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Airco DH.4

Index Airco DH.4

The Airco DH.4 was a British two-seat biplane day bomber of the First World War. [1]

157 relations: Admiralty, Aegean Sea, Aerial reconnaissance, Aerial refueling, Airco, Airco DH.9, Airco DH.9A, Aircraft ordnance, Aircraft Transport and Travel, Airmail, Aoraki / Mount Cook, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Atlantic Aircraft, Australia, Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, Beardmore Halford Pullinger, Belgian Air Component, Belgium, Biplane, Blenheim, New Zealand, Boeing, Boeing Model 42, Bonar Law, Bracing (aeronautics), Bristol Aeroplane Company, Bristol F.2 Fighter, Canada, Canadian Air Force (1918–20), Captain (armed forces), Central Flying School, Chilean Air Force, Cleveland, COW 37 mm gun, Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, Cross-country flying, Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force, Dayton, Ohio, Dayton-Wright Cabin Cruiser, Dayton-Wright Company, De Havilland, De Havilland Mosquito, Dux Factory, Egbert Cadbury, Erwin R. Bleckley, Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, Fantasy of Flight, Felixstowe, Fiat Automobiles, Fisher Body, Flight International, ..., Float (nautical), France, Geoffrey de Havilland, Germany, Gunnery sergeant, Handley Page Transport, Hansa-Brandenburg W.29, Harold Ernest Goettler, Hellenic Air Force, Hellenic Navy, Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum, History of the Iranian Air Force, Hounslow Heath Aerodrome, Imperial Airways, Imperial Gift, Independent Air Force, Instone Air Line, Italy, Lewis gun, Liberty L-12, Light bomber, London Evening Standard, Lost Battalion (World War I), M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun, Madrid, Maiden flight, Major, Marlin Firearms, Maryland Heights, Missouri, McMinnville, Oregon, Medal of Honor, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Mexican Air Force, Museo del Aire (Madrid), Napier Lion, National Air and Space Museum, National Museum of the Marine Corps, National Museum of the United States Air Force, National Postal Museum, New Zealand, Nicaraguan Air Force, No. 2 Squadron RAF, No. 55 Squadron RAF, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Paris–Le Bourget Airport, Paul Mantz, Pearson Air Museum, Plywood, Polikarpov, Polk City, Florida, Propeller, Qantas, RAF 3, Ralph Talbot, Robert G. Robinson, Robert Leckie (RCAF officer), Rolls-Royce Eagle, Royal Air Force, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5, Royal Canadian Air Force, Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force, Rudder, Russia, SABCA, Scarff ring, SCR-68, Second lieutenant, Siddeley Puma, Smithsonian Institution, SNETA, South African Air Force, Soviet Air Forces, SPAD S.XIII, Spain, Spanish Air Force, Speaking tube, Standard Aircraft Corporation, Strategic bombing, Supercharger, Triangle, Virginia, Turkish Air Force, U-boat, United Kingdom, United States, United States Army Air Corps, United States Army Air Service, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States occupation of Nicaragua, United States Postal Service, Vancouver, Washington, Vickers machine gun, Washington, D.C., Westland Aircraft, William Beardmore, 1st Baron Invernairn, World War I, Zeppelin, 11th Aero Squadron, 20th Aero Squadron, 50th Attack Squadron, 77th Sustainment Brigade, 8th Aero Squadron, 91st Aero Squadron. Expand index (107 more) »


The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Aerial reconnaissance

Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance for a military or strategic purpose that is conducted using reconnaissance aircraft.

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Aerial refueling

Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.

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The Aircraft Manufacturing Company Limited (Airco) was a British aircraft manufacturer operating from 1912 to 1920.

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Airco DH.9

The Airco DH.9 (from de Havilland 9) – also known after 1920 as the de Havilland DH.9 – was a British single-engined biplane bomber developed and deployed during the First World War.

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Airco DH.9A

The Airco DH.9A was a British single-engined light bomber designed and first used shortly before the end of the First World War.

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Aircraft ordnance

Aircraft ordnance or ordnance (in the context of military aviation) is weapons (e.g. bombs, missiles, rockets and gun ammunition) used by aircraft.

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Aircraft Transport and Travel

Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited was a British airline formed during the First World War, a subsidiary of Airco.

