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Index Ageing

Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older. [1]

215 relations: Adolescence, Age and female fertility, Age of candidacy, Age of consent, Age of majority, Ageing of Europe, Ageing studies, Aging and Disease, Aging and society, Aging brain, Aging movement control, Alzheimer's disease, AMP-activated protein kinase, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Annual plant, Antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis, Anti-aging movement, Antioxidant, Apoptosis, Atherosclerosis, Atrophic gastritis, Autoantibody, Autophagy, Axon, Bacteria, Barshop Institute, Bernard L. Strehler, Biodemography of human longevity, Biological immortality, Biomarkers of aging, Birth rate, Bloomberg Businessweek, Body mass index, Book of Job, Bristlecone pine, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Caenorhabditis elegans, Calico (company), Calorie restriction, Cardiovascular disease, Cataract, Cataract surgery, Cell cycle, Cerebrovascular disease, Childhood, Chronic stress, Chronology, Clinical geropsychology, Cloning, Cochlea, ..., Consider the Lobster, Cortisol, Craig Venter, Cross-link, Death, Defense of infancy, Dementia, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA damage theory of aging, DNA methylation, DNA oxidation, Dominance (genetics), Drosophila melanogaster, Egg cell, Electron transport chain, Emerging adulthood and early adulthood, Epigenetic clock, Escherichia coli, Euripides, Evolution of ageing, Exercise, FOX proteins, FOXO3, Frailty syndrome, Free-radical theory of aging, Genetics of aging, Genome instability, Germ cell, Gerontology, Glucose, Greenland shark, Hard clam, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Hayflick limit, Hearing loss, HeLa, Homology (biology), House cricket, HowStuffWorks, Human body, Huntington's disease, Hydra (genus), Index of topics related to life extension, Infant, Insomnia, Insulin, Intelligence, Jackson Laboratory, Jeanne Calment, Joon Yun, KLF4, Legal drinking age, Leonard Hayflick, Lernaean Hydra, Leucine, Life expectancy, Lipofuscin, Little, Brown and Company, Lobster, Longevity, Macular degeneration, Mandatory retirement, Marmoset, Marriageable age, Maturity (psychological), Median, Mediterranean diet, Memory and aging, Menopause, Metabolic equivalent, Metformin, Methuselah Foundation, Michael Ristow, Middle age, Mild cognitive impairment, Minor (law), Mitochondrion, Model organism, Motion picture content rating system, Mouse, MTOR, Mutation, Myc, Myelin, Myocardial infarction, National Institute on Aging, Natural selection, Negligible senescence, Nematode, Neuroscience of aging, Nonverbal communication, Nutrient, Oct-4, Old age, Osteoarthritis, Oxidative stress, Parkinson's disease, Pattern hair loss, Perennial plant, Phenotype, Photoaging, Pleiotropy, Poliomyelitis, Population ageing, Preadolescence, Presbycusis, Presbyopia, Progeria, Proteostasis, Psychology, Radical (chemistry), Ras2, Reactive oxygen species, Regulation of gene expression, Reproductive-cell cycle theory, Research into centenarians, Resveratrol, Retirement, Rhesus macaque, Risk factor, RNA interference, Ronald A. DePinho, Sea anemone, Sebastes, Self-rated health, Semantic memory, Senescence, SENS Research Foundation, Shinya Yamanaka, Siesta, Sirolimus, Sirtuin, Sleep, Social comparison theory, Socioeconomic status, SOX2, Specific-pathogen-free, Spermatophyte, Spermatozoon, Sponge, Stem cell, Stem cell theory of aging, Strawberry, Stroke, Sturgeon, Sucrose, Supercentenarian, Telomerase, Telomere, The Mercury News, The New York Times, Theory of multiple intelligences, Transgenerational design, Tube worm, United Nations, United Nations Population Fund, University of Michigan, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Vegetative reproduction, Visual impairment, Voting age, Wrinkle, Yahoo! Finance, Yeast, 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Expand index (165 more) »


AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.

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Age and female fertility

Female fertility is affected by age.

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Age of candidacy

Age of candidacy is the minimum age at which a person can legally qualify to hold certain elected government offices.

