293 relations: Aerial reconnaissance, Aerial refueling, Aerodynamics, Aerotoxic syndrome, Air cargo, Air conditioning, Air France, Air taxi, Airbus, Airbus A300, Airbus A310, Airbus A320 family, Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Airbus A350 XWB, Airbus A380, Airco DH.9A, Aircraft, Aircraft cabin, Aircraft design process, Aircraft lavatory, Aircraft maintenance, Aircraft on ground, Aircraft spotting, Aircraft Transport and Travel, Aircrew, Airline, Airline hub, Airspeed Ambassador, Antonov, Antonov An-148, Antonov An-2, Antonov An-225 Mriya, Argentina, ATR (aircraft manufacturer), ATR 42, ATR 72, Australia, Aviation safety, Avro Tudor, BAC One-Eleven, Beechcraft, Beechcraft 1900, Bending moment, Biplane, Blériot-SPAD S.33, Blended wing body, Boeing, Boeing 247, Boeing 307 Stratoliner, ..., Boeing 314 Clipper, Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, Boeing 707, Boeing 717, Boeing 727, Boeing 737, Boeing 737 Classic, Boeing 737 MAX, Boeing 737 Next Generation, Boeing 747, Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 777X, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter, Bombardier Aerospace, Bombardier CRJ200, Bombardier CRJ700 series, Bombardier CSeries, Bombardier Dash 8, Bomber, Brabazon Committee, Breguet Deux-Ponts, Bristol Aeroplane Company, Bristol Brabazon, Bristol Type 223, British Aerospace Jetstream, British Empire, British European Airways, British Overseas Airways Corporation, Britten-Norman, Buenos Aires, Business class, Business jet, Canaccord Genuity, Canada, Cargo, Cargo aircraft, Cessna, Cessna 208 Caravan, Chemical oxygen generator, Cockpit, Comac, Comac C919, Competition between Airbus and Boeing, Composite material, Concorde, Condensation, Convair CV-240 family, Conveyor belt, Corrosion, Crew rest compartment, Croydon, Curtiss JN-4, De Havilland, De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter, De Havilland Comet, De Havilland DH.34, De Havilland Doncaster, De Havilland Dove, De Havilland Dragon, De Havilland Dragon Rapide, De Havilland Ghost, Douglas C-54 Skymaster, Douglas DC-2, Douglas DC-3, Douglas DC-4, Douglas DC-6, Douglas DC-8, Economic growth, Economy class, Embraer, Embraer E-Jet family, Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante, Embraer ERJ family, Emergency evacuation, Emergency exit, Emergency oxygen system, Energy efficiency in transport, Environmental control system (aircraft), Environmental impact of aviation, Europe, Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner, Far East, Farman F.60 Goliath, Fatigue (material), First class travel, Flag carrier, Flight attendant, Flight length, Flight planning, Fly-by-wire, Flying boat, Fokker, Fokker F.II, Fokker F.III, Fokker F.VII, Ford Trimotor, Fuselage, Galley (kitchen), Gas turbine, General Electric CF6, Geoffrey de Havilland, Handley Page, Handley Page Type W, Hawker Siddeley Trident, Heavy bomber, Hendon Aerodrome, Humidifier, Ilyushin, Ilyushin Il-12, Ilyushin Il-14, Ilyushin Il-18, Ilyushin Il-62, Ilyushin Il-86, Ilyushin Il-96, Imperial Airways, In-flight entertainment, Interest rate, International Air Transport Association, Irkut MC-21, Jet Age, Jet airliner, Jet engine, Jet fuel, John Moore-Brabazon, 1st Baron Brabazon of Tara, Junkers F.13, Kent, Kiev, KLM, Landing gear, Latécoère 631, Le Bourget, Let Kunovice, Lift (force), Light aircraft, Lighting, Liquid-crystal display, List of airliners by maximum takeoff weight, List of civil aircraft, List of light transport aircraft, List of regional airliners, Lisunov Li-2, Lockheed Constellation, Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, London, Lufthansa, Mainline (aeronautics), Martin 2-0-2, Martin 4-0-4, Mass production, Maximum takeoff weight, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, McDonnell Douglas DC-9, McDonnell Douglas MD-11, McDonnell Douglas MD-80, Military aircraft, Military transport aircraft, Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation, Monoplane, Montevideo, Mucous membrane, Napier Lion, Narrow-body aircraft, NASA, New York City, New Zealand, Oxygen mask, Pan American World Airways, Paris, Paris Air Show, Passenger, Passenger service unit, Pilatus PC-12, Piper Aircraft, Point-to-point transit, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, Pressurization, Price of oil, Profit (economics), Propliner, Public toilet, RAF Kenley, Reciprocating engine, Regional airliner, Regional jet, Relative humidity, Rolls-Royce Eagle, Saab 2000, Saab 340, Saint Petersburg, Short circuit, Short