101 relations: Agar, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial resistance, Ascomycota, Axenic, Bacilli, Bile esculin agar, Brucella, Carbon, Casein, Casein nutrient agar, Cetrimide agar, Chocolate, Chocolate agar, Cloning, Colony (biology), Colony-forming unit, Corynebacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Crystal violet, Cysteine, Cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar, Cytokinin, Deep sea, Deoxycholic acid, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Enzyme, Eosin methylene blue, Fungus, Gentamicin, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Growth medium, Haemophilus influenzae, Halophile, Hektoen enteric agar, Hemolysis (microbiology), Human feces, Infection, Laboratory News, Lactic acid, Lactose, Listeria, Lysine, Lysis, Lysogeny broth, MacConkey agar, Mannitol, Mannitol salt agar, ..., Metabolism, Microbiological culture, Microorganism, Model organism, Moss, MRS agar, Mueller-Hinton agar, Mutation, Neisseria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neutral red, Nutrient agar, Pathogen, Peptide, Petri dish, PH, Physcomitrella patens, Potato dextrose agar, Proteus (bacterium), Protonema, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, R2a agar, Ralf Reski, Replica plating, Robert Koch, Sabouraud agar, Salmonella, Shigella, Slime mold, Sodium chloride, Soybean, Sponge, Staphylococcus, Starch, Sterilization (microbiology), Streaking (microbiology), Streptococcus, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus salivarius, Thayer-Martin agar, Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar, Trypticase soy agar, Tryptone, University of Texas at Austin, Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Viral plaque, Walther Hesse, XLD agar, Yeast extract. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Agar (pronounced,, "") or agar-agar ("") is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
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Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is when microbes are less treatable with one or more medication used to treat or prevent infection.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
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In biology, axenic describes the state of a culture in which only a single species, variety, or strain of organism is present and entirely free of all other contaminating organisms.
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Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria.
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Bile Esculin Agar (BEA) is a selective differential agar used to isolate and identify members of the genus Enterococcus, also known as "group D streptococci".
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Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, named after David Bruce (1855-1931).
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Casein (or, from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
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Casein Nutrient Agar (CN) is a growth medium used to culture isolates of lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.
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Cetrimide agar is a type of agar used for the selective isolation of the gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored, as with vanilla.
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Chocolate agar (CHOC) or chocolate blood agar (CBA) - is a non-selective, enriched growth medium used for isolation of.
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In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.
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In biology, a colony refers to individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual benefit, such as stronger defense or the ability to attack bigger prey.
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In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample.
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Corynebacterium (kôr"u-nē-bak-tēr'ē-um, ku-rin'u-) is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobe, rod-shaped bacteria.
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Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
Crystal violet or gentian violet (also known as methyl violet 10B or hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride) is a triarylmethane dye used as a histological stain and in Gram's method of classifying bacteria.
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Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
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CLED agar (cystine lactose electrolyte deficient medium) is a valuable non-inhibitory growth medium used in the isolation and differentiation of urinary organisms.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
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The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
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Deoxycholic acid, also known as deoxycholate, cholanoic acid, and 3α,12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, is a bile acid.
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The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, Klebsiella and Shigella.
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Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes.
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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB, also known as "Levine's formulation") is a selective stain for Gram-negative bacteria.
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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.
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Gentamicin, sold under the brandname Garamycin among other, is an antibiotic used to treat many types of bacterial infections.
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Gram-negative bacteria are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial differentiation, making positive identification possible.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test.
A growth medium or culture medium is a liquid or gel designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
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Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Halophiles are organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations.
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Hektoen enteric agar (HEK or HE or HEA) is a selective and differential agar primarily used to recover Salmonella and Shigella from patient specimens.
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Hemolysis (or haemolysis in British English) is the breakdown of red blood cells.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the feces (solid waste products) of the human digestive system, including bacteria.
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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.
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Laboratory News is a monthly science magazine aimed at scientists and science professionals at all levels and from all fields.
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Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H.
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Lactose is a disaccharide sugar derived from galactose and glucose that is found in milk.