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Airmail (or air mail) is a mail transport service branded and sold on the basis of at least one leg of its journey being by air.

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Aoraki / Mount Cook

Aoraki / Mount Cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand.

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Armistice of 11 November 1918

The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.

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Atlantic Aircraft

Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, also known as Fokker-America and Atlantic-Fokker, was a US subsidiary of the Dutch Fokker Company, responsible for sales and information about Fokker imports, and eventually constructing various Fokker designs.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps

The Aviation Section, Signal Corps, was the aerial warfare service of the United States from 1914 to 1918, and a direct statutory ancestor of the United States Air Force.

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Beardmore Halford Pullinger

Beardmore-Halford-Pullinger (BHP) were aircraft engines used in production between 1916 and 1918.

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Belgian Air Component

The Belgian Air Component (Luchtcomponent, Composante air) is the air arm of the Belgian Armed Forces, and until January 2002 it was officially known as the Belgian Air Force (Belgische Luchtmacht; Force aérienne belge).

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other.

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Blenheim, New Zealand

Blenheim (Waiharakeke) is the most populous town in the region of Marlborough, in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand.

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The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.

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Boeing Model 42

The Boeing Model 42 (also Boeing XCO-7 for Experimental Corps Observation Model 7) was an American biplane aircraft developed from the Airco DH.4, taking advantage of the large amount of aircraft left over after the end of World War I.

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Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923), commonly called Bonar Law, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1922 to 1923.

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Bracing (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, bracing comprises additional structural members which stiffen the functional airframe to give it rigidity and strength under load.

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Bristol Aeroplane Company

The Bristol Aeroplane Company, originally the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, was both one of the first and one of the most important British aviation companies, designing and manufacturing both airframes and aircraft engines.

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Bristol F.2 Fighter

The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a British two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War developed by Frank Barnwell at the Bristol Aeroplane Company.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Air Force (1918–20)

The Canadian Air Force (CAF) was a contingent of two Canadian air force squadrons – one fighter and one bomber – authorized by the British Air Ministry in August 1918 during the close of the First World War.

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Captain (armed forces)

The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.

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Central Flying School

The Central Flying School (CFS) is the Royal Air Force's primary institution for the training of military flying instructors.

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Chilean Air Force

The Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aérea de Chile, FACh) is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.

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Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.

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COW 37 mm gun

The COW 37 mm gun was a British automatic cannon that was developed as a heavy-calibre aircraft weapon.

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Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum

The Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum is a collection in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio.

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Cross-country flying

Cross-Country flying (XC flying) is a type of distance flying which is performed in a powered aircraft on legs over a given distance and in operations between two points using navigational techniques; and an unpowered aircraft (paraglider, hang glider or sailplane) by using upcurrents to gain altitude for extended flying time.

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Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force

The Cuban Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force (Spanish: Defensa Anti-Aérea Y Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria) commonly abbreviated to DAAFAR in both Spanish and English, is the air force of Cuba.

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Dayton, Ohio

Dayton is the sixth-largest city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County.

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Dayton-Wright Cabin Cruiser

The Dayton-Wright KT Cabin Cruiser was a 1920s American three-seat touring aircraft built by the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company in Dayton, Ohio.

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Dayton-Wright Company

The Dayton-Wright Company was formed in 1917, on the declaration of war between the United States and Germany, by a group of Ohio investors that included Charles F. Kettering and Edward A. Deeds of Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (DELCO).

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De Havilland

De Havilland Aircraft Company Limited was a British aviation manufacturer established in late 1920 by Geoffrey de Havilland at Stag Lane Aerodrome Edgware on the outskirts of north London.

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De Havilland Mosquito

The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito is a British twin-engine shoulder-winged multi-role combat aircraft.

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Dux Factory

Dux (Zavod "Duks") was a bicycle/automobile/aircraft factory in Moscow, Russia before and during World War I. The factory was founded in 1893.

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Egbert Cadbury

Major (Honorary Air Commodore) Sir Egbert "Bertie" Cadbury (20 April 1893 – 12 January 1967) was a British businessman, a member of the Cadbury family, who as a First World War pilot shot down two Zeppelins over the North Sea: L.21 on 28 November 1916, and L.70 on 6 August 1918: the latter while flying a De Havilland DH.4 with Robert Leckie as observer/gunner.