Empire, Sikorsky Ilya Muromets, Sikorsky S-38, Sikorsky S-42, SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc, Soviet Union, Spruce, Sud Aviation Caravelle, Sukhoi, Supersonic speed, Supersonic transport, Supply and demand, Swept wing, Toussus-le-Noble, Trans World Airlines, Transatlantic flight, Trijet, Tupolev, Tupolev Tu-104, Tupolev Tu-124, Tupolev Tu-144, Tupolev Tu-154, Tupolev Tu-204, Turbofan, Turbojet, Turboprop, Turbulence, Twinjet, Uncontrolled decompression, Unit load device, United Aircraft Corporation, United Airlines, United Kingdom, United States, United States Air Force, United States Navy, Units of transportation measurement, ValuJet Flight 592, Very important person, Vickers, Vickers VC10, Vickers Vimy, Vickers Viscount, Wide-body aircraft, World War I, World War II, Wright brothers, Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation, Yakovlev. 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Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance for a military or strategic purpose that is conducted using reconnaissance aircraft.
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Aerotoxic syndrome is a phrase coined by Chris Winder and Jean-Christophe Balouet in 2000, to describe their claims of short- and long-term ill-health effects caused by breathing airliner cabin air which was alleged to have been contaminated to toxic levels (exceeding known, parts per million, safe levels) with atomized engine oils or other chemicals.
Air cargo is any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France.
An air taxi is a small commercial aircraft which makes short flights on demand.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airbus A300 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A310 is a medium- to long-range twin-engined wide-body jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus, then a consortium of European aerospace manufacturers.
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus.
The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus.
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.
The Airco DH.9A was a British single-engined light bomber designed and first used shortly before the end of the First World War.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel.
The aircraft design process is the engineering design process by which aircraft are designed.
An aircraft lavatory is a small room on an aircraft with a toilet and sink.
Aircraft maintenance is the overhaul, repair, inspection or modification of an aircraft or aircraft component.
Aircraft on Ground or AOG is a term in aviation maintenance indicating that a problem is serious enough to prevent an aircraft from flying.
Aircraft spotting or plane spotting is a hobby of tracking the movement of aircraft, which is often accomplished by photography.
Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited was a British airline formed during the First World War, a subsidiary of Airco.
Aircrew, also called flight crew, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.
The Airspeed AS.57 Ambassador was a British twin piston-engined airliner that first flew on 10 July 1947 and served in small numbers through the 1950s and 1960s.
Antonov State Company (Державне підприємство "Антонов"), formerly the Aeronautical Scientific-Technical Complex named Antonov (Antonov ASTC) (Авіаційний науково-технічний комплекс імені Антонова, (АНТК ім. Антонова)), and earlier the Antonov Design Bureau, is a Soviet, and later a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company.
The Antonov An-148 (Антонов Ан-148) is a regional jet designed and built by Antonov of Ukraine.
The Antonov An-2 (Russian nickname: "Annushka" or "Annie"; "kukuruznik" - corn crop duster; USAF/DoD reporting name Type 22, NATO reporting name Colt) is a Soviet mass-produced single-engine biplane utility/agricultural aircraft designed and manufactured by the Antonov Design Bureau beginning in 1946.
The Antonov An-225 Mriya (Антонов Ан-225, lit, NATO reporting name: "Cossack") is a strategic airlift cargo aircraft that was designed by the Antonov Design Bureau in the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union during the 1980s.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
ATR (Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de transport régional; Regional Air Transport in English) is a Franco-Italian aircraft manufacturer headquartered on the grounds of Toulouse Blagnac International Airport in Blagnac, France.
