197 relations: Aéro-Club de France, Abbas ibn Firnas, Ader Éole, Aerodynamics, Aeronautics, Afterburner, Airborne aircraft carrier, Airbus, Airbus A380, Aircraft engine, Aircraft flight control system, Aircraft flight mechanics, Aircraft noise, Aircrew, Airfoil, Airlift, Airliner, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Alexander Lippisch, Alexander Mozhaysky, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Archytas, Aspect ratio, Atmospheric entry, Aulus Gellius, Aviation, Aviation in World War I, Battle of Britain, Bell X-1, Biplane, Blériot VIII, Blériot XI, Blitzkrieg, Boeing, Boeing 707, Boeing 747, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Bombardier Dash 8, Box kite, Canard (aeronautics), Catapult, Cessna 172, Cheston Lee Eshelman, Clément Ader, Cockpit, Codex on the Flight of Birds, Commercial aviation, Commonwealth of Nations, Composite material, ..., Concorde, Convair B-36 Peacemaker, Daedalus, De Havilland Comet, Delta wing, Eilmer of Malmesbury, Electric aircraft, Electric battery, Electric motor, Elevator (aeronautics), Empennage, Engine, English Channel, Environmental impact of aviation, European Aviation Safety Agency, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Federal Aviation Administration, Fighter aircraft, Fixed-wing aircraft, Flap (aeronautics), Flat engine, Flight altitude record, Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft), Flight instruments, Flight International, Flight test, Fly-by-wire, Flying ace, Flying wing, Fuel cell, Fuel efficiency, Fuselage, Gas turbine, George Cayley, Glider (aircraft), Greek mythology, Heinkel He 178, Hiram Maxim, History of aviation, Homebuilt aircraft, Horsepower, Horten brothers, Hypersonic speed, Icarus, Indian epic poetry, Inline engine (aeronautics), Internal combustion engine, Jack Northrop, JATO, Jean-Marie Le Bris, Jet aircraft, Jet airliner, Jet engine, John Joseph Montgomery, Joystick, Kilometre, Kite, Kurt Wintgens, Landing, Landing gear, Latin, Lawrence Hargrave, Leading-edge slat, Leonardo da Vinci, Lift (force), Lockheed D-21, Luftstreitkräfte, Luftwaffe, Mach number, Maneuvering speed, Manfred von Richthofen, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, Messerschmitt Me 262, Military aviation, Monoplane, Motive power, Multiplane (aeronautics), Multiplane camera, Nadcap, NASA X-43, Noise pollution, North American X-15, Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, Octave Chanute, Otto Lilienthal, Pacific War, Payload, Percy Pilcher, Plane (geometry), Propeller, Propeller (aeronautics), Radar, Radial engine, Ramjet, Reciprocating engine, Recreation, Rocket engine, Rocket-powered aircraft, Rogallo wing, Rotorcraft, Rudder, Scramjet, Solar cell, Sonic boom, Sound barrier, Space Shuttle design process, Spacecraft, Spaceplane, SpaceShipOne, Speed of sound, Stealth aircraft, Stealth technology, Steam engine, Supercapacitor, Supersonic aircraft, Supersonic speed, Supersonic transport, Swept wing, Synecdoche, Tailless aircraft, Tailplane, Takeoff, Tandem wing, Technology and Culture, Thrust, Thrust reversal, Time (magazine), Time Inc., Tonne, Tractor configuration, Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, Transport Canada, Triplane, Turbofan, Turbojet, United States Air Force, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Variable-sweep wing, Vertical stabilizer, Vimana, Wing configuration, Wireless power transfer, World War I, World War II, Wright brothers, Wright Flyer III, XCOR EZ-Rocket. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
The Aéro-Club de France was founded as the Aéro-Club on 20 October 1898 as a society 'to encourage aerial locomotion' by Ernest Archdeacon, Léon Serpollet, Henri de la Valette, Jules Verne and his wife, André Michelin, Albert de Dion, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe, and Henry de La Vaulx.
Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini (810–887 A.D.), also known as Abbas ibn Firnas (عباس بن فرناس), was an Andalusian polymath:Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961).
The Ader Éole, also called Avion, was an early steam-powered aircraft developed by Clément Ader in the 1890s and named after the Greco-Roman wind god Aeolus.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
An afterburner (or a reheat) is a component present on some jet engines, mostly those used on military supersonic aircraft.
An airborne aircraft carrier is a type of mother ship aircraft which can carry, launch, retrieve and support other smaller aircraft.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight.
Flight mechanics are relevant to fixed wing (gliders, aeroplanes) and rotary wing (helicopters) aircraft.
Aircraft noise is noise pollution produced by aircraft during the various phases of a flight.
Aircrew, also called flight crew, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight.
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).
An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
Alberto Santos-Dumont (20 July 187323 July 1932, usually referred to as simply Santos-Dumont) was a Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer, one of the very few people to have contributed significantly to the development of both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft.
