302 relations: Acid gas, Acid rain, Activated carbon, Adsorption, Aerosol spray, Air conditioning, Air freshener, Air pollutant concentrations, Air pollution on vegetation, Air Quality Health Index (Canada), Air quality index, Air stagnation, Ammonia, Anaerobic digestion, Animal, Anthrax, Asbestos, Asbestosis, ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, Asian brown cloud, Asphyxiant gas, Asthma, Atherosclerosis, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric chemistry, Atmospheric methane, Australia, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Autism, Aviation biofuel, Baffle spray scrubber, Beehive burner, Beijing, BenMAP, Bhopal disaster, Biofilter, Biological warfare, Biomolecule, Black carbon, Blood pressure, Boris Johnson, Building biology, Built environment, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, Cairo, Canada, Cancer, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, ..., Carcinogen, Cardiovascular disease, Carpet, Case law, Catalytic converter, Cattle, Central government, Central nervous system, Chainsaw, Charcoal, Chemical warfare, Child, China, Chlorine, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chongqing, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cigarette, Clean Air Act (United States), Coal, Cognitive deficit, Combustion, Common Dreams, Compressed natural gas, Condenser (heat transfer), Congestion pricing, Contamination, Continuous emissions monitoring system, Controlled burn, Criteria air pollutants, Critical load, Crust (geology), Cryogenics, Cyclonic separation, Cyclonic spray scrubber, Cystic fibrosis, Delhi, Developing country, Diesel engine, Digestion, Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, Donora, Pennsylvania, Dow Chemical Company, Dry cleaning, Dust, Egypt, Ejector venturi scrubber, Electric discharge, Electric vehicle, Electrostatic precipitator, Emergency department, Emission standard, Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database, Energy & Environmental Science, Energy transition, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Environmental factor, Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental impact of the coal industry, Europe, European Commission, European Court of Justice, European Environment Agency, European Union, Exhaust gas recirculation, Explosive material, Fireplace, Flatulence, Flue-gas desulfurization, Flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, Fluidized bed concentrator, Formaldehyde, Fossil fuel, Fossil fuel power station, Furan, Garden, Gas flare, Geothermal heat pump, Global Atmosphere Watch, Global dimming, Global warming, Great Smog of London, Greater London Built-up Area, Green building, Greenhouse gas, Hair spray, Harvard University, Haze, Health Canada, Health economics, Health Effects Institute, House dust mite, Houseplant, Hybrid vehicle, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydropower, Impulsivity, Incense, India, Indicator value, Indonesia, Industrial Hygiene Foundation, Inflammation, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Intake fraction, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Energy Agency, International environmental agreement, Jakarta, Kanpur, Kolkata, Kyoto Protocol, Land-use planning, Landfill, László Makra, Lead, Legionnaires' disease, Life expectancy, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, List of pollution-related diseases, LO-NOx burner, London, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Basin, Lucknow, Lung, Lung cancer, Mark Z. Jacobson, Mayor of London, Mechanically aided scrubber, Member state, Mercury (element), Metal, Methane, Metro Vancouver Regional District, Mold, Montreal Protocol, Mucus, Mycotoxin, Myocardial infarction, NASA Clean Air Study, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, Natural environment, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neuron, New Delhi, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Noble gas, Non-attainment area, Nuclear explosion, Nuclear weapon, Odor, Oil, Old age, Ozone, Ozone layer, Pacific Standard, Paint, Particulate matter sampler, Particulates, Pediatrics (journal), Peritoneal mesothelioma, Peroxyacetyl nitrate, Persistent organic pollutant, Pesticide, Pet, Pilot light, Plumbing, Plume (fluid dynamics), Plywood, Pneumonia, Pollen, Polluter pays principle, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Pure Earth, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radon, Region, Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act, Renewable energy, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract infection, Risk factor, Roadway air dispersion modeling, Rocket, Rome, San Joaquin Valley, Schizophrenia, Scrubber, Seasonal thermal energy storage, Selective catalytic reduction, Selective non-catalytic reduction, Shenyang, Short-term memory, Shortness of breath, Simon Armitage, Slash-and-burn, Smog, Smoke, Snowmobile, Social vulnerability, Solar power, Soviet Union, Spirometry, Spray tower, State Implementation Plan, Stratosphere, String trimmer, Stroke, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur oxide, Superhydrophilicity, Supranational union, Sverdlovsk anthrax leak, TA Luft, Tetrachloroethylene, The Guardian, The Lancet, The New York Times, Thermal oxidizer, Thunderstorm, Tianjin, Tire fire, Titanium dioxide, Tonne, Tony Ryan (scientist), Toxicity, Tropospheric ozone, Ultrafine particle, Ultraviolet, United Kingdom, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of Rochester, University of Sheffield, University of Washington, Vapor recovery, Varnish, Ventricular system, Volatile organic compound, Volcano, Wet scrubber, White matter, Wildfire, Wind power, World Bank, World Health Organization, Yekaterinburg, 100% renewable energy. 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Acid gas is a particular typology of natural gas or any other gas mixture containing significant quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), or similar acidic gases.
