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Index Aggression

Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual. [1]

252 relations: Acute stress reaction, Adaptation, Adrenaline, Affect (psychology), Aggression, Aggressionism, Aggressive mimicry, Agonistic behaviour, Alarm signal, Alcoholism, Alfred Adler, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Journal of Psychiatry, American Scientist, Amygdala, Anabolic steroid, Anarchy, Anger, Animal Behaviour (journal), Anti-predator adaptation, Antioxidant, Antisocial personality disorder, Arab–Israeli conflict, Aromatase, Assertiveness, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attrition warfare, Authoritarianism, Autonomic nervous system, Band society, BBC News, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Behavioural sciences, Bellona Island, Biological specificity, Birth, Bobo doll experiment, Bonobo, Borderline personality disorder, Brainstem, Bullying, Capitalism, Captivity (animal), Castration, Catecholamine, Causality, Central nervous system, Cerebral Cortex (journal), Challenge hypothesis, Chicken (game), ..., Child abuse, Cinderella effect, Coercion, Collective security, Collectivism, Common chimpanzee, Concealed ovulation, Conduct disorder, Confidence-building measures, Conflict, Conflict avoidance, Conflict resolution, Corporal punishment, Corticosterone, Cortisol, Cost–benefit analysis, Cross-cultural, Culture of honor (Southern United States), ǃKung people, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Deimatic behaviour, Democracy, Dihydrotestosterone, Dominance hierarchy, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D4, Drosophila melanogaster, Dysfunctional family, E. O. Wilson, Economic system, Egalitarianism, Elizabeth Gershoff, Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, Empirical research, Estradiol, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Ethology, Evolution, Evolutionary psychology, Face (sociological concept), Fear, Fight-or-flight response, Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Fruitless (gene), Frustration–aggression hypothesis, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Game theory, Gamete, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gender role, Genetic association, Genetic linkage, Genetics of aggression, Gestation, Glucocorticoid, Gossip, Homicide, Homology (biology), Hostility, Human, Hunter-gatherer, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamus, Impulsivity, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Individualism, Inhibitory control, Injustice, Intermittent explosive disorder, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Intimate partner violence, Intimidation, Intraspecific competition, Japan, John Paul Wright, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Journal of Psychiatric Research, Kevin Beaver, Labeling theory, Lactation, Land (economics), Latin, Learning disability, Leonard Berkowitz, Lesion, Lever, Longitudinal study, Lumbar puncture, Main effect, Major urinary proteins, Male warrior hypothesis, Mate choice, Matriarchy, Meta-analysis, Midbrain, Milgram experiment, Monoamine oxidase A, Monogamy, Morality, Murray A. Straus, Narcissism, National Association of School Psychologists, Natural selection, Nayef Al-Rodhan, Negative relationship, Neurological disorder, Neuropeptide, NeuroReport, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Neurotransmitter, Noble savage, Non-aggression pact, Non-aggression principle, Norepinephrine, Olfactory receptor neuron, Orbitofrontal cortex, Ostracism, Oxidative stress, Oxytocin, Parental abuse by children, Parental investment, Parenting, Passive-aggressive behavior, Peer pressure, Periaqueductal gray, Peter Gray (psychologist), Phenotype, Pheromone, Phobia, Play (activity), Political system, Politics, Polygyny, Population change, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Predation, Prefrontal cortex, Property, Psychological trauma, Rage (emotion), Relational aggression, Research on the effects of violence in mass media, Resource, Resource holding potential, Revenge, Rhesus macaque, Risk management, Robbery, School bullying, School violence, Seasonal breeder, Self-control, Self-preservation, Semantic network, Sensory neuron, Serotonin, Seville Statement on Violence, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual selection, Sigmund Freud, Social behavior, Social defeat, Social exclusion, Social rejection, Social science, Social stratification, Sociobiological theories of rape, Sociobiology, SOD1, Song sparrow, Southern United States, Spain, Spanking, Sperm competition, Sport, State (polity), Stress (biology), Subsistence economy, Sympathetic nervous system, Tend and befriend, Territory (animal), Testicle, Testosterone, Trade, Tribe, Trigona fulviventris, Tulane University, Twin study, UNESCO, University of Manitoba, University of Texas at Austin, Vasopressin, Verbal aggressiveness, Violence, Vomeronasal organ, War, War Before Civilization, Workplace, Workplace aggression, 5α-Reductase. Expand index (202 more) »

Acute stress reaction

Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Affect (psychology)

Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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Aggressionism is the philosophical theory that the only real cause of war is human aggressiveness.

