosin methylene blue, Fanny Hesse, Fastidious organism, Fungus, Gentamicin, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Granada medium, Growth medium, Haemophilus influenzae, Halophile, Hektoen enteric agar, Hemolysis (microbiology), Human feces, Infection, Laboratory News, Lactic acid, Lactose, Laminar flow cabinet, Listeria, ..., Lysine, Lysis, Lysogeny broth, MacConkey agar, Mannitol, Mannitol salt agar, Meat extract, Metabolism, Microbial art, Microbiological culture, Microorganism, Model organism, Moss, MRS agar, Mueller-Hinton agar, Mutation, Neisseria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neutral red, New York City agar, Nutrient agar, Pathogen, Petri dish, PH, Physcomitrella patens, Potato dextrose agar, Proteus (bacterium), Protonema, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ralf Reski, Replica plating, Robert Koch, Sabouraud agar, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salmonella, Shigella, Slime mold, Sodium chloride, Soybean, Sponge, Spot analysis, Staphylococcus, Starch, Sterilization (microbiology), Streaking (microbiology), Streptococcus, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus salivarius, Thayer-Martin agar, Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar, Trypticase soy agar, Tryptone, University of Texas at Austin, Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Viral plaque, Walther Hesse, XLD agar, Yeast extract, YEPD. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
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In biology, axenic describes the state of a culture in which only a single species, variety, or strain of organism is present and entirely free of all other contaminating organisms.
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Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria.
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Bile Esculin Agar (BEA) is a selective differential agar used to isolate and identify members of the genus Enterococcus, formerly part of the "group D streptococci" (enterococci were reclassified in their own genus in 1984).
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Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, named after David Bruce (1855–1931).
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A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.
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Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
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Casein nutrient agar (CN) is a growth medium used to culture isolates of lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.
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Cetrimide agar is a type of agar used for the selective isolation of the gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
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Chocolate agar (CHOC) or chocolate blood agar (CBA) – is a nonselective, enriched growth medium used for isolation of pathogenic bacteria.
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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
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In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
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In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU, cfu, Cfu) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample.
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Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are Gram-positive and aerobic.
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Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
Crystal violet or gentian violet (also known as methyl violet 10B or hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride) is a triarylmethane dye used as a histological stain and in Gram's method of classifying bacteria.
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Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
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CLED agar (cystine–lactose–electrolyte-deficient agar or medium) is a valuable non-inhibitory growth medium used in the isolation and differentiation of urinary microbes.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
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The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
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Deoxycholic acid (conjugate base deoxycholate), also known as cholanoic acid, Kybella, Celluform Plus, Belkyra, and 3α,12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, is a bile acid.
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The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria.
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Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes.
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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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Eosin methylene blue (EMB, also known as "Levine's formulation") is a selective stain for gram-negative bacteria.
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Fanny Hesse (born Angelina Fanny Elishemius, June 22, 1850 – December 1, 1934) is best known for her work in microbiology alongside her husband, Walther Hesse.
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A fastidious organism is any organism that has a complex nutritional requirement.
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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
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Gentamicin, sold under brand names Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections.
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Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Granada medium is a selective and differential culture medium designed to selectively isolate Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) and differentiate it from other microorganisms.
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A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
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Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Halophiles are organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations.
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Hektoen enteric agar (HEK or HE or HEA) is a selective and differential agar primarily used to recover Salmonella and Shigella from patient specimens.
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Hemolysis (from Greek "αιμόλυση" which means blood breakdown) is the breakdown of red blood cells.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
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Laboratory News is a monthly science magazine aimed at scientists and science professionals at all levels and from all fields.
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Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
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Lactose is a disaccharide.
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A laminar flow cabinet or laminar flow closet or tissue culture hood is a carefully enclosed bench designed to prevent contamination of semiconductor wafers, biological samples, or any particle sensitive materials.
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Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.
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Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
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Lysogeny broth (LB), a nutritionally rich medium, is primarily used for the growth of bacteria.
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MacConkey agar is an indicator, a selective and differential culture medium for bacteria designed to selectively isolate Gram-negative and enteric (normally found in the intestinal tract) bacilli and differentiate them based on lactose fermentation.
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Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
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Mannitol salt agar or MSA is a commonly used selective and differential growth medium in microbiology.
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Meat extract is highly concentrated meat stock, usually made from beef.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
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Microbial art, agar art, or germ art is artwork created by culturing microorganisms in certain patterns.
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A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
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A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
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De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar, often abbreviated to MRS, is a selective culture medium designed to favour the luxuriant growth of Lactobacilli for lab study.
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Müller-Hinton agar is a microbiological growth medium that is commonly used for antibiotic susceptibility testing.
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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
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Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals.
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
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Neutral red (toluylene red, Basic Red 5, or C.I. 50040) is a eurhodin dye used for staining in histology.
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The N.Y.C (New York City) medium or GC (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) medium agar is used for isolating Gonococci.
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Nutrient agar is a general purpose medium supporting growth of a wide range of non-fastidious organisms.
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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
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A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
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Physcomitrella patens, the spreading earthmoss, is a moss (bryophyte) used as a model organism for studies on plant evolution, development, and physiology.
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Potato dextrose agar (BAM Media M127 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and potato dextrose broth are common microbiological growth media made from potato infusion, and dextrose.
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Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria.
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A protonema (plural: protonemata) is a thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage (the haploid phase) of the life cycle of mosses and liverworts.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Ralf Reski (born 18 November 1958 in Gelsenkirchen) is a German Professor of Plant Biotechnology and former Dean of the Faculty of Biology of the University of Freiburg.
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Replica plating is a microbiological technique in which one or more secondary Petri plates containing different solid (agar-based) selective growth media (lacking nutrients or containing chemical growth inhibitors such as antibiotics) are inoculated with the same colonies of microorganisms from a primary plate (or master dish), reproducing the original spatial pattern of colonies.
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Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
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Sabouraud agar or Sabouraud Dextrose Agar or SDA is a type of agar growth medium containing peptones.
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
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Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
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Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
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Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
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The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
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Spot analysis, spot test analysis, or spot test is a chemical test, a simple and efficient technique where analytic assays are executed in only one, or a few drops, of a chemical solution, preferably in a great piece of filter paper, without using any sophisticated instrumentation.
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Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
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Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
In microbiology, streaking is a technique used to isolate a pure strain from a single species of microorganism, often bacteria.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
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Streptococcus mitis, previously known as Streptococcus mitior, is a mesophilic alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus that inhabits the human mouth.
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Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
Streptococcus salivarius is a species of spherical, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria that is both catalase and oxidase negative.
Thayer-Martin agar (or Thayer-Martin medium) is a Mueller-Hinton agar with 5% chocolate sheep blood and antibiotics.
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Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar, or TCBS agar, is a type of selective agar culture plate that is used in microbiology laboratories to isolate Vibrio species.
Trypticase soy agar or tryptone soya agar (TSA) and Trypticase soy broth or tryptone soya broth (TSB) with agar are growth media for the culturing of bacteria.
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Tryptone is the assortment of peptides formed by the digestion of casein by the protease trypsin.
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The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
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Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
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A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g. agar).
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Walther Hesse (27 December 1846 – 19 July 1911) is best known for his work in microbiology, specifically his work in developing agar as a medium for culturing microorganisms.
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Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar (XLD agar) is a selective growth medium used in the isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from clinical samples and from food.
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Yeast extract is the common name for yeast products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls); they are used as food additives or flavorings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media.
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YEPD or yeast extract peptone dextrose, also often abbreviated as YPD, is a complete medium for yeast growth.
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