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Age of consent

The age of consent is the age below which a minor is considered to be legally incompetent to consent to sexual acts.

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Age of majority

The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.

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Ageing of Europe

The ageing of Europe, also known as the greying of Europe, is a demographic phenomenon in Europe characterized by a decrease in fertility, a decrease in mortality rate, and a higher life expectancy among European populations.

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Ageing studies

Ageing studies (or age studies) is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that was developed by scholars from many different disciplines.

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Aging and Disease

Aging and Disease is a bimonthly peer-reviewed open access medical journal published by JKL International on behalf of the International Society on Aging and Disease.

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Aging and society

Aging has a significant impact on society.

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Aging brain

Aging is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.

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Aging movement control

Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes in the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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AMP-activated protein kinase

5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.

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Annual plant

An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.

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Antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis

The antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis was first proposed by George C. Williams in 1957 as an evolutionary explanation for senescence.

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Anti-aging movement

The anti-aging movement is a social movement devoted to eliminating or reversing aging, or reducing the effects of it.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Atrophic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis (also known as Type A or Type B Gastritis more specifically) is a process of chronic inflammation of the stomach mucous membrane (mucosa), leading to loss of gastric glandular cells and their eventual replacement by intestinal and fibrous tissues.

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An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins.

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Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Barshop Institute

The Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies is a basic and clinical research institute located on the Texas Research Park Campus of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA).

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Bernard L. Strehler

Bernard Strehler (1925–2001) was an early biogerontologist.

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Biodemography of human longevity

Biodemography is a multidisciplinary approach, integrating biological knowledge (studies on human biology and animal models) with demographic research on human longevity and survival.

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Biological immortality

Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age.

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Biomarkers of aging

Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that could predict functional capacity at some later age better than will chronological age.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.

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Bloomberg Businessweek

Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Book of Job

The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.

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Bristlecone pine

The term bristlecone pine covers three species of pine tree (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus, subsection Balfourianae).

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Bureau of Labor Statistics

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Calico (company)

Calico is a research and development biotech company founded on September 18, 2013 by Bill Maris and backed by Google with the goal of combating aging and associated diseases.

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Calorie restriction

Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.

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Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.

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Chronic stress

Chronic stress is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control.

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Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.

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Clinical geropsychology

Clinical geropsychology is broadly defined as the application of "the knowledge and methods of psychology to understanding and helping older persons and their families to maintain well-being, overcome problems and achieve maximum potential during later life" (Source).

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.

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Consider the Lobster

Consider the Lobster and Other Essays (2005) is a collection of essays by novelist David Foster Wallace.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Craig Venter

John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman.

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A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Defense of infancy

The defense of infancy is a form of defense known as an excuse so that defendants falling within the definition of an "infant" are excluded from criminal liability for their actions, if at the relevant time, they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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DNA damage (naturally occurring)

DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.

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DNA damage theory of aging

The DNA damage theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damages.

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DNA methylation

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

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DNA oxidation

DNA oxidation is the process of oxidative damage of deoxyribonucleic acid.

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Dominance (genetics)

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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Emerging adulthood and early adulthood

Emerging adulthood is a phase of the life span between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood which encompasses late adolescence and early adulthood, proposed by Jeffrey Arnett in a 2000 article in the American Psychologist.

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Epigenetic clock

An epigenetic clock is a type of a molecular age estimation method based on DNA methylation levels.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.

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Evolution of ageing

Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why survival, reproductive success, and functioning of almost all living organisms decline at old age.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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FOX proteins

FOX (Forkhead box) proteins are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and longevity.

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Forkhead box O3, also known as FOXO3 or FOXO3a, is a human protein encoded by the FOXO3 gene.

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Frailty syndrome

Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome that embodies an elevated risk of catastrophic declines in health and function among older adults.

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Free-radical theory of aging

The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.

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Genetics of aging

Genetics of aging is generally concerned with life extension associated with genetic alterations, rather than with accelerated aging diseases leading to reduction in lifespan.

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Genome instability

Genome instability (also genetic instability or genomic instability) refers to a high frequency of mutations within the genome of a cellular lineage.

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Germ cell

A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.