The ATR 42 is a twin-turboprop, short-haul regional airliner developed and manufactured in France and Italy by ATR (Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de transport régional), a joint venture formed by French aerospace company Aérospatiale (now Airbus) and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia (now Leonardo S.p.A.). The number "42" in its name is derived from the aircraft's standard seating configuration in a passenger-carrying configuration, which typically varies between 40 and 52 passengers.
The ATR 72 is a twin-engine turboprop, short-haul regional airliner developed and produced in France and Italy by aircraft manufacturer ATR (Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de transport régional), a joint venture formed by French aerospace company Aérospatiale (now Airbus) and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia (now Leonardo S.p.A.). The number "72" in its name is derived from the aircraft's standard seating configuration in a passenger-carrying configuration, which could seat 72–78 passengers in a single-class arrangement.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Aviation safety means the state of an aviation system or organization in which risks associated with aviation activities, related to, or in direct support of the operation of aircraft, are reduced and controlled to an acceptable level.
The Avro Type 688 Tudor was a British piston-engined airliner based on Avro's four-engine Lincoln bomber, itself a descendant of the famous Lancaster heavy bomber, and was Britain's first pressurised airliner.
The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111 or BAC 1-11, is a British short-range jet airliner used during the 1960s and 1970s.
Beechcraft is a brand of Textron Aviation since 2014.
The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop fixed-wing aircraft that was manufactured by Beechcraft.
A bending moment is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force or moment is applied to the element causing the element to bend.
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other.
The Bleriot-SPAD S.33 was a small French airliner developed soon after World War I. The aircraft was a biplane of conventional configuration whose design owed much to the Blériot company's contemporary fighter designs such as the S.20.
A Blended wing body (BWB or Hybrid Wing Body, HWB) is a fixed-wing aircraft having no clear dividing line between the wings and the main body of the craft.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing Model 247 was an early United States airliner, considered the first such aircraft to fully incorporate advances such as all-metal (anodized aluminium) semimonocoque construction, a fully cantilevered wing and retractable landing gear.
The Boeing Model 307 Stratoliner was the first commercial transport aircraft to enter service with a pressurized cabin.
The Boeing 314 Clipper was a long-range flying boat produced by the Boeing Airplane Company between 1938 and 1941.
The Boeing 377 Stratocruiser was a large long-range airliner developed from the C-97 Stratofreighter military transport, itself a derivative of the B-29 Superfortress.
The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979.
The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner, developed for the 100-seat market.
The Boeing 727 is a midsized, narrow-body three-engined jet aircraft built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from the early 1960s to 1984.
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States.
The Boeing 737 Classic refers to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737.
The Boeing 737 MAX is an American narrow-body aircraft series designed and produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes as the fourth generation of the Boeing 737, succeeding the Boeing 737 Next Generation (NG).
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as 737NG, is the name given to the −600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 airliner.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner that was designed and built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 777X is a new series of the long-range wide-body twin-engine Boeing 777 family that is under development by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter is a long-range heavy military cargo aircraft developed from the B-29 and B-50 bombers.
Bombardier Aerospace (Bombardier Aéronautique) is a division of Bombardier Inc. It is headquartered in Dorval, Quebec, Canada.
The Bombardier CRJ100 and CRJ200 (formerly known as the Canadair CRJ100 and CRJ200) are a family of regional airliners designed and manufactured by Bombardier.
The Bombardier CRJ700, CRJ900, and CRJ1000 are regional jet airliners manufactured by Bombardier and based on the CRJ200.
The Bombardier CSeries or C Series is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range jet airliners designed by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace.
The Bombardier Dash 8 or Q-Series, previously known as the de Havilland Canada Dash 8 or DHC-8, is a series of twin-engine, medium-range, turboprop airliners.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
The Brabazon Committee formed on 23 December 1942 under John Moore-Brabazon, 1st Baron Brabazon of Tara to investigate the future needs of the British Empire's civilian airliner market.
The Breguet 761/763/765 are a family of 1940s and 1950s French double-deck transport aircraft produced by Breguet Aviation.
The Bristol Aeroplane Company, originally the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, was both one of the first and one of the most important British aviation companies, designing and manufacturing both airframes and aircraft engines.
The Bristol Type 167 Brabazon was a large propeller-driven airliner which was designed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company to fly transatlantic routes between the United Kingdom and the United States.
The Bristol Aeroplane Company Type 223 was an early design for a supersonic transport.