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Air fresheners are consumer products used in homes, or commercial products used in restrooms, that typically emit fragrance.
Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or corrected to be expressed as required by the regulations issued by various governmental agencies.
The effects of air pollution on our general life have been well documented, but a specific interest group focusing on gardens and wildlife have been researched by local organisations.
The Air Quality Health Index or (AQHI) is a scale designed in Canada to help understand the impact of air quality on health.
An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become.
Air stagnation is a phenomenon which occurs when an air mass remains over an area for an extended period.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
Asbestosis is long term inflammation and scarring of the lungs due to asbestos.
The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution is a legally binding environmental agreement signed in 2002 by the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to reduce haze pollution in Southeast Asia.
The Indian Ocean brown cloud or Asian brown cloud is a layer of air pollution that recurrently covers parts of South Asia, namely the northern Indian Ocean, India, and Pakistan.
An asphyxiant gas is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the normal oxygen concentration in breathing air.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Atmospheric methane is the methane present in earth's atmosphere.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Aviation biofuel is a biofuel used for aircraft.
Baffle spray scrubbers are a technology for air pollution control.
A wood waste burner, known as a teepee burner or wigwam burner in the United States and a beehive burner in Canada, is a free-standing conical steel structure ranging from 30 to 60 feet in height.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) is an open source, Windows-based computer program created by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that estimates the health benefits from improvements in air quality.
The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using a bioreactor containing living material to capture and biologically degrade pollutants.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter).
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.
Building biology (or Baubiologie) is a field of building science investigating the indoor living environment for a variety of irritants.
In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.
The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) connects 90 of the world’s greatest cities, representing 650+ million people and one quarter of the global economy.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
A central government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a unitary state.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chainsaw is a portable, mechanical saw which cuts with a set of teeth attached to a rotating chain that runs along a guide bar.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Common Dreams NewsCenter, often referred to simply as Common Dreams, is a 501(c)3 nonprofit U.S.-based progressive news website.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it.
Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion through excess demand such as higher peak charges for use of bus services, electricity, metros, railways, telephones, and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion; airlines and shipping companies may be charged higher fees for slots at airports and through canals at busy times.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) were historically used as a tool to monitor flue gas for oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to provide information for combustion control in industrial settings.
A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard reduction burning, backfire, swailing, or a burn-off, is a wildfire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.
Criteria air Pollutants (CAP), or criteria pollutants, are a set of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain, and other health hazards.
In the study of air pollution, a critical load is defined as "a quantitative estimate of an exposure to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur according to present knowledge".
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
A cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through vortex separation.
Cyclonic spray scrubbers are an air pollution control technology.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
Donora is a borough in Washington County, Pennsylvania, United States, approximately south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela River.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using a chemical solvent other than water.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An ejector or venturi scrubber is an industrial pollution control device, usually installed on the exhaust flue gas stacks of large furnaces, but may also be used on any number of other air exhaust systems.
An electric discharge is the release and transmission of electricity in an applied electric field through a medium such as a gas.
An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a filtration device that removes fine particles, like dust and smoke, from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge minimally impeding the flow of gases through the unit.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.
The Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) is a comprehensive source of data on the environmental characteristics of almost all electric power generated in the United States.
Energy & Environmental Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles.
Energy transition is generally defined as a long-term structural change in energy systems.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent information on the environment, thereby helping those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, as well as informing the general public.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A fireplace is a structure made of brick, stone or metal designed to contain a fire.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes (e.g trash incineration).
Flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion refers to the combustion-product gas resulting from the burning of fossil fuels.
A fluidized bed concentrator (FBC) is an industrial process for the treatment of exhaust air.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.
A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a central heating and/or cooling system that transfers heat to or from the ground.
The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organizationa United Nations agencyto monitor trends in the Earth's atmosphere.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Great Smog of London, or Great Smog of 1952, was a severe air-pollution event that affected the British capital of London in early December 1952.
The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statistics.
Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Hair spray (also hair lacquer or spritz) is a common cosmetic hairstyling product that is sprayed onto hair to protect against humidity and wind.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon in which dust, smoke, and other dry particulates obscure the clarity of the sky.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare.
The Health Effects Institute (HEI) is an independent, non-profit corporation specializing in research on the health effects of air pollution.
House dust mites (HDM, or simply dust mites) are a large number of mites found in association with dust in dwellings.
A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indicator value is a term that has been used in ecology for two different indices.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Industrial Hygiene Foundation of America, originally named the Air Hygiene Foundation and also called the Industrial Health Foundation, is a business trade organization concerned with occupational health in industrial businesses.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) is a research institute working in the area of global health statistics and impact evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle.
The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.