Alexander Martin Lippisch (November 2, 1894 – February 11, 1976) was a German aeronautical engineer, a pioneer of aerodynamics who made important contributions to the understanding of tailless aircraft, delta wings and the ground effect, and also worked in the U.S. His most famous designs are the Messerschmitt Me 163 rocket-powered interceptorReitsch, H., 1955, The Sky My Kingdom, London: Biddles Limited, Guildford and King's Lynn, and the Dornier Aerodyne.
Mozhaysky on a 1963 Soviet postal stamp. Alexander Fedorovich Mozhaysky (also transliterated as Mozhayski, Mozhayskii and Mozhayskiy; Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Можа́йский) (&ndash) was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy, aviation pioneer, researcher and designer of heavier-than-air craft.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Archytas (Ἀρχύτας; 428–347 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist.
The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Aulus Gellius (c. 125after 180 AD) was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
World War I was the first major conflict involving the large-scale use of aircraft.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Bell X-1 was a rocket engine–powered aircraft, designated originally as the XS-1, and was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics–U.S. Army Air Forces–U.S. Air Force supersonic research project built by Bell Aircraft.
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other.
The Blériot VIII was a French pioneer era aeroplane built by Louis Blériot, significant for its adoption of both a configuration and a control system that were to set a standard for decades to come.
The Blériot XI is a French aircraft of the pioneer era of aviation.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
The Bombardier Dash 8 or Q-Series, previously known as the de Havilland Canada Dash 8 or DHC-8, is a series of twin-engine, medium-range, turboprop airliners.
A box kite is a high performance kite, noted for developing relatively high lift; it is a type within the family of cellular kites.
A canard is an aeronautical arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.
A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company.
Cheston Lee Eshelman (January 23, 1917 – November 7, 2004) was born in McKnightstown, Pennsylvania near Gettysburg, and was an American inventor, aviator, manufacturer of aircraft, boats, garden machinery and small automobiles, and founder of the Cheston L. Eshelman Company and Eshelman Motors Corporation in Baltimore and Dundalk, Maryland.
Clément Ader (2 April 1841 – 3 May 1925) was a French inventor and engineer who was born in Muret, Haute-Garonne (a distant suburb of Toulouse), and died in Toulouse.
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.
Codex on the Flight of Birds is a relatively short codex of circa 1505 by Leonardo da Vinci.
Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.
The Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" is a strategic bomber built by Convair and operated solely by the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1949 to 1959.
In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Δαίδαλος Daidalos "cunningly wrought", perhaps related to δαιδάλλω "to work artfully"; Daedalus; Etruscan: Taitale) was a skillful craftsman and artist.
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
Eilmer of Malmesbury (also known as Oliver due to a scribe's miscopying, or Elmer, or Æthelmær) was an 11th-century English Benedictine monk best known for his early attempt at a gliding flight using wings.
An electric aircraft is an aircraft powered by electric motors.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Elevators are flight control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's pitch, and therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing.
The empennage, also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.
The European Aviation Safety Agency or EASA is an agency of the European Union with responsibility for civil aviation safety.
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.
Flaps are a type of high-lift device used to increase the lift of an aircraft wing at a given airspeed.
A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with horizontally-opposed cylinders.
This listing of flight altitude records are the records set for the highest aeronautical flights conducted in the atmosphere, set since the age of ballooning.
Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.
Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, airspeed and direction.
Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom.
Flight testing is a branch of aeronautical engineering that develops and gathers data during flight of an aircraft, or atmospheric testing of launch vehicles and reusable spacecraft, and then analyzes the data to evaluate the aerodynamic flight characteristics of the vehicle in order to validate the design, including safety aspects.
Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
A flying wing is a tailless fixed-wing aircraft that has no definite fuselage.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was an English engineer, inventor, and aviator.
A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Heinkel He 178 was the world's first aircraft to fly under turbojet power, and the first practical jet aircraft.
Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (5 February 1840 – 24 November 1916) was an American-born British inventor, best known as the creator of the Maxim Gun, the first portable fully automatic machine gun.
The history of aviation extends for more than two thousand years, from the earliest forms of aviation such as kites and attempts at tower jumping to supersonic and hypersonic flight by powered, heavier-than-air jets.
Homebuilt aircraft, also known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity.
Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done).
Walter Horten (born 13 November 1913; died 9 December 1998 in Baden-Baden, Germany) and Reimar Horten (born 12 March 1915; died 14 March 1994 in Villa General Belgrano, Argentina), sometimes credited as the Horten Brothers, were German aircraft pilots and enthusiasts.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
In Greek mythology, Icarus (the Latin spelling, conventionally adopted in English; Ἴκαρος, Íkaros, Etruscan: Vikare) is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus, the creator of the Labyrinth.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
In aviation, an inline engine is a reciprocating engine with banks of cylinders, one behind another, rather than rows of cylinders, with each bank having any number of cylinders, but rarely more than six.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
John Knudsen "Jack" Northrop (November 10, 1895 – February 18, 1981) was an American aircraft industrialist and designer, who founded the Northrop Corporation in 1939.
JATO (acronym for jet-assisted take-off), is a type of assisted take-off for helping overloaded aircraft into the air by providing additional thrust in the form of small rockets.
Jean Marie Le Bris (25 March 1817 – 17 February 1872) was a French aviator, born in Concarneau, Brittany, who accomplished a glider flight in December 1856.