The British Aerospace Jetstream is a small twin-turboprop airliner, with a pressurised fuselage, developed as the Jetstream 31 from the earlier Handley Page Jetstream.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British European Airways (BEA), formally British European Airways Corporation, was a British airline which existed from 1946 until 1974.
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd.
Britten-Norman (often referred to as BN) is a British aircraft manufacturer and aviation services provider beneficially owned by a consortium which includes two members of the Zawawi family from the Sultanate of Oman.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Business class is a travel class available on many commercial airlines and rail lines, known by brand names which vary, by airline or rail company.
A business jet, private jet, or bizjet, or simply B.J., is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people.
Canaccord Genuity Group Inc. is a global, full-service investment banking and financial services company that specializes in wealth management and brokerage in capital markets.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land.
A cargo aircraft (also known as freight aircraft, freighter, airlifter or cargo jet) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is designed or converted for the carriage of cargo rather than passengers.
The Cessna Aircraft Company was an American general aviation aircraft manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas.
The Cessna 208 Caravan is an American single-engined turboprop, fixed-tricycle landing gear, short-haul regional airliner and utility aircraft that is built by Cessna.
A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen via a chemical reaction.
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.
The Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, Ltd. (Comac) is a Chinese state-owned aerospace manufacturer established on 11 May 2008 in Shanghai, China.
The Comac C919 is a narrow-body twinjet airliner developed by Chinese aerospace manufacturer Comac.
The competition between Airbus and Boeing has been characterised as a duopoly in the large jet airliner market since the 1990s.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
The Convair CV-240 is an American airliner produced by Convair from 1947 to 1954, initially as a possible replacement of the ubiquitous Douglas DC-3.
A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system (often shortened to belt conveyor).
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A crew rest compartment (crew rest) is a section of an airliner dedicated for breaks and sleeping by crew members, usually located above or adjacent to the passenger compartment.
Croydon is a large town in south London, England, south of Charing Cross.
The Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" was one of a series of "JN" biplanes built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport, New York, later the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company.
De Havilland Aircraft Company Limited was a British aviation manufacturer established in late 1920 by Geoffrey de Havilland at Stag Lane Aerodrome Edgware on the outskirts of north London.
The de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter, currently marketed as the Viking Air DHC-6 Twin Otter, is a Canadian 19-passenger STOL (Short Takeoff and Landing) utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada and currently produced by Viking Air.
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner.
The de Havilland DH.34 was a single engined British biplane airliner built by the de Havilland Aircraft Company in the 1920s.
The de Havilland DH.29 Doncaster was a British long-range monoplane of the 1920s built by de Havilland.
The de Havilland DH.104 Dove was a British short-haul airliner developed and manufactured by de Havilland.
The de Havilland DH.84 Dragon was a successful small commercial aircraft designed and built by the de Havilland company.
The de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide was a 1930s short-haul biplane airliner developed and produced by British aircraft company de Havilland.
The de Havilland Ghost (originally Halford H-2) was the de Havilland Engine Company's second turbojet engine design to enter production and the world's first gas turbine engine to enter airline (BOAC) service.
The Douglas C-54 Skymaster is a four-engined transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and the Korean War.
The Douglas DC-2 is a 14-seat, twin-engined airliner that was produced by the American company Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934.
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner with tailwheel-type landing gear.
The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engine (piston) propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company.
The Douglas DC-6 is a piston-powered airliner and transport aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1946 to 1958.
The Douglas DC-8 (also known as the McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is an American four-engine long-range narrow-body jet airliner built from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economy class, also called coach class, steerage, standard class or (slang) cattle class, is the lowest travel class of seating in air travel, rail travel, and sometimes ferry or maritime travel.
Embraer S.A. is a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, executive and agricultural aircraft and provides aeronautical services.
The Embraer E-Jet family is a series of narrow-body medium-range twin-engine jet airliners, carrying 66 to 124 passengers commercially, manufactured by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer.
The Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante is a Brazilian general purpose 15–21 passenger twin-turboprop light transport aircraft designed by Embraer for military and civil use.
The Embraer ERJ family is a series of twin-engine regional jets produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace company.
Emergency evacuation is the urgent immediate egress or escape of people away from an area that contains an imminent threat, an ongoing threat or a hazard to lives or property.
An emergency exit in a structure is a special exit for emergencies such as a fire: the combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular exit is blocked by fire, etc.