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Aggressive mimicry

Aggressive mimicry is a form of mimicry in which predators, parasites or parasitoids share similar signals, using a harmless model, allowing them to avoid being correctly identified by their prey or host.

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Agonistic behaviour

Agonistic behaviour is any social behaviour related to fighting.

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Alarm signal

In animal communication, an alarm signal is an antipredator adaptation in the form of signals emitted by social animals in response to danger.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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Alfred Adler

Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.

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American Academy of Pediatrics

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.

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American Journal of Psychiatry

The American Journal of Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of psychiatry and the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.

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American Scientist

American Scientist (informally abbreviated AmSci) is an American bimonthly science and technology magazine published since 1913 by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anabolic steroid

Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.

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Anarchy is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.

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Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.

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Animal Behaviour (journal)

Animal Behaviour is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1953 as The British Journal of Animal Behaviour, before obtaining its current title in 1958.

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Anti-predator adaptation

Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Antisocial personality disorder

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.

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Arab–Israeli conflict

The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.

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Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.

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Assertiveness is the quality of being self-assured and confident without being aggressive.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Attrition warfare

Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.

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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

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Band society

A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Behavioral and Brain Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of Open Peer Commentary established in 1978 by Stevan Harnad and published by Cambridge University Press.

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Behavioural sciences

The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.

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Bellona Island

Bellona Island is an island of the Rennell and Bellona Province, Solomon Islands.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.

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Bobo doll experiment

The Bobo doll experiment was the collective name of experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 when he studied children's behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll, a toy that gets up by itself to a standing position when it is knocked down.

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The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.

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Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Captivity (animal)

Animals that are held by humans and prevented from escaping are said to be in captivity.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebral Cortex (journal)

Cerebral Cortex is a scientific journal in the neuroscience area, focusing on the development, organization, plasticity, and function of the cerebral cortex, including the hippocampus.

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Challenge hypothesis

The challenge hypothesis outlines the dynamic relationship between testosterone and aggression in mating contexts.

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Chicken (game)

The game of chicken, also known as the hawk–dove game or snowdrift game, is a model of conflict for two players in game theory.

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Child abuse

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.

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Cinderella effect

In evolutionary psychology, the Cinderella effect is the phenomenon of higher incidence of different forms of child-abuse and mistreatment by stepparents than by biological parents.

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Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.

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Collective security

Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.

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Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.

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Common chimpanzee

The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.

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Concealed ovulation

Concealed ovulation or hidden estrus in a species is the lack of any perceptible change in an adult female (for instance, a change in appearance or scent) when she is "in heat" and near ovulation.

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Conduct disorder

Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.

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Confidence-building measures

Confidence-building measures (CBMs) or confidence- and security-building measures are in actions taken to reduce fear of attack by both (or more) parties in a situation of tension with or without physical conflict.

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Conflict most commonly refers to.

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Conflict avoidance

Conflict avoidance is a method of reacting to conflict, which attempts to avoid directly confronting the issue at hand.

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Conflict resolution

Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution.

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Corporal punishment

Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.

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Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Cost–benefit analysis

Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit costs analysis (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.

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Cross-cultural may refer to.

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Culture of honor (Southern United States)

The traditional culture of the Southern United States has been called a "culture of honor", that is, a culture where people avoid intentionally offending others, and maintain a reputation for not accepting improper conduct by others.

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ǃKung people

The !Kung are a part of the San people who live in the Kalahari desert and Ovamboland (northern Namibia and southern Angola).

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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.

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Deimatic behaviour

Deimatic behaviour, threat display, or startle display in animals means any pattern of behaviour, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespots, to scare off or momentarily distract a predator, thus giving the prey animal an opportunity to escape.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.

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Dominance hierarchy

Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopamine receptor D4

The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Dysfunctional family

A dysfunctional family is a family in which conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect or abuse on the part of individual parents occur continuously and regularly, leading other members to accommodate such actions.

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E. O. Wilson

Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.

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Economic system

An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Elizabeth Gershoff

Elizabeth Thompson Gershoff is Professor of Human Development and Family Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin.

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Elizabeth Marshall Thomas

Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (born September 13, 1931) is an American author.