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Erwin R. Bleckley

Erwin R. Bleckley (born Erwin Russell Bleckley; December 30, 1894 – October 6, 1918) was a United States Army aviator during World War I, and posthumous recipient of the Medal of Honor, killed in action on October 6, 1918, near the "lost battalion". Bleckley entered service as a member of the Kansas National Guard, was commissioned as an artillery officer, then volunteered for aviation training and duty.

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Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum

The Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum is an aviation museum which displays a number of military and civilian aircraft and spacecraft, most notably, the Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose.

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Fantasy of Flight

Fantasy of Flight is an aviation-related attraction in Polk City, Florida, United States that takes visitors back to the pioneering days of early flight, World War I, World War II and beyond.

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Felixstowe is a seaside town in Suffolk, England.

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Fiat Automobiles

Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.

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Fisher Body

Fisher Body was an automobile coachbuilder founded by the Fisher brothers in 1908 in Detroit, Michigan; it had been a division of General Motors for many years, but in 1984 was dissolved to form other General Motors divisions.

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Flight International

Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom.

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Float (nautical)

Floats (also called pontoons) are airtight hollow structures, similar to pressure vessels, designed to provide buoyancy in water.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Geoffrey de Havilland

Captain Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, OM, CBE, AFC, RDI, FRAeS (27 July 1882 – 21 May 1965) was a British aviation pioneer and aerospace engineer.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gunnery sergeant

Gunnery sergeant (GySgt) is the seventh enlisted rank in the United States Marine Corps, just above staff sergeant and below master sergeant and first sergeant, and is a staff non-commissioned officer (SNCO).

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Handley Page Transport

Handley Page Transport Ltd was an airline company founded in 1919 by Frederick Handley Page in the new era of civil flying after the First World War.

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Hansa-Brandenburg W.29

The Hansa-Brandenburg W.29 was a German monoplane fighter floatplane which served in the closing months of World War I, from bases on the North Sea coast.

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Harold Ernest Goettler

Harold Ernest Goettler (July 21, 1890 – October 6, 1918) was a U.S. Army Air Service aviator killed in action on October 6, 1918 while locating the Lost Battalion of the 77th Division during World War I. He died of wounds resulting from German fire from the ground during the flight.

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Hellenic Air Force

The Hellenic Air Force (HAF; Πολεμική Αεροπορία, Polemikí Aeroporía, literally "War Aviation", sometimes abbreviated as ΠΑ) is the air force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).

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Hellenic Navy

The Hellenic Navy (HN; Πολεμικό Ναυτικό, Polemikó Naftikó, abbreviated ΠΝ) is the naval force of Greece, part of the Hellenic Armed Forces.

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Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum

The Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum, located at Creve Coeur Airport in Maryland Heights, Missouri, USA is a museum dedicated to restoring and preserving historical aircraft.

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History of the Iranian Air Force

The history of the Iranian Air Force can be divided into two phases—before the Islamic Revolution, and after it.

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Hounslow Heath Aerodrome

Hounslow Heath Aerodrome was a grass airfield, operational 1914-1920.

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Imperial Airways

Imperial Airways was the early British commercial long-range airline, operating from 1924 to 1939 and serving parts of Europe but principally the British Empire routes to South Africa, India and the Far East, including Malaya and Hong Kong.

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Imperial Gift

The Imperial Gift was the donation of aircraft from British surplus stocks after the First World War to the Dominions: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the Empire of India.

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Independent Air Force

The Independent Air Force (IAF), also known as the Independent Force or the Independent Bombing Force and later known as the Inter-Allied Independent Air Force, was a First World War strategic bombing force which was part of the British Royal Air Force and was used to strike against German railways, aerodromes, and industrial centres without co-ordination with the Army or Navy.

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Instone Air Line

Instone Air Line was an early British airline from 1919 to 1924.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Lewis gun

The Lewis gun (or Lewis automatic machine gun or Lewis automatic rifle) is a First World War-era light machine gun of US design that was perfected and mass-produced in the United Kingdom, and widely used by British and British Empire troops during the war.

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Liberty L-12

The Liberty L-12 was an American 27-litre (1,649 cubic inch) water-cooled 45° V-12 aircraft engine of designed for a high power-to-weight ratio and ease of mass production.