Aircraft emergency oxygen systems are emergency equipment fitted to pressurized commercial aircraft, intended for use when the cabin pressurisation system has failed and the cabin altitude has climbed above a safe level.
The energy efficiency in transport is the useful travelled distance, of passengers, goods or any type of load; divided by the total energy put into the transport propulsion means.
The environmental control system (ECS) of an aircraft provides air supply, thermal control and cabin pressurization for the crew and passengers.
The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner (previously the Swearingen Metro and later Fairchild Aerospace Metro) is a 19-seat, pressurized, twin-turboprop airliner first produced by Swearingen Aircraft and later by Fairchild at a plant in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
The Farman F.60 Goliath was a French airliner and bomber produced by the Farman Aviation Works from 1919.
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
First class is the most luxurious travel class of seats and service on a train, passenger ship, airplane, bus, or other system of transport.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Flight attendants or cabin crew (also known as stewards/stewardesses, air hosts/hostesses, cabin attendants) are members of an aircrew employed by airlines primarily to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights, on select business jet aircraft, and on some military aircraft.
In aviation, the flight length is defined as the distance of a flight.
Flight planning is the process of producing a flight plan to describe a proposed aircraft flight.
Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water, that usually has no type of landing gear to allow operation on land.
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker.
The Fokker F.II was the first of a long series of commercial aircraft from the Fokker Aircraft Company, flying in 1919.
The Fokker F.III was a single-engined high-winged monoplane aircraft produced in the 1920s by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.
The Fokker F.VII, also known as the Fokker Trimotor, was an airliner produced in the 1920s by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker, Fokker's American subsidiary Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, and other companies under licence.
The Ford Trimotor (also called the "Tri-Motor", and nicknamed "The Tin Goose") is an American three-engined transport aircraft.
The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.
The galley is the compartment of a ship, train, or aircraft where food is cooked and prepared.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation.
Captain Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, OM, CBE, AFC, RDI, FRAeS (27 July 1882 – 21 May 1965) was a British aviation pioneer and aerospace engineer.
Handley Page Limited was founded by Frederick Handley Page (later Sir Frederick) in 1909 as the United Kingdom's first publicly traded aircraft manufacturing company.
The Handley Page W.8, W.9 and W.10 were British two- and three-engine medium-range biplane airliners designed and built by Handley Page.
The Hawker Siddeley HS 121 Trident (originally the de Havilland D.H.121 and the Airco DH 121) was a British short- (and later medium-) range airliner.
Heavy bombers are bomber aircraft capable of delivering the largest payload of air-to-ground weaponry (usually bombs) and longest range of their era.
Hendon Aerodrome was an aerodrome in London, England, that was an important centre for aviation from 1908 to 1968.
A humidifier is a device that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or an entire building.
Public Joint Stock Company Ilyushin Aviation Complex, operating as Ilyushin (Ilyushin) (Илью́шин) or Ilyushin Design Bureau, is a Russian aircraft manufacturer and design bureau, founded by Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin.
The Ilyushin Il-12 (NATO reporting name: Coach) was a Soviet twin-engine cargo aircraft, developed in the mid-1940s for small and medium-haul airline routes and as a military transport.
The Ilyushin Il-14 (NATO reporting name: Crate) was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950, and entered service in 1954.
The Ilyushin Il-18 (Илью́шин Ил-18; NATO reporting name: Coot) is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and durable Soviet aircraft of its era.
The Ilyushin IL-62 (Илью́шин Ил-62; NATO reporting name: Classic) is a Soviet long-range narrow-body jet airliner conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin.
The Ilyushin Il-86 (Илью́шин Ил-86; NATO reporting name: Camber) is a short/medium-range wide-body jet airliner.
The Ilyushin Il-96 (Илью́шин Ил-96) is a Russian four-engined long-haul wide-body airliner designed by Ilyushin in the former Soviet Union and manufactured by the Voronezh Aircraft Production Association in Russia.
Imperial Airways was the early British commercial long-range airline, operating from 1924 to 1939 and serving parts of Europe but principally the British Empire routes to South Africa, India and the Far East, including Malaya and Hong Kong.
In-flight entertainment (IFE) refers to the entertainment available to aircraft passengers during a flight.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.
The Irkut MC-21 (Иркут МС-21) is a Russian single-aisle twinjet airliner, developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau and produced by its parent Irkut, a branch of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC).