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Empirical research

Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.

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Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.

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Estrogen receptor

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.

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Estrogen receptor alpha

Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.

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Estrogen receptor beta

Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.

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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Face (sociological concept)

The term face idiomatically refers to one's own sense of self-image, dignity or prestige in social contexts.

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Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of neuroendocrinology.

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Fruitless (gene)

The fruitless gene (fru) is a Drosophila melanogaster gene that encodes several variants of a putative transcription factor protein.

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Frustration–aggression hypothesis

Frustration–aggression hypothesis, otherwise known as the frustration–aggression–displacement theory, is a theory of aggression proposed by John Dollard, Neal Miller, Leonard Doob, Orval Mowrer, and Robert Sears in 1939, and further developed by Neal Miller in 1941 and Leonard Berkowitz in 1969.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Gender role

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

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Genetic association

Genetic association is when one or more genotypes within a population co-occur with a phenotypic trait more often than would be expected by chance occurrence.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetics of aggression

The field of psychology has been greatly influenced by the study of genetics.

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Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Gossip is idle talk or rumor, especially about the personal or private affairs of others; the act is also known as dishing or tattling.

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Homicide is the act of one human killing another.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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Inhibitory control

Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.

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Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or undeserved outcomes.

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Intermittent explosive disorder

Intermittent explosive disorder (sometimes abbreviated as IED) is a behavioral disorder characterized by explosive outbursts of anger and violence, often to the point of rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand (e.g., impulsive screaming triggered by relatively inconsequential events).

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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences

The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.

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Intimate partner violence

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner.

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Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury or harm.

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Intraspecific competition

Intraspecific competition is an interaction in population ecology, whereby members of the same species compete for limited resources.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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John Paul Wright

John Paul Wright is an American criminologist known for his work in biosocial criminology.

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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

The Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience is a peer-reviewed academic journal for scientific research on cognitive neuroscience and the interaction between brain and behavior.

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Journal of Psychiatric Research

The Journal of Psychiatric Research is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in four major areas of psychiatry: clinical studies on normal and pathological human behaviour; basic studies in psychiatry and related fields; clinical laboratory techniques such as neuroimaging, spectroscopy and other computer techniques used in research; advances in research methodology, including the clinical use of recent research findings.

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Kevin Beaver

Kevin Michael Beaver (born September 17, 1977) is an American criminologist and the Judith Rich Harris Professor of Criminology at Florida State University's College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, where he is also the director of the Distance Learning Program.

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Labeling theory

Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them.

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Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

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Land (economics)

In economics, land comprises all naturally occurring resources as well as geographic land.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Learning disability

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.

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Leonard Berkowitz

Leonard Berkowitz (August 11, 1926 – January 3, 2016) was an American social psychologist best known for his research on altruism and human aggression.

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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.

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Longitudinal study

A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).

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Lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.

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Main effect

In the design of experiments and analysis of variance, a main effect is the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable averaging across the levels of any other independent variables.

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Major urinary proteins

Major urinary proteins (Mups), also known as α2u-globulins, are a subfamily of proteins found in abundance in the urine and other secretions of many animals.

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Male warrior hypothesis

The male warrior hypothesis (MWH) is an evolutionary psychology hypothesis by Professor Mark van Vugt which argues that human psychology has been shaped by between-group competition and conflict.

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Mate choice

Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.

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Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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Milgram experiment

The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram.

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Monoamine oxidase A

Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.

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Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Murray A. Straus

Murray A. Straus (June 18, 1926 – May 13, 2016) was an American professor of sociology at the University of New Hampshire.

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Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes.

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National Association of School Psychologists

The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) is the major national professional organization for school psychologists in the United States.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nayef Al-Rodhan

Nayef R. F. Al-Rodhan (نايف الروضان; born 1959) is a Saudi philosopher, neuroscientist, geostrategist, and author.

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Negative relationship

In statistics, there is a negative relationship or inverse relationship between two variables if higher values of one variable tend to be associated with lower values of the other.

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Neurological disorder

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.

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Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

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NeuroReport is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of neuroscience.

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Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews

Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering behavioral neuroscience published by Elsevier.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Noble savage

A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.

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Non-aggression pact

A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.

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Non-aggression principle

The non-aggression principle (or NAP; also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle or non-initiation of force) is an ethical stance that asserts that aggression is inherently wrong.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Olfactory receptor neuron

An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory system.

