45 relations: Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Ancient Greek, Aripiprazole, Buprenorphine, Buspirone, Central nervous system, Character (arts), Clozapine, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Dose–response relationship, EC50, Effective dose (pharmacology), Endogenous agonist, Endogeny (biology), Endorphins, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Exogeny, Functional selectivity, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Hormone, Intrinsic activity, Inverse agonist, Irreversible agonist, Isoprenaline, Ligand, Median toxic dose, Medication, Morphine, Neurotransmitter, NMDA receptor, Opiate, Partial agonist, Physiological agonism and antagonism, Potency (pharmacology), Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Receptor theory, Selective receptor modulator, Serotonin, Superagonist, Therapeutic index, 5-HT receptor.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, play, television series, film, or video game).
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time.
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.
In pharmacology, an endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body which binds to and activates that receptor.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
Functional selectivity (or “agonist trafficking”, “biased agonism”, “biased signalling”, "ligand bias" and “differential engagement”) is the ligand-dependent selectivity for certain signal transduction pathways relative to a reference ligand (often the endogenous hormone or peptide) at the same receptor.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Intrinsic activity (IA) or efficacy refers to the relative ability of a drug-receptor complex to produce a maximum functional response.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
An irreversible agonist is a type of agonist that binds permanently to a receptor in such a manner that the receptor is permanently activated.
Isoprenaline, or isoproterenol, is a medication used for the treatment of bradycardia (slow heart rate), heart block, and rarely for asthma.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In toxicology, the median toxic dose (TD50) of a drug or toxin is the dose at which toxicity occurs in 50% of cases.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Physiological agonism describes the action of a substance which ultimately produces the same effects in the body as another substance—as if they were both agonists at the same receptor—without actually binding to the same receptor.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Receptor theory is the application of receptor models to explain drug behavior.
In the field of pharmacology, a selective receptor modulator or SRM is a type of drug that has different effects in different tissues.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
In the field of pharmacology, a superagonist is a type of agonist that is capable of producing a maximal response greater than the endogenous agonist for the target receptor, and thus has an efficacy of more than 100%.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Agonistic, Agonistics, Agonists, Co-agonist, Competitive agonist, Direct agonist, Full agonist, Full agonists, Partial agonists, Receptor agonist, Receptor agonists, Selective agonist, Superagonistic.