The Jet Age is a period in the history of aviation defined by the advent of aircraft powered by turbine engines, and by the social change this brought about.
A jet airliner (or jetliner) is an airliner powered by jet engines (passenger jet aircraft).
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
Lieutenant-Colonel John Theodore Cuthbert Moore-Brabazon, 1st Baron Brabazon of Tara, (8 February 1884 – 17 May 1964) was an English aviation pioneer and Conservative politician.
The Junkers F.13 (also known as the F 13) was the world's first all-metal transport aircraft, developed in Germany at the end of World War I. It was an advanced cantilever-wing monoplane, with enclosed accommodation for four passengers.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, legally Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V., is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands.
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.
The Latécoère 631 was a civil transatlantic flying boat built by Latécoère, the largest ever built up to its time.
Le Bourget is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France.
Aircraft Industries, a.s.,"." Let Kunovice.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
A light aircraft is an aircraft that has a maximum gross takeoff weight of or less.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
This is a list of aircraft sorted by maximum takeoff weight.
List of civil aircraft is a list of articles on civilian aircraft with descriptions, which excludes aircraft operated by military organizations in civil markings, warbirds, warbirds used for racing, replica warbirds and research aircraft.
The list of light transport aircraft details single- and twin-engined aircraft used for hire by the very smallest of regional, commuter, feeder, air taxi, on demand, or charter type of operators for air service.
The following is a list of commercial short-haul civilian passenger "regional" airliners with significant build numbers.
The Lisunov Li-2, originally designated PS-84, was a license-built version of the Douglas DC-3.
The Lockheed Constellation ("Connie") is a propeller-driven, four-engined airliner built by Lockheed Corporation between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California.
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company.
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 (pronounced "L-ten-eleven") or TriStar, is a medium-to-long-range, wide-body trijet airliner by Lockheed Corporation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017.
A mainline flight is a flight operated by an airline's main operating unit, rather than by regional alliances, regional code-shares, regional subsidiaries, or wholly owned subsidiaries offering low-cost operations.
The Martin 2-0-2 was an airliner introduced in 1947.
The Martin 4-0-4 was an American pressurized passenger airliner built by the Glenn L. Martin Company.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
The maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) or maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) or maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits.
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine wide-body jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas.
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner.
The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American three-engine medium- to long-range wide-body jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 is a series of twin-engine, short- to medium-range, single-aisle commercial jet airliners.
A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type.
Military transport aircraft or military cargo aircraft are typically fixed wing and rotary wing cargo aircraft which are used to airlift troops, weapons and other military equipment by a variety of methods to any area of military operations around the surface of the planet, usually outside the commercial flight routes in uncontrolled airspace.
is a Japanese company dedicated to the development, production, sales and support of the Mitsubishi Regional Jet passenger airliner.
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The Napier Lion was a 12-cylinder 'broad arrow' W12 configuration aircraft engine built by D. Napier & Son from 1917 until the 1930s.
A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle permitting up to 6-abreast seating in a cabin below of width.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs.
Pan American World Airways, originally founded as Pan American Airways and commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Air Show (Salon international de l'aéronautique et de l'espace de Paris-Le Bourget, Salon du Bourget) is the largest Air Show before UK's Farnborough, followed by Dubai Air Show or Singapore Airshow.
A passenger (also abbreviated as pax) is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle.
A passenger service unit (PSU) is an aircraft component situated above each row in the overhead panel above the passenger seats in the cabin of airliners.
The Pilatus PC-12 is a single-engine turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland.
Piper Aircraft, Inc., is a manufacturer of general aviation aircraft, located at the Vero Beach Municipal Airport in Vero Beach, Florida, United States and owned since 2009 by the Government of Brunei.
Point-to-point transit refers to a transportation system in which a plane, bus, or train travels directly to a destination, rather than going through a central hub.
The Pratt & Whitney PW4000 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines with certified thrust ranging from 52,000 to 99,040 lbf (230 to 441 kN).
Pressurization (or Pressurisation) is the application of pressure in a given situation or environment.
The price of oil, or the oil price, (generally) refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil—a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent ICE, Dubai Crude, OPEC Reference Basket, Tapis Crude, Bonny Light, Urals oil, Isthmus and Western Canadian Select (WCS).