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Ostracism (ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.

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Parental abuse by children

Abuse of parents by their children is a form of domestic violence, and is one of the most under-reported and under-researched subject areas in the field of psychology.

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Parental investment

Parental investment (PI), in evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, is any parental expenditure (time, energy, etc.) that benefits one offspring at a cost to parents' ability to invest in other components of fitness,Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991.

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Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.

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Passive-aggressive behavior

Passive–aggressive behavior is characterized by indirect resistance to the demands of others and an avoidance of direct confrontation.

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Peer pressure

Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.

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Periaqueductal gray

The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.

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Peter Gray (psychologist)

Peter Gray (born 1944) is an American psychologist who currently occupies the position of research professor of psychology at Boston College.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.

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Play (activity)

In psychology and ethology, play is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment.

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Political system

A political system is a system of politics and government.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.

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Population change

Human population change is the difference between the size of the population from the beginning to the end of a certain time period.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Psychological trauma

Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.

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Rage (emotion)

Rage (often called fury or frenzy) is a feeling of intense, violent, or growing anger.

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Relational aggression

Relational aggression or alternative aggressionSimmons, Rachel (2002).

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Research on the effects of violence in mass media

The studys of violence in mass media analyzes the degree of correlation between themes of violence in media sources (particularly violence in video games, television and films) with real-world aggression and violence over time.

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A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced.

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Resource holding potential

In biology, resource holding potential (RHP) is the ability of an animal to win an all-out fight if one were to take place.

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Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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Risk management

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.

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Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear.

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School bullying

School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in any educational setting.

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School violence

School violence encompasses physical violence, including student-on-student fighting and corporal punishment; psychological violence, including verbal abuse; sexual violence, including rape and sexual harassment; many forms of bullying, including cyberbullying; and carrying weapons in school.

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Seasonal breeder

Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.

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Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control, is the ability to regulate one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior in the face of temptations and impulses.

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Self-preservation is a behavior that ensures the survival of an organism.

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Semantic network

A semantic network, or frame network is a knowledge base that represents semantic relations between concepts in a network.

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Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Seville Statement on Violence

The Seville Statement on Violence is a statement on violence that was adopted by an international meeting of scientists, convened by the Spanish National Commission for UNESCO, in Seville, Spain, on 16 May 1986.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Social behavior

Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.

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Social defeat

Social defeat refers to losing a confrontation among conspecific animals, or any kind of hostile dispute among humans, in either a dyadic or in a group-individual context, potentially generating very significant practical and psychological consequences in terms of control over resources, access to mates and social positions.

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Social exclusion

Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.

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Social rejection

Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Sociobiological theories of rape

Sociobiological theories of rape explore how evolutionary adaptation influences the psychology of rapists.

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Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.

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Superoxide dismutase also known as superoxide dismutase 1 or SOD1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD1 gene, located on chromosome 21.

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Song sparrow

The song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) is a medium-sized American sparrow.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanking is a common form of corporal punishment involving the act of striking the buttocks of another person to cause physical pain, generally with an open hand.

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Sperm competition

Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg during sexual reproduction.

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Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Subsistence economy

A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Tend and befriend

Tend-and-befriend is a behavior exhibited by some animals, including humans, in response to threat.

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Territory (animal)

In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.

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A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.

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Trigona fulviventris

Trigona fulviventris, known by the common names "culo-de-vaca," "culo-de-señora," "mu'ul-kab," "culo-de-buey," and "culo-de-vieja," is a species of stingless bee found in neotropical regions of Central and South America.

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Tulane University

Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.

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Twin study

Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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University of Manitoba

The University of Manitoba (U of M, UMN, or UMB) is a public university in the province of Manitoba, Canada.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.

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Verbal aggressiveness

Verbal aggressiveness in communication has been studied to examine the underlying message of aggressive behavior and to gain control over occurrences.

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Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.

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Vomeronasal organ

The vomeronasal organ (VNO), or the Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals.

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War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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War Before Civilization

War Before Civilization: the Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford University Press, 1996) is a book by Lawrence H. Keeley, a professor of archaeology at the University of Illinois at Chicago who specializes in prehistoric Europe.

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A workplace is a location where someone works for his or her employer, a place of employment.

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Workplace aggression

Workplace aggression is a specific type of aggression which occurs in the workplace.

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5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aggression

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