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Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Greenland shark

The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), also known as the gurry shark or grey shark, or by the Kalaallisut name eqalussuaq, is a large shark of the family Somniosidae ("sleeper sharks"), closely related to the Pacific and southern sleeper sharks.

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Hard clam

The hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), also known as a quahog (or quahaug), round clam, or hard-shell (or hard-shelled) clam, is an edible marine bivalve mollusc that is native to the eastern shores of North America and Central America, from Prince Edward Island to the Yucatán Peninsula.

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.

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Hayflick limit

The Hayflick limit or Hayflick phenomenon is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.

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Hearing loss

Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.

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HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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House cricket

Acheta domesticus, commonly called the house cricket, is a cricket most likely native to Southwestern Asia, but between 1950 and 2000 it became the standard feeder insect for the pet and research industries and spread worldwide.

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HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.

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Hydra (genus)

Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.

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Index of topics related to life extension

Following is a list of topics related to life extension.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

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Jackson Laboratory

The Jackson Laboratory (often abbreviated as JAX) is an independent, nonprofit biomedical research institution dedicated to contributing to a future of better health care based on the unique genetic makeup of each individual.

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Jeanne Calment

Jeanne Louise Calment (21 February 1875 – 4 August 1997) was a French supercentenarian who has the longest confirmed human lifespan of 122 years, 164 days.

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Joon Yun

Anthony Joonkyoo "Joon" Yun (born 1967) is a Korean-American physician, hedge-fund manager and investor.

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Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4; gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor or GKLF) is a zinc-finger transcription factor, and it was first identified in 1996.

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Legal drinking age

The legal drinking age is the age at which a person can legally consume alcoholic beverages.

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Leonard Hayflick

Leonard Hayflick (born 20 May 1928) is a Professor of Anatomy at the UCSF School of Medicine, and was Professor of Medical Microbiology at Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Lernaean Hydra

The Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna (Λερναῖα Ὕδρα, Lernaîa Hýdra), more often known simply as the Hydra, was a serpentine water monster in Greek and Roman mythology.

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Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lipofuscin is the name given to fine yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion.

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Little, Brown and Company

Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.

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Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.

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Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.

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Mandatory retirement

Mandatory retirement also known as enforced retirement, is the set age at which people who hold certain jobs or offices are required by industry custom or by law to leave their employment, or retire.

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The marmosets,, also known as zaris, are twenty-two New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella, Callibella and Mico.

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Marriageable age

Marriageable age (or marriage age) is the minimum age at which a person is allowed by law to marry, either as a right or subject to parental or other forms of consent.

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Maturity (psychological)

In psychology, maturity is the ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner.

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The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

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Mediterranean diet

The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.

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Memory and aging

Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging", is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.

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Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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Metabolic equivalent

The Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET), or simply metabolic equivalent, is a physiological measure expressing the energy cost of physical activities and is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (and therefore the rate of energy consumption) during a specific physical activity to a reference metabolic rate, set by convention to 3.5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1 or approximately: \text\.

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Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.

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Methuselah Foundation

The Methuselah Foundation is a non-profit organization co-founded in 2003 by David Gobel and Aubrey de Grey.

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Michael Ristow

Michael Ristow (b April 24, 1967) is a German medical researcher who has published influential articles on biochemical aspects of mitochondrial metabolism and particularly the possibly health-promoting role of reactive oxygen species in diseases like type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer, as well as general aging due to a process called mitohormesis.

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Middle age

Middle age is the period of age beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age.

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Mild cognitive impairment

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also known as incipient dementia and isolated memory impairment, is a neurological disorder that occurs in older adults which involves cognitive impairments with minimal impairment in instrumental activities of daily living.

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Minor (law)

In law, a minor is a person under a certain age, usually the age of majority, which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Motion picture content rating system

A motion picture content rating system is designated to classify films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex, violence, substance abuse, profanity, impudence or other types of mature content.

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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin and FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1), is a kinase that in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myc is a family of regulator genes and proto-oncogenes that code for transcription factors.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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National Institute on Aging

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is a division of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), located in Bethesda, Maryland.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Negligible senescence

Negligible senescence is the lack of symptoms of aging in some organisms.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Neuroscience of aging

The neuroscience of aging is the study of the changes in the nervous system that occur with ageing.

