82 relations: Adjective, Affix, Animacy, Antecedent (grammar), Argument (linguistics), Article (grammar), Attraction (grammar), Auxiliary verb, Bantu languages, Bokmål, Bulgarian language, Case government, Constituent (linguistics), Copula (linguistics), Danish language, Declension, Defective verb, Determiner, Early Modern English, English grammar, English irregular verbs, English language, English personal pronouns, English verbs, Faroese language, French grammar, French language, Gender in English, Genitive case, German grammar, Grammatical case, Grammatical category, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical modifier, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Greek language, Hungarian language, Icelandic language, Inflection, Japanese language, Latin, Liaison (French), List of glossing abbreviations, Macedonian language, Malay language, Modal verb, Nominative case, North Germanic languages, ..., Noun class, Null-subject language, Nynorsk, Pancake sentence, Participle, Passé composé, Plural, Polypersonal agreement, Possessive determiner, Predicate (grammar), Predicative expression, Pronoun, Realis mood, Redundancy (linguistics), Reference, Romance languages, Russian grammar, Sequence of tenses, Serbian language, Sibilant, Slavic languages, Specifier (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Subjunctive mood, Swahili language, Swedish language, Synesis, Synthetic language, Thou, United Nations, Verb, Who (pronoun). Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.
In grammar, an antecedent is an expression (word, phrase, clause, sentence, etc.) that gives its meaning to a proform (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc.). A proform takes its meaning from its antecedent, e.g. "Ava arrived late because traffic held her up".
In linguistics, an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate, the latter referring in this context to a main verb and its auxiliaries.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Attraction, in linguistics, is a type of error in language production that incorrectly extends a feature from one word in a sentence to another.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.
In linguistics, case government is government of the grammatical case of verb arguments, when a verb or preposition is said to 'govern' the grammatical case on its noun phrase complement, e.g. zu governs the dative case in German: zu mir 'to me-dative'.
In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
In linguistics, a defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation, or one which cannot be used in some other way as normal verbs can.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
The English language has a large number of irregular verbs, approaching 200 in normal use—and significantly more if prefixed forms are counted.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The personal pronouns in English take various forms according to number, person, case and natural gender.
Verbs constitute one of the main word classes in the English language.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
French grammar is the set of rules by which the French language creates statements, questions and commands.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A system of grammatical gender, whereby every noun was treated as either masculine, feminine or neuter, existed in Old English, but fell out of use during the Middle English period.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
A grammatical category is a property of items within the grammar of a language; it has a number of possible values (sometimes called grammemes), which are normally mutually exclusive within a given category.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is: likelihood, ability, permission and obligation, and advice.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.
Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.
Pancake sentences are a phenomenon in Scandinavian linguistics where sentence agreement does not follow conventional linguistic patterns.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
The passé composé (compound past) is the most used past tense in the modern French language.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
In linguistics, polypersonal agreement or polypersonalism is the agreement of a verb with more than one of its arguments (usually up to four).
Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
In linguistics, redundancy refers to information that is expressed more than once.
Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Russian grammar employs an Indo-European inflexional structure, with considerable adaptation.
Sequence of tenses (known in Latin as consecutio temporum, and also known as agreement of tenses, succession of tenses and tense harmony) is a set of grammatical rules of a particular language, governing the agreement between the tenses of verbs in related clauses or sentences.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
In X-bar theory in linguistics, specifiers, head words, complements and adjuncts together form phrases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Synesis is a traditional grammatical/rhetorical term derived from Greek σύνεσις (originally meaning "unification, meeting, sense, conscience, insight, realization, mind, reason").
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
The word thou is a second person singular pronoun in English.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
The pronoun who, in English, is an interrogative pronoun and a relative pronoun, used chiefly to refer to humans.