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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bernhard Wolff (3 March 1811 – 11 May 1879) was a German media mogul.
Business administration is management of a business.
Charles-Louis Havas (5 July 1783 – 21 May 1858) was a French writer, translator, and founder of the first news agency Agence Havas (whose descendants are the Agence France-Presse (AFP) and the advertising firm Havas).
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
An editor-in-chief, also known as lead editor, chief editor, managing or executive editor, is a publication's editorial leader who has final responsibility for its operations and policies.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Exchange Telegraph Co.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France–Russia relations (Российско-французские отношения, Rossiysko-frantsuzskiye otnosheniya) date back to the early modern period.
Frédéric Mitterrand (born 21 August 1947) is a French-Tunisian politician who served as Minister of Culture and Communication of France from 2009 to 2012 under President Nicolas Sarkozy.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Ministry for the Economy and Finance (Ministère de l'économie et des finances), called the Finance Ministry for short and informally referred to as Bercy, is one of the most important ministries in the cabinet of France.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The General Confederation of Labour (Confédération générale du travail, CGT) is a national trade union center, the first of the five major French confederations of trade unions.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Getty Images, Inc. is an American stock photo agency, with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
Havas SA is a French multinational advertising and public relations company, headquartered in Paris, France.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.
News agencies were created to provide newspapers with a wide variety of news events happening around the world.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.
The Mitrokhin Archive is a collection of handwritten notes made secretly by KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin during his thirty years as a KGB archivist in the foreign intelligence service and the First Chief Directorate.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters.
A news bureau is an office for gathering or distributing news.
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public.
Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.
The Office français d'information (OFI, French Information Office) was the press agency controlled by the Vichy regime during the German occupation.
Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Paul Julius Freiherr von Reuter (Baron von Reuter; 21 July 1816 – 25 February 1899) was a German-born, British entrepreneur who was a pioneer of telegraphy and news reporting.
The politics of France take place with the framework of a semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the French Fifth Republic.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Thomson Financial was an arm of information provider Thomson Corporation.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Union syndicale des journalistes CFDT is one of the three journalist's labor unions in France, created in 1992 and involved in professional deals in about one hundred newspapers, TV and radio.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The General Confederation of Labor - Workers' Force (Confédération Générale du Travail - Force Ouvrière, or simply Force Ouvrière, FO), is one of the five major union confederations in France.
The 2010 Haiti earthquake (Séisme de 2010 à Haïti; Tranblemanntè 12 janvye 2010 nan peyi Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne (Ouest), approximately west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital.
AFP News, AFP agency, AFP news, AFP news agency, AFX News Limited, Afp.com, Agence France Press, Agence France Presse, Agence France-Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Agence France-presse, Agence France‑Presse, Agence French Presse, Agence-France Presse, Agency france press, France Presse, France-Presse.