116 relations: A. J. Ayer, Afterlife, Agnostic atheism, Agnostic theism, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient philosophy, Anselm of Canterbury, Antinomy, Apatheism, Apophatic theology, Aristotle, Asimov's Guide to the Bible, Atheism, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australians, Avidyā (Buddhism), Baron d'Holbach, Bertrand Russell, Blaise Pascal, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Charles Bradlaugh, Charles Darwin, Charles Kingsley, Christian, Christianity, Cosmogony, D. Appleton & Company, David Hume, Demography, Denis Diderot, Divinity, Doctrine, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, European Union, Existence of God, Existentialism, Fides et ratio, Financial Times, First Vatican Council, George H. Smith, Gnosis, Gnosticism, Greek language, Herbert Spencer, Heterodoxy, Hinduism, Ietsism, Ignatius Press, ..., Ignoramus et ignorabimus, Ignosticism, Illinois, Immanuel Kant, Infinity, Instrumentalism, InterVarsity Press, Irreligion, Islam, Japanese people, Karl Popper, Laïcité, Leslie Weatherhead, List of agnostics, Materialism, Nasadiya Sukta, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Pascal's Wager, Peter Kreeft, Pew Research Center, Philosophical Fragments, Philosophical skepticism, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, Popular Science, Possibilianism, Protagoras, Rationalism, Relativism, Religion, Religiosity, Religious skepticism, René Descartes, Richard Dawkins, Rigveda, Robert G. Ingersoll, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Russell's teapot, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, Søren Kierkegaard, Scientific method, Scientism, Scottish Enlightenment, Secular Review, Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet, Skepticism, Solipsism, Subjectivism, Supernatural, Tautology (logic), The Atlantic, The God Delusion, The Guardian, The Times of India, Theism, Theodore Drange, Theological noncognitivism, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Henry Huxley, Truth, Uncertainty, Unknown God, Vietnamese people, Why I Am Not a Christian, William L. Rowe, William Stewart Ross. Expand index (66 more) » « Shrink index
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Agnostic atheism is a philosophical position that encompasses both atheism and agnosticism.
Agnostic theism, agnostotheism or agnostitheism is the philosophical view that encompasses both theism and agnosticism.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.
Antinomy (Greek ἀντί, antí, "against, in opposition to", and νόμος, nómos, "law") refers to a real or apparent mutual incompatibility of two laws.
Apatheism (a portmanteau of apathy and theism) is the attitude of apathy towards the existence or non-existence of god(s).
Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asimov's Guide to the Bible is a work by Isaac Asimov that was first published in two volumes in 1968 and 1969, covering the Old Testament and the New Testament (including the Catholic Old Testament, or deuterocanonical, books (See Catholic Bible) and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament books, or anagignoskomena, along with the Fourth Book of Ezra), respectively.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English).
Avidyā (Sanskrit; Pāli: avijjā; Tibetan phonetic: ma rigpa) in Buddhist literature is commonly translated as "ignorance".
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was an English political activist and atheist.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian and novelist.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopedia of Philosophy is one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Fides et ratio (Faith and Reason) is an encyclical promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 14 September 1998.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Vatican Council (Concilium Vaticanum Primum) was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864.
George Hamilton Smith (born February 10, 1949, Japan) is an American author, editor, educator and speaker, known for his writings on atheism and libertarianism.
Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (γνῶσις, gnôsis, f.). The term is used in various Hellenistic religions and philosophies.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Ietsism (ietsisme – "somethingism") is an unspecified belief in an undetermined transcendent reality.
Ignatius Press, named for Saint Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Order, is a Catholic publishing house based in San Francisco, California, USA.
The Latin maxim ignoramus et ignorabimus, meaning "we do not know and will not know", represents the idea that scientific knowledge is limited.
Ignosticism or igtheism is the idea that the question of the existence of God is meaningless because the term has no coherent and unambiguous definition.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
InterVarsity Press (IVP) was founded in 1947 by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA as a publisher of evangelical Christian books.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
Leslie Dixon Weatherhead (14 October 1893 – 5 January 1976) was an English Christian theologian in the liberal Protestant tradition.
Listed here are persons who have identified themselves as theologically agnostic.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
The Nasadiya Sukta (after the incipit, or "not the non-existent"), also known as the Hymn of Creation, is the 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129).
Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).
Pascal's Wager is an argument in philosophy presented by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–62).
Peter John Kreeft ((b. 16 March 1937) is a professor of philosophy at Boston College and The King's College. He is the author of numerous books as well as a popular writer of Christian philosophy, theology and apologetics. He also formulated, together with Ronald K. Tacelli, SJ, "Twenty Arguments for the Existence of God.".
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Philosophical Fragments (Danish title: Philosophiske Smuler eller En Smule Philosophi) is a Christian philosophical work written by Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard in 1844.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Possibilianism is a philosophy which rejects both the diverse claims of traditional theism and the positions of certainty in strong atheism in favor of a middle, exploratory ground.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religiosity is difficult to define, but different scholars have seen this concept as broadly about religious orientations and involvement.
Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Robert Green "Bob" Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 – July 21, 1899) was an American lawyer, father of the feminist Eva Ingersoll Brown, a Civil War veteran, politician, and orator of the United States during the Golden Age of Free Thought, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Russell's teapot is an analogy, formulated by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making unfalsifiable claims, rather than shifting the burden of disproof to others.
Sanjaya Belatthiputta (literally, "Sanjaya of the Belattha clan"), also referred as Sanjaya Vairatiputra was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 6th century BCE in the region of Magadha.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scientism is the ideology of science.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
Secular Review (1876-1907) was a freethought/secularist weekly publication in nineteenth and early twentieth-century Britain that appeared under a variety of names.
Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet FRSE DD FSAS (8 March 1788 – 6 May 1856) was a Scottish metaphysician.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.
Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The God Delusion is a 2006 best-selling non-fiction book by English biologist Richard Dawkins, a professorial fellow at New College, Oxford and former holder of the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theodore "Ted" Michael Drange (born 1934) is a philosopher of religion and Professor Emeritus at West Virginia University, where he taught philosophy from 1966 to 2001.
Theological noncognitivism is the position that religious language – specifically, words such as "God" – are not cognitively meaningful.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".
The Unknown God or Agnostos Theos (Ἄγνωστος Θεός) is a theory by Eduard Norden first published in 1913 that proposes, based on the Christian Apostle Paul's Areopagus speech in Acts, that in addition to the twelve main gods and the innumerable lesser deities, ancient Greeks worshipped a deity they called "Agnostos Theos", that is: "Unknown God", which Norden called "Un-Greek".
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Why I Am Not a Christian is an essay by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell.
William Leonard Rowe (July 26, 1931 – August 22, 2015) was a professor emeritus of philosophy at Purdue University who specialized in the philosophy of religion.
William Stewart Ross (20 March 1844 – 30 November 1906) was a Scottish writer and publisher.
Agnositc, Agnost, Agnostic, Agnostic spiritualism, Agnostician, Agnosticist, Agnostics, Closed agnosticism, Criticism of agnosticism, Empirical agnosticism, Hard agnosticism, Mild agnosticism, Negative agnostic, Negative agnosticism, Negative agnostics, Open agnostic, Open agnosticism, Positive agnostic, Positive agnosticism, Positive agnostics, Soft agnosticism, Strict agnosticism, Strong Agnostic, Strong agnostic, Strong agnosticism, Strong agnostics, Strong and weak agnosticism, The Immeasurable God, Thomas Henry Huxley and agnosticism, Weak agnostic, Weak agnosticism, Weak agnostics.