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Index Aisha

‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives. [1]

145 relations: "Believing Women" in Islam, Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, Abdallah ibn Sa'd, Abu Bakr, Abu Hurairah, Afterlife, Ahl al-Bayt, Al-Baqi', Al-Sunan al-Sughra, Alfred Guillaume, Ali, Allah, Ammar ibn Yasir, An-Nur, Arabic, Arabic literature, Arabic poetry, Asr prayer, At-Tahrim, Ayah, Banu Umayya, Basra, Battle of the Camel, Brill Publishers, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Columbia University Press, Consummation, Denise Spellberg, Egypt in the Middle Ages, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures, Fatimah, Feminist Studies, First Fitna, G. P. Putnam's Sons, God in Islam, Hadith, Hadith studies, Hafsa bint Umar, Hajj, Haleh Afshar, Baroness Afshar, Hammanah bint Jahsh, Hansard Society, HarperCollins, Hassan ibn Thabit, Hegira, Hejaz, Hisham ibn Urwah, ..., History of the Prophets and Kings, Hodder & Stoughton, Hossein Nasr, Howdah, I.B. Tauris, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Khallikan, Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, Imam, Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, Islam, Islamic culture, Islamic eschatology, Islamic inheritance jurisprudence, Ismail Poonawala, Isra and Mi'raj, John Wiley & Sons, Jubayr ibn Mut'im, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Khawlah bint Hakim, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, List of people related to Quranic verses, Little, Brown and Company, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Macmillan Publishers (United States), Madrasa, Malik al-Ashtar, Maxime Rodinson, Mecca, Medina, MIT Press, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad Ali (writer), Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad's wives, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Mumin, Muslim, No God but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam, Oneworld Publications, Oxford University Press, Polygyny, Quran, Ramadan (calendar month), Random House, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Religious Tract Society, Reza Aslan, Sa'id Akhtar Rizvi, Safiyya bint Huyayy, Safwan ibn Muattal, Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sanai, Saudi Arabia, Seclusion, Shia Islam, Shia view of Aisha, Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Succession to Muhammad, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, SUNY Press, Surah, Tahajjud, Talhah, TDR (journal), The Complete History, The Jewel of Medina, The Succession to Muhammad, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Ruman, Umm Salama, Ummah, University of Chicago Press, University of Oxford, University of Texas Press, Urwah ibn Zubayr, Usama ibn Zayd, Uthman, Veil, W. Montgomery Watt, Wiley-Blackwell, Yale University Press, Zayd ibn Harithah, Zaynab bint Jahsh, Zina, Zubayr ibn al-Awam. Expand index (95 more) »

"Believing Women" in Islam

"Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an is a 2002 book by Asma Barlas, published by the University of Texas Press.

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Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy

Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy (عبد الله بن أبي بن سلول, died 631), also called ibn Salul in reference to his mother, was a chief of the Arab tribe Banu Khazraj and one of the leading men of Medina (then known as Yathrib).

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Abdallah ibn Sa'd

ʿAbdallāh ibn Saʿd ibn Abī Sarḥ; (عبدالله بن سعد بن أبي السرح) was the milk brother of Uthman.

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Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.

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Abu Hurairah

Abū Hurayrah al-Dawsiyy al-Zahrāniyy (أبو هريرة الدوسي الزهراني‎; 603–681), often spelled Abu Hurairah, was one of the sahabah (companions) of Muhammad and, according to Sunni Islam, the most prolific narrator of hadith.

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Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.

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Ahl al-Bayt

Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".

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Jannaṫ al-Baqī‘ (lit) is a cemetery in Medina, the Hijazi region of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Al-Sunan al-Sughra

As-Sunan as-Sughra (السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasa'i (سنن النسائي), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadiths), and was collected by Al-Nasa'i.

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Alfred Guillaume

Alfred Guillaume DD (8 November 1888 – 30 November 1965) was a British Arabist, scholar of Islam and Hebrew Bible / Old Testament scholar.

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Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.

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Ammar ibn Yasir

ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.

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Sūrat an-Nūr (سورة النور, "The Light") is the 24th sura of the Qur'an with 64 ayat.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic literature

Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.

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Arabic poetry

Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.

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Asr prayer

The Asr prayer (صلاة العصر, "afternoon prayer") is the afternoon daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims.