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Listeria is a genus of bacteria that contains 10 species, each containing two subspecies.
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Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2.
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Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
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Lysogeny broth (LB), a nutritionally rich medium, is primarily used for the growth of bacteria.
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MacConkey agar is a selective and differential culture medium for bacteria designed to selectively isolate Gram-negative and enteric (normally found in the intestinal tract) bacilli and differentiate them based on lactose fermentation.
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Mannitol (also referred to as mannite or manna sugar) is a white, crystalline solidLawson, P. (2007) Mannitol.
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Mannitol salt agar or MSA is a commonly used selective and differential growth medium in microbiology.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
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A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions.
A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.
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A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
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Mosses are small flowerless plants that usually grow in dense green clumps or mats, in damp or shady locations.
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Often abbreviated to MRS, this type of bacterial growth medium is so-named by its inventors: de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe.
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Müller-Hinton agar is a microbiological growth medium that is commonly used for antibiotic susceptibility testing.
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In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
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Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals.
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.
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Neutral red (toluylene red, Basic Red 5, or C.I. 50040) is a eurhodin dye used for staining in histology.
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Nutrient agar is a general purpose medium supporting growth of a wide range of non-fastidious organisms.
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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos “suffering, passion” and -γενής -genēs “producer of”) in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.
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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
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A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
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In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.
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Physcomitrella patens is a moss (bryophyte) used as a model organism for studies on plant evolution, development and physiology.
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Potato dextrose agar (BAM Media M127 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and potato dextrose broth are common microbiological growth media made from potato infusion, and dextrose.
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Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria.
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A protonema (plural: protonemata) is a thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage (the haploid phase) of a bryophyte life cycle.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
R2A agar (Reasoner´s 2A agar) is a culture medium developed to study bacteria which normally inhabit potable water.
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Ralf Reski (born 18 November 1958 in Gelsenkirchen) is a German Professor of Plant Biotechnology and former Dean of the Faculty of Biology of the University of Freiburg.
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Replica plating is a microbiological technique in which one or more secondary Petri plates containing different solid (agar-based) selective growth media (lacking nutrients or containing chemical growth inhibitors such as antibiotics) are inoculated with the same colonies of microorganisms from a primary plate (or master dish), reproducing the original spatial pattern of colonies.
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Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist.
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Sabouraud agar is a type of agar containing peptones.
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Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family.
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Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Salmonella.
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Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
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Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
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The soybean in the US, also called the soya bean in Europe (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.
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Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer").
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Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
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Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
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Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills (deactivates) all forms of life and other biological agents (such as prions, as well as viruses which some do not consider to be alive but are biological pathogens nonetheless), including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, prions, spore forms, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
In microbiology, streaking is a technique used to isolate a pure strain from a single species of microorganism, often bacteria.
Streptococcus is a genus of coccus (spherical) gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria) order.
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Streptococcus mitis, previously known as Streptococcus mitior, is a mesophilic alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus that inhabits the human mouth.
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Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of bacteria.
Streptococcus salivarius is a species of spherical, gram-positive bacteria which colonize the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless in most circumstances.
Thayer-Martin agar (or Thayer-Martin medium) is a Mueller-Hinton agar with 5% chocolate sheep blood and antibiotics.
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Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar or TCBS agar is a type of selective agar culture plate that is used in microbiology laboratories to isolate Vibrio spp.
Trypticase soy agar or Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA) and trypticase soy broth or Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) with agar are growth media for the culturing of bacteria.
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Tryptone is the assortment of peptides formed by the digestion of casein by the protease trypsin.
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The University of Texas at Austin, informally UT Austin, UT, University of Texas, or Texas in sports contexts, is a public research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
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Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
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A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g. agar).
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Walther Hesse (27 December 1846 – 19 July 1911) is best known for his work in microbiology, specifically his work in developing agar as a medium for culturing microorganisms.
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Xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (XLD agar) is a selective growth medium used in the isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from clinical samples and from food.
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Yeast extract is the common name for various forms of processed yeast products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls); they are used as food additives or flavourings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media.
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