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
A propliner is a large, propeller-driven airliner.
A public toilet is a room or small building with one or more toilets (or urinals) available for use by the general public, or by customers or employees of a business.
The former Royal Air Force Station Kenley, more commonly known as RAF Kenley was a station of the Royal Flying Corps in the First World War and the RAF in the Second World War.
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.
A regional airliner or a feederliner is a small airliner that is designed to fly up to 100 passengers on short-haul flights, usually feeding larger carriers' airline hubs from small markets.
A regional jet (RJ) is a class of short to medium-range turbofan powered regional airliners.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
The Rolls-Royce Eagle was the first aircraft engine to be developed by Rolls-Royce Limited.
The Saab 2000 is a twin-engined high-speed turboprop airliner built by Saab.
The Saab 340 is a Swedish twin-engine turboprop aircraft designed and initially produced by a partnership between Saab AB and Fairchild Aircraft in a 65:35 ratio.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.
The Short Empire was a medium-range four-engined monoplane flying boat, designed and developed by Short Brothers during the 1930s to meet the requirements of the growing commercial airline sector, with a particular emphasis upon its usefulness upon the then-core routes that served the United Kingdom.
The Sikorsky Ilya Muromets (Сикорский Илья Муромец) (Sikorsky S-22, S-23, S-24, S-25, S-26 and S-27) were a class of Russian pre-World War I large four-engine commercial airliners and military heavy bombers used during World War I by the Russian Empire.
The Sikorsky S-38 was an American twin-engined eight-seat sesquiplane amphibious aircraft.
The Sikorsky S-42 was a commercial flying boat designed and built by Sikorsky Aircraft to meet requirements for a long-range flying boat laid out by Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) in 1931.
The SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc was a French four-engined airliner produced by SNCASE (Sud-Est).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was a French short/medium-range jet airliner.
The JSC Sukhoi Company (ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, and designs both civilian and military aircraft.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
A supersonic transport (SST) is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.
Toussus-le-Noble is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
Trans World Airlines (TWA) was a major American airline from 1924 until 2001.
A transatlantic flight is the flight of an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe, Africa or the Middle East to North America, Central America, or South America, or vice versa.
A trijet is a jet aircraft powered by three jet engines.
Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
The Tupolev Tu-104 (NATO reporting name: Camel) was a twinjet medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner.
The Tupolev Tu-124 (NATO reporting name: Cookpot) was a 56-passenger short-range twinjet airliner built in the Soviet Union.
The Tupolev Tu-144 (Tyполев Ту-144; NATO reporting name: Charger) is a retired jet airliner and commercial supersonic transport aircraft (SST).
The Tupolev Tu-154 (Tyполев Ту-154; NATO reporting name: "Careless") is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev.
The Tupolev Tu-204 (Туполев Ту-204) is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine, typically used in aircraft.
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
A twinjet or twin-engine jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines.
Uncontrolled decompression is an unplanned drop in the pressure of a sealed system, such as an aircraft cabin or hyperbaric chamber, and typically results from human error, material fatigue, engineering failure, or impact, causing a pressure vessel to vent into its lower-pressure surroundings or fail to pressurize at all.
A unit load device (ULD) is a pallet or container used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft.
The PJSC United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) is a Russian aerospace and defense corporation.
United Airlines, Inc., commonly referred to as United, is a major United States airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The units of transportation measurement describes the unit of measurement used to measure the quantity and traffic of transportation used in transportation statistics, planning, and their related fields.
ValuJet Flight 592 was a regularly scheduled flight from Miami International Airport to Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
A very important person (VIP) is a person who is accorded special privileges due to their status or importance.
Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999.
The Vickers VC10 is a mid-sized, narrow-body long-range British jet airliner designed and built by Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) Ltd and first flown at Brooklands, Surrey, in 1962.
The Vickers Vimy was a British heavy bomber aircraft developed and manufactured by Vickers Limited.
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs.
A wide-body aircraft is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles, also known as twin-aisle aircraft, with seven or more seats abreast.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane.
Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation, also known as Xi'an Aircraft Company Limited (XAC), is a Chinese aircraft manufacturer and developer of large and medium-sized airplanes.
The JSC A.S. Yakovlev Design Bureau (ОАО Опытно-конструкторское бюро им.) is a Russian aircraft designer and manufacturer (design office prefix Yak).
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