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Sūrat at-Taḥrīm (سورة التحريم, "Banning, Prohibition") is the 66th sura of the Quran and contains 12 verses.

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In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".

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Banu Umayya

The Banu Umayya (بنو أمية), also known as the Umayyads (الأمويون / بنو أمية al-Umawiyyun), were a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams.

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Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battle of the Camel

The Battle of the Camel, sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took place at Basra, Iraq on.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply consummation, is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse between two people, either following their marriage to each other or after a prolonged romantic attraction.

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Denise Spellberg

Denise A. Spellberg (born c. 1958) is an American scholar of Islamic history.

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Egypt in the Middle Ages

Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.

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Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures

The Encyclopaedia of Women and Islamic Cultures is a reference work on gender studies and the Islamic world.

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Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.

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Feminist Studies

Feminist Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering women's studies that was established in 1972.

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First Fitna

The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.

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G. P. Putnam's Sons


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God in Islam

In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.

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Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hadith studies

Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "knowledge of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Muslim scholars.

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Hafsa bint Umar

Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar (حفصة بنت عمر; c. 605–665) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.

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The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Haleh Afshar, Baroness Afshar

Haleh Afshar, Baroness Afshar OBE FAcSS (هاله افشار; born 21 May 1944) is a British professor and a life peer in the House of Lords.

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Hammanah bint Jahsh

Hammanah bint Jahsh or Hamnah (حمنة بنت جحش) was a companion of Muhammad.

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Hansard Society

The Hansard Society was formed in 1944 to promote parliamentary democracy.

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HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Hassan ibn Thabit

Hassan ibn Thabit (حسان بن ثابت) (born c. 563, Medina died 674) was an Arabian poet and one of the Sahaba, or companions of Muhammad, hence he was best known for his poems in defense of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.

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The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Hisham ibn Urwah

Hishām ibn ʿUrwah (هشام بن عروة, c. 667 – c. 772) was a prominent narrator of hadith, son of Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, grandson of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Asma bint Abu Bakr.

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History of the Prophets and Kings

The History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk), more commonly known as Tarikh al-Tabari (تاريخ الطبري) or Tarikh-i Tabari (تاریخ طبری) is an Arabic-language historical chronicle written by the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923).

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Hodder & Stoughton

Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hachette.

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Hossein Nasr

Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.

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A howdah, or houdah (Hindi: हौदा haudā), derived from the Arabic هودج (hawdaj), that means "bed carried by a camel", also known as hathi howdah (हाथी हौदा), is a carriage which is positioned on the back of an elephant, or occasionally some other animal such as camels, used most often in the past to carry wealthy people or for use in hunting or warfare.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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Ibn Hisham

Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari (أبو محمد عبدالمالك بن هشام), or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.

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Ibn Ishaq

Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.

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Ibn Kathir

Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.

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Ibn Khallikan

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī (احمد ابن محمد ابن ابراهيم ابوالعباس شمس الدين البرمكي الاربيلي الشافعي) (September 22, 1211 – October 30, 1282) was a Shafi'i Islamic scholar of the 13th Century and is famous as the compiler of a great biographical dictionary of Arab scholars, Wafayāt al-Aʿyān wa-Anbāʾ Abnāʾ az-Zamān (Deaths of Eminent Men and History of the Sons of the Epoch).

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Ibn Sa'd

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī kātib al-Wāqidī or simply Ibn Sa'd (ابن سعد) and nicknamed "Scribe of Waqidi" (Katib al-Waqidi), was a scholar and Arabian biographer.

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Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri

Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (ابن شهاب الزهري) (died AH 124/741-2), usually referred to simply as Ibn Shihab or al-Zuhri in hadith literature.

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Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.

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Inner Traditions – Bear & Company

Inner Traditions – Bear & Company, also known as Inner Traditions, is a book publisher founded by Ehud Sperling in 1975 and based in Rochester, Vermont in the United States.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic culture

Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.

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Islamic eschatology

Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").

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Islamic inheritance jurisprudence

Islamic Inheritance jurisprudence is a field of Islamic jurisprudence (فقه) that deals with inheritance, a topic that is prominently dealt with in the Qur'an.