A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
A jet airliner (or jetliner) is an airliner powered by jet engines (passenger jet aircraft).
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
John Joseph Montgomery (February 15, 1858 – October 31, 1911) was an American inventor, physicist, engineer, and professor at Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California who is best known for his invention of controlled heavier-than-air flying machines.
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag.
Leutnant Kurt Wintgens (1 August 1894 – 25 September 1916) was a German World War I fighter ace.
Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal, aircraft, or spacecraft returns to the ground.
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrence Hargrave, MRAeS, (29 January 18506 July 1915) was an Australian engineer, explorer, astronomer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer.
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
The Lockheed D-21 is an American supersonic, reconnaissance drone.
The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte (German Air Force)—known before October 1916 as the Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Flying Corps) or simply Die Fliegertruppe—was the World War I (1914–18) air arm of the German Army, of which it remained an integral part.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.
In aviation, the maneuvering speed of an aircraft is an airspeed limitation selected by the designer of the aircraft.
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also known as the "Red Baron", was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.
The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was a German rocket-powered interceptor aircraft.
The Messerschmitt Me 262, nicknamed Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel (German: "Storm Bird") in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft.
Military aviation is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of conducting or enabling aerial warfare, including national airlift (air cargo) capacity to provide logistical supply to forces stationed in a theater or along a front.
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes.
In thermodynamics, motive power is a natural agent, such as water or steam, wind or electricity, used to impart motion to machinery such as an engine.
In aviation, a multiplane is a fixed-wing aircraft-configuration featuring multiple wing planes.
The multiplane camera is a motion-picture camera used in the traditional animation process that moves a number of pieces of artwork past the camera at various speeds and at various distances from one another.
Nadcap (formerly NADCAP, the National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program) is a global cooperative accreditation program for aerospace engineering, defense and related industries.
The X-43 was an experimental unmanned hypersonic aircraft with multiple planned scale variations meant to test various aspects of hypersonic flight.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy penetration strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two.
Octave Chanute (February 18, 1832, Paris – November 23, 1910, Chicago, Illinois) was a French-American civil engineer and aviation pioneer, born in France.
Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the flying man.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight.
Percy Sinclair Pilcher (16 January 1866 – 2 October 1899) was a British inventor and pioneer aviator who was his country's foremost experimenter in unpowered flight at the end of the nineteenth century.
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
An aircraft propeller, or airscrew,Beaumont, R.A.; Aeronautical Engineering, Odhams, 1942, Chapter 13, "Airscrews".
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel.
A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor.
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
The Rogallo wing is a flexible type of airfoil.
A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast.
A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).
A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created whenever an object traveling through the air travels faster than the speed of sound.
The sound barrier or sonic barrier is a popular term for the sudden increase in aerodynamic drag and other effects experienced by an aircraft or other object when it approaches supersonic speed.
Even before the Project Apollo moon landing in 1969, NASA began studies of space shuttle designs as early as October 1968.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles and satellites to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A supercapacitor (SC) (also called a supercap, ultracapacitor or Goldcap) is a high-capacity capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries.
A supersonic aircraft is an aircraft able to fly faster than the speed of sound (Mach number 1).
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
A supersonic transport (SST) is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound.
A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.
A synecdoche (from Greek συνεκδοχή, synekdoche,. "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something or vice versa.
A tailless aircraft has no tail assembly and no other horizontal surface besides its main wing.
A tailplane, also known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes.
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle or an animal goes from the ground to flying in the air.
QAC Quickie Q2 A tandem wing aircraft has two main wings, with one located forward and the other to the rear.
Technology and Culture is a quarterly academic journal founded in 1959.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
Thrust reversal, also called reverse thrust, is the temporary diversion of an aircraft engine's thrust so that it is directed forward, rather than backward.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time Inc. was an American worldwide mass media corporation founded on November 28, 1922 by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden and based in New York City.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
An aircraft constructed with a tractor configuration has the engine mounted with the airscrew in front of it so that the aircraft is "pulled" through the air, as opposed to the pusher configuration, in which the airscrew is behind and propels the aircraft forward.
British aviators John Alcock and Arthur Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight in June 1919.
Transport Canada (Transports Canada) is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation in Canada.
A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three vertical stacked wing planes.
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine, typically used in aircraft.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
A variable-sweep wing, colloquially known as a "swing wing", is an airplane wing, or set of wings, that may be swept back and then returned to its original position during flight.
The vertical stabilizers, vertical stabilisers, or fins, of aircraft, missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability.
Vimāna is the mythological flying palaces or chariots described in Hindu texts and Sanskrit epics.
The wing configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft (including both gliders and powered aeroplanes or airplanes) is its arrangement of lifting and related surfaces.
Wireless power transfer (WPT), wireless power transmission, wireless energy transmission, or electromagnetic power transfer is the transmission of electrical energy without wires as a physical link.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane.
The Wright Flyer III was the third powered aircraft by the Wright Brothers, built during the winter of 1904-05.
The XCOR EZ-Rocket is a test platform for the XCOR rocket propulsion system.