Intake fraction is a measurement of pollution and it can be used in the determination of the environmental health impact of a pollutant source.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
An international environmental agreement or sometimes environmental protocol, is a type of treaty binding in international law, allowing them to reach an environmental goal.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Kanpur (formerly Cawnpore) is the 12th most populous city in India and the second largest city in the state of Uttar Pradesh after Lucknow.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
In urban planning, land-use planning seeks to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
László Makra (Siklós, June 5, 1952) is a climatologist and university professor.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Legionnaires' disease is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a U.S. government research and development program.
Diseases caused by pollution lead to the deaths of about 8.4 million people each year.
A LO NOx burner is a type of burner that is typically used in utility boilers to produce steam and electricity.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles Basin is a sedimentary basin located in southern California, in a region known as the Peninsular Ranges.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Mark Zachary Jacobson (born 1965) is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University and director of its Atmosphere/Energy Program.
The Mayor of London is the head of the executive body of the Greater London Authority.
Mechanically aided scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology.
A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization or of a federation or confederation.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Metro Vancouver is a political body and corporate entity designated by provincial legislation as one of the regional districts in British Columbia, Canada.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The NASA Clean Air Study was led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in association with the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA).
The U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced \'naks\) are standards for harmful pollutants.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In United States environmental law, a non-attainment area is an area considered to have air quality worse than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 (P.L. 91-604, Sec. 109).
A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Pacific Standard is an American magazine that reports on issues of social and environmental justice.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
A particulate matter sampler is an instrument for measuring the properties (such as mass concentration or chemical composition) of particulates in the ambient air.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Pediatrics is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Peritoneal mesothelioma is the name given to the cancer that attacks the lining of the abdomen.
Peroxyacetyl nitrate is a peroxyacyl nitrate.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.
Merker gas-fired water heater from the 1930s, with pilot light clearly visible through the aperture in the front cover. The large opening allowed for the manual lighting of the pilot light by a lit match or taper A pilot light is a small gas flame, usually natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, which serves as an ignition source for a more powerful gas burner.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
In hydrodynamics, a plume is a column of one fluid moving through another.
Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
In environmental law, the polluter pays principle is enacted to make the party responsible for producing pollution responsible for paying for the damage done to the natural environment.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Pure Earth, formerly known as the Blacksmith Institute until on 10 March 2015, is a New York City-based international not-for-profit organization founded in 1999 that aims to identify and clean up pollution, focusing primarily on contaminated sites and soil in developing countries.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began regulating greenhouse gases (GHGs) under the Clean Air Act ("CAA" or "Act") from mobile and stationary sources of air pollution for the first time on January 2, 2011.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scrubber systems (e.g. chemical scrubbers, gas scrubbers) are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.
Seasonal thermal energy storage (or STES) is the storage of heat or cold for periods of up to several months.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, and water.
Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) is a method to lessen nitrogen oxide emissions in conventional power plants that burn biomass, waste and coal.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Simon Robert Armitage CBE (born 26 May 1963) is an English poet, playwright and novelist.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.
A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow.
In its broadest sense, social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability to multiple stressors and shocks, including abuse, social exclusion and natural hazards.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs).
A spray tower (or spray column or spray chamber) is gas-liquid contactor used to achieve mass and heat transfer between a continuous gas phase (that can contain dispersed solid particles) and a dispersed liquid phase.
A State Implementation Plan (SIP) is a United States state plan for complying with the federal Clean Air Act, administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
A string trimmer, also called a "weed-whip", "whipper-snipper", "weed-whacker", a "weed eater", a "line trimmer" (in Australia) or a "strimmer" (in the UK and Ireland), is a tool which uses a flexible monofilament line instead of a blade for cutting grass and other plants near objects, or on steep or irregular terrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur oxide refers to many types of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds such as SO, SO2, SO3, S7O2, S6O2, S2O2, etc.
Superhydrophilicity refers to the phenomenon of excess hydrophilicity, or attraction to water; in superhydrophilic materials, the contact angle of water is equal to zero degrees.
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
The Sverdlovsk anthrax leak was an incident in which spores of anthrax were accidentally released from the Sverdlovsk-19a military research facility on the southern edge of the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) on April 2, 1979.
Germany has an air pollution control regulation titled "Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control" (Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft) and commonly referred to as the TA Luft.
Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thermal oxidizer (also known as thermal oxidiser, or thermal incinerator) is a process unit for air pollution control in many chemical plants that decomposes hazardous gases at a high temperature and releases them into the atmosphere.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
Tire fires are events that involve the combustion of large quantities of tires, typically in locations where they are stored, dumped, or processed.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Professor Anthony John Ryan, OBE is a polymer chemist and sustainability leader at the University of Sheffield.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are particulate matter of nanoscale size (less than 0.1 μm or 100 nm in diameter).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.
The University of Sheffield (informally Sheffield University) is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
Vapor (or vapour) recovery is the process of recovering the vapors of gasoline or other fuels, so that they do not escape into the atmosphere.
Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
The term wet scrubber describes a variety of devices that remove pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
The endeavor to use 100% renewable energy for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport is motivated by global warming, pollution and other environmental issues, as well as economic and energy security concerns.
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