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Ismail Poonawala

Ismail Kurban Husein Poonawala (born January 7, 1937) is a professor of Arabic at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures (NELC) of over 30 years.

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Isra and Mi'raj

The Isra and Mi'raj (الإسراء والمعراج) are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam, Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621 CE.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Jubayr ibn Mut'im

Jubayr ibn Mut‘im (جبير بن مطعم) (d. http://dictionary.al-islam.com/Arb/Dicts/SelDict.asp?DI.

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Khadija bint Khuwaylid

Khadijah, Khadījah bint Khuwaylid (خديجة بنت خويلد) or Khadījah al-Kubra (Khadijah the Great) 555 – 22 November 619 CE) was the first wife and follower of the Islamic Prophet (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad. She is commonly regarded by Muslims as the "Mother of the Believers". Khadijah is regarded as one of the most important female figures in Islam, like her daughter, Fatimah. Muhammad was monogamously married to her for 25 years. After the death of Khadijah, Muhammad married at least nine women. Khadijah was the closest to Muhammad and he confided in her the most out of all his following wives. It is narrated in many hadiths that Khadijah was Muhammad's most trusted and favorite among all his marriages. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim: The messenger of Allah said: "God Almighty never granted me anyone better in this life than her. She accepted me when people rejected me; she believed in me when people doubted me; she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me; and Allah granted me children only through her." ‘A’ishah narrated of Muhammed and Khadijah in Sahih Bukhari: "I did not feel jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did of Khadijah though I did not see her, but the Prophet used to mention her very often, and when ever he slaughtered a sheep, he would cut its parts and send them to the women friends of Khadijah. When I sometimes said to him, "(You treat Khadijah in such a way) as if there is no woman on Earth except Khadijah," he would say, "Khadijah was such-and-such, and from her I had children." It is also narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: "The best of its women is Khadijah bint Khuwailid, and the best of its women is Maryam bint ‘Imran." Muhammad said about her "She believed in me when the whole world refuted me and she attested to my veracity when the whole world accused me of falsehood. She offered me compassion and loyalty with her wealth when everyone else had forsaken me." Khadijah was the first female and person to become a follower of Muhammad. Muhammad was married to her until her death and Khadijah was the only wife to be married to Muhammad in monogamy, thus sometimes regarded as Muhammad's most beloved. She is regarded as one of the most important women in Islam, and in terms of the progression of Islam, the most important out of all of Muhammad's wives.

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Khawlah bint Hakim

Khawlah bint Hakim (خولة بنت حكيم) was one of the female companions of Muhammad.

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Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam

The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, (احمدیہ انجمنِ اشاعتِ اسلام لاہور; Aḥmadiyyah Anjuman-i Ishāʿat-i Islām, Lāhawr) is a separatist group within the Ahmadiyya movement that formed in 1914 as a result of ideological and administrative differences following the demise of Hakim Nur-ud-Din, the first Caliph after Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.

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List of people related to Quranic verses

This page is a List of people related to Quranic verses.

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Little, Brown and Company

Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.

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Lynne Rienner Publishers

Lynne Rienner Publishers is an independent scholarly and textbook publishing firm based in Boulder, CO.

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Macmillan Publishers (United States)

Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.

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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Malik al-Ashtar

Malik Al-Ashtar (مالك الأشتر) (also known as Malik bin al-Harith al-Nakha'i) was one of the most loyal companions of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Maxime Rodinson

Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915, Paris – 23 May 2004, Marseilles) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad al-Bukhari

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).

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Muhammad Ali (writer)

Muhammad Ali (محمد على‎; 1874 – 13 October 1951) was an Indian writer, scholar, and leading figure of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement.

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Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa

Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa (Arabic: محمد بن أبي حذيفة) was the son of Abu Hudhayfa ibn 'Utba and Sahla bint Suhail.

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Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr

Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (محمد بن أبي بكر) was the son of Abu Bakr and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Muhammad's wives

Muhammad's wives or Wives of Muhammad were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet

Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet is a biography of Muhammad by the British religion writer and lecturer Karen Armstrong, published by Gollancz in 1991.

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Mumin or Momin (مؤمن mū‘min; feminine مؤمنة mū‘mina) is an Arabic Islamic term, frequently referenced in the Quran, meaning "believer".

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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No God but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam

No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam is a 2005