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Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Oct-4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4), also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene.

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Old age

Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Pattern hair loss

Pattern hair loss, known as male-pattern hair loss (MPHL) when it affects males and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) when it affects females, is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp.

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Perennial plant

A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Photoaging or photoageing (also known as "dermatoheliosis") is a term used for the characteristic changes to skin induced by chronic UVA and UVB exposure.

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Pleiotropy (from Greek πλείων pleion, "more", and τρόπος tropos, "way") occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits.

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Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Population ageing

Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy.

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Preadolescence, also known as pre-teen or tween, is a stage of human development following early childhood and preceding adolescence.

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Presbycusis (also spelled presbyacusis, from Greek presbys "old" + akousis "hearing"), or age-related hearing loss, is the cumulative effect of aging on hearing.

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Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects.

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Progeria is an extremely rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at a very early age.

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Proteostasis, a portmanteau of the words protein and homeostasis, is the concept that there are competing and integrated biological pathways within cells that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins present within and outside the cell.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Ras2 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanine nucleotide-binding protein (encoded by the RAS2 gene) which becomes activated by binding GTP when glucose is present in the environment.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

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Reproductive-cell cycle theory

Rather than seeing aging as a loss of functionality as we get older, this theory defines aging as any change in an organism over time, as evidenced by the fact that if all chemical reactions in the body were stopped, no change, and thus no aging, would occur.

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Research into centenarians

A centenarian is a person who has attained the age of 100 years or more.

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Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.

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Retirement is the withdrawal from one's position or occupation or from one's active working life.

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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RNA interference

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.

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Ronald A. DePinho

Ronald A. DePinho, was the fourth president of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and is internationally recognized for basic and translational research in cancer, aging and age-associated degenerative disorders.

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Sea anemone

Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.

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Sebastes is a genus of fish in the family Sebastidae (though some include this in Scorpaenidae), most of which have the common name of rockfish.

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Self-rated health

Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.

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Semantic memory

Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).

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Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.

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SENS Research Foundation

The SENS Research Foundation (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence Research Foundation) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization and regenerative medical research foundation co-founded by Michael Kope, Aubrey de Grey, Jeff Hall, Sarah Marr and Kevin Perrott, which is based in Mountain View, California, United States.

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Shinya Yamanaka

is a Japanese Nobel Prize-winning stem cell researcher.

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A siesta (Spanish, meaning "nap") is a short nap taken in the early afternoon, often after the midday meal.

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Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

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Sirtuins are a class of proteins that possess either mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, or deacylase activity, including deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase and depalmitoylase activity.

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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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Social comparison theory

Social comparison theory, initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger in 1954, centers on the belief that there is a drive within individuals to gain accurate self-evaluations.

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Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

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SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2, also known as SOX2, is a transcription factor that is essential for maintaining self-renewal, or pluripotency, of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells.

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Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) is a term used for laboratory animals that are guaranteed free of particular pathogens.

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The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.

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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stem cell theory of aging

The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function.

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The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.

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Sucrose is common table sugar.

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A supercentenarian (sometimes hyphenated as super-centenarian) is someone who has lived to or passed their 110th birthday.

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Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.

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A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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The Mercury News

The Mercury News (formerly San Jose Mercury News, often locally known as The Merc) is a morning daily newspaper published in San Jose, California, United States.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Theory of multiple intelligences

The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.

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Transgenerational design

Transgenerational design is the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living.

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Tube worm

A tube worm is any worm-like sessile invertebrate that anchors its tail to an underwater surface and secretes around its body a mineral tube, into which it can withdraw its entire body.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Population Fund

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, d/b/a UT Health San Antonio is an institute of health science education and research located in the South Texas Medical Center, the medical district of the U.S. city of San Antonio, Texas.

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Vegetative reproduction

Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Voting age

A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain before they become eligible to vote in a public election.

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A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric.

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Yahoo! Finance

Yahoo! Finance is a media property that is part of Yahoo!'s network.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is an oxidized derivative of deoxyguanosine.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageing

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