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Light bomber

A light bomber is a relatively small and fast type of military bomber aircraft that was primarily employed before the 1950s.

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London Evening Standard

The London Evening Standard (or simply Evening Standard) is a local, free daily newspaper, published Monday to Friday in tabloid format in London.

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Lost Battalion (World War I)

The Lost Battalion is the name given to the nine companies of the United States 77th Division, roughly 554 men, isolated by German forces during World War I after an American attack in the Argonne Forest in October 1918.

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M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun

The Colt–Browning M1895, nicknamed "potato digger" because of its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute.

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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Maiden flight

The maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground under its own power.

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Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

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Marlin Firearms

Marlin Firearms Co., formerly of North Haven, Connecticut, is a manufacturer of semi-automatic, lever-action, and bolt-action rifles.

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Maryland Heights, Missouri

Maryland Heights is a second-ring west-central suburb of St. Louis, located in St. Louis County, Missouri, United States.

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McMinnville, Oregon

McMinnville is the county seat of and largest city in Yamhill County, Oregon, United States.

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Medal of Honor

The Medal of Honor is the United States of America's highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U.S. military service members who distinguished themselves by acts of valor.

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Meuse-Argonne Offensive

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive (also known as Battles of the Meuse-Argonne and the Meuse-Argonne Campaign) was a major part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front.

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Mexican Air Force

The Mexican Air Force (FAM; Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Mexicana) is the primary aerial warfare service branch of the Mexican Armed Forces.

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Museo del Aire (Madrid)

The Museo del Aire, full title in Spanish Museo de Aeronáutica y Astronáutica o Museo del Aire, is an aviation museum located in the outskirts of Madrid at Cuatro Vientos Airport, Spain.

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Napier Lion

The Napier Lion was a 12-cylinder 'broad arrow' W12 configuration aircraft engine built by D. Napier & Son from 1917 until the 1930s.

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National Air and Space Museum

The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..

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National Museum of the Marine Corps

The National Museum of the Marine Corps is the historical museum of the United States Marine Corps.

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National Museum of the United States Air Force

The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, northeast of Dayton, Ohio.

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National Postal Museum

The National Postal Museum, located opposite Union Station in Washington, D.C., United States, was established through joint agreement between the United States Postal Service and the Smithsonian Institution and opened in 1993.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicaraguan Air Force

The Nicaraguan Air Force continues the former Sandinista air units.

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No. 2 Squadron RAF

Not to be confused with No. 2 Squadron RAF Regiment No.

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No. 55 Squadron RAF


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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

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Paris–Le Bourget Airport

Paris–Le Bourget Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Le Bourget) is an airport located within portions of the communes of Le Bourget, Bonneuil-en-France, Dugny and Gonesse, north-northeast (NNE) of Paris, France.

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Paul Mantz

Albert Paul Mantz (August 2, 1903 – July 8, 1965), known as Paul Mantz, was a noted air racing pilot, movie stunt pilot and consultant from the late 1930s until his death in the mid-1960s.

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Pearson Air Museum

The Pearson Air Museum is an aviation museum at Pearson Field in Vancouver, Washington, USA.

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Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.

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Polikarpov Design Bureau was a Soviet OKB (design bureau) for aircraft, led by Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov.

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Polk City, Florida

Polk City is a city in Polk County, Florida, United States.

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A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.

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Qantas Airways is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations.

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The RAF 3 was a British liquid-cooled, V-12 engine developed for aircraft use during World War I. Based on the eight–cylinder RAF 1 it was designed by the Royal Aircraft Factory but produced by the two British companies of Armstrong Whitworth and Napier & Son.

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Ralph Talbot

Ralph Talbot (January 6, 1897 – October 25, 1918) was the first United States Marine Corps aviator to receive the Medal of Honor — for "exceptionally meritorious service and extraordinary heroism" while attached to Squadron C, U.S. 1st Marine Aviation Force|1st Marine Aviation Force, in France during World War I.

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Robert G. Robinson

Robert Guy Robinson (April 30, 1896 – October 5, 1974) was a United States Marine Corps First Lieutenant who earned the Medal of Honor as a gunnery sergeant during World War I.

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Robert Leckie (RCAF officer)

Air Marshal Robert Leckie, (16 April 1890 – 31 March 1975) was an air officer in the Royal Air Force and the Chief of the Air Staff of the Royal Canadian Air Force from 1944 to 1947.

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Rolls-Royce Eagle

The Rolls-Royce Eagle was the first aircraft engine to be developed by Rolls-Royce Limited.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Aircraft Establishment

The Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) was a British research establishment, known by several different names during its history, that eventually came under the aegis of the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), before finally losing its identity in mergers with other institutions.

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Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5

The Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 was a British biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War.

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Royal Canadian Air Force

The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force of Canada.

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Royal Flying Corps

The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.

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Royal Naval Air Service

The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy, under the direction of the Admiralty's Air Department, and existed formally from 1 July 1914Admiralty Circular CW.13963/14, 1 July 1914: "Royal Naval Air Service – Organisation" to 1 April 1918, when it was merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps to form a new service, the Royal Air Force, the first of its kind in the world.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Royal New Zealand Air Force

The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) (Maori: Te Tauaarangi o Aotearoa, "New Zealand Warriors of the Sky"; previously Te Hokowhitu o Kahurangi, "War Party of the Blue") is the air force component of the New Zealand Defence Force.

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A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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SABCA (Sociétés Anonyme Belge de Constructions Aéronautiques) is a Belgian aerospace company, controlled by Dassault Group and Fokker.

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Scarff ring

The Scarff ring was a type of machine gun mounting developed during the First World War by Warrant Officer (Gunner) F. W. Scarff of the Admiralty Air Department for use on two-seater aircraft.

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The SCR-68 (SCR was a military term meaning Set, Complete, Radio) was a military radiotelephone used by the US Army Signal Corps as an aircraft radio in the waning months of World War I.Stoller, H. M Engineering Dept, Western Electric Company, Inc.

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Second lieutenant

Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.

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Siddeley Puma

The Siddeley Puma was a British aero engine developed towards the end of World War I and produced by Siddeley-Deasy.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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The Syndicat national d'Etude des Transports Aériens ("National Union of Study of Aerial Transport"), known by its acronym SNETA, was a Belgian airline which operated from 1919 to 1923 in order to pioneer commercial aviation in Belgium.

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South African Air Force

The South African Air Force (SAAF) is the air force of South Africa, with headquarters in Pretoria.

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Soviet Air Forces

The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.

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The SPAD S.XIII was a French biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War, developed by Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés (SPAD) from the earlier and highly successful SPAD S.VII. During early 1917, the French designer Louis Béchereau, spurred by the approaching obsolescence of the S.VII, decided to develop two new fighter aircraft, the S.XII and the S.XIII, both utilizing a powerful new geared version of the successful Hispano-Suiza 8A engine. The cannon armament of the S.XII was unpopular with most pilots, but the S.XIII proved to be one of the most capable fighters of the war, as well as one of the most-produced, with 8,472 built and orders for around 10,000 more cancelled at the Armistice.Sharpe 2000, p. 272. By the end of the First World War, the S.XIII had equipped virtually every fighter squadron of the ''Aéronautique Militaire''. In addition, the United States Army Air Service also procured the type in bulk during the conflict, and some replaced or supplemented S.VIIs in the Royal Flying Corps (RFC), pending the arrival of Sopwith Dolphins. It proved popular with its pilots; numerous aces from various nations flew the S.XIII during their flying careers. Following the signing of the Armistice of 11 November 1918, which effectively marked the end of the First World War, surplus S.XIIIs were sold in great numbers to both civil and military operators throughout the world.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish Air Force

The Spanish Air Force (SPAF) (Ejército del Aire; literally, "Army of the Air") is the aerial branch of the Spanish Armed Forces.

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Speaking tube

A speaking tube or voicepipe is a device based on two cones connected by an air pipe through which speech can be transmitted over an extended distance.

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Standard Aircraft Corporation

The Standard Aircraft Corporation was an American aircraft manufacturer, founded in Plainfield, New Jersey, in 1916 Standard Aircraft anticipated American entry into World War I, despite an expressed policy of isolationism.

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Strategic bombing

Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.

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A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine.

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Triangle, Virginia

Triangle is a census-designated place (CDP) in Prince William County, Virginia, United States.

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Turkish Air Force

The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army Air Corps

The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America between 1926 and 1941.

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United States Army Air Service

The United States Army Air ServiceCraven and Cate Vol.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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United States occupation of Nicaragua

The United States occupation of Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933 was part of the Banana Wars, when the US military forcefully intervened in various Latin American countries from 1898 to 1934.

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United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.

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Vancouver, Washington

Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, and the largest suburb of Portland, Oregon.

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Vickers machine gun

The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled.303 British (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Westland Aircraft

Westland Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer located in Yeovil, Somerset.

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William Beardmore, 1st Baron Invernairn

William Beardmore, 1st Baron Invernairn DL (16 October 1856 – 9 April 1936), known as Sir William Beardmore, Bt, between 1914 and 1921, was an Anglo-Scottish industrialist, founding the eponymous William Beardmore and Company.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.

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11th Aero Squadron

The 11th Aero Squadron was a Air Service, United States Army unit that fought on the Western Front during World War I. The squadron was assigned as a Day Bombardment Squadron, performing long-range bombing attacks on roads and railroads; destruction of materiel and massed troop formations behind enemy lines.

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20th Aero Squadron

The 20th Aero Squadron was a Air Service, United States Army unit that fought on the Western Front during World War I. The squadron was assigned as a Day Bombardment Squadron, performing long-range bombing attacks on roads and railroads; destruction of materiel and massed troop formations behind enemy lines.

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50th Attack Squadron

The 50th Attack Squadron is a squadron of the United States Air Force, stationed at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina, where it operates unmanned aerial vehicles. It is assigned to the 432d Operations Group, located at Creech Air Force Base, Nevada. Formed in August 1917, as the 50th Aero Squadron, the unit flew observation missions in the American built De Haviland DH-4 over the battlefields of World War I. On 6 October 1918, 1Lt Harold E. Goettler and 2Lt Erwin R. Bleckley, of the 50th Aero Squadron were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the First World War, Volume 3, During World War II as the 431st Bombardment Squadron, the unit earned the Distinguished Unit Citation and the Presidential Unit Citation for its services in the Pacific Theatre. The unit was subsequently inactivated on 20 October 1947. The squadron was reactivated at the United States Air Force Academy on 1 October 1983 and designated the 50th Airmanship Training Squadron. The focus of the 50th changed to the classroom, supporting the instruction of US Air Force Academy Cadets in military strategic studies as the 50th Education Squadron.

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77th Sustainment Brigade

The 77th Sustainment Brigade is a unit of the United States Army that inherited the lineage of the 77th Infantry Division ("Statue of Liberty"), which served in World War I and World War II.

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8th Aero Squadron

The 8th Aero Squadron was a Air Service, United States Army unit that fought on the Western Front during World War I. The squadron was assigned as a Corps Observation Squadron, performing short-range, tactical reconnaissance over the IV Corps, United States First Army sector of the Western Front in France, providing battlefield intelligence.

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91st Aero Squadron

The 91st Aero Squadron was a Air Service, United States Army unit that fought on the Western Front during World War I. The 91st was one of the first five American flying squadrons to arrive in France, arriving at Chaumont Hill 402 Aerodrome on 15 November 1917.

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Redirects here:

Airco D.H.4, Airco DH-4, Airco DH-4B, Airco DH.4A, Airco DH.4B, Airco DH4, Atlantic CO-8, Atlantic DH-4M-2, Atlantic XCO-8, Boeing 16, Boeing DH-4M, Boeing DH-4M-1, Boeing Model 16, Boeing O2B, Boeing O2B-1, Boeing O2B-2, D.H.4, DH-4, DH-4 Liberty, DH-4B, DH.4, DH.4A, DH.4B, DH.4R, Dayton-Wright DH-4, Dayton-Wright DWH-4 Blue Bird, De Haviland DH-4, De Havilland DH-4, De Havilland DH-4B, De Havilland DH.4, De Havilland DH4, DeHavilland DH-4, DeHavilland DH.4, Dh.4, Dh4, Fisher-de Havilland DH-4, Fokker CO-8, Fokker DH-4M, L.W.F. J-2, O2B, US De Havilland DH.4.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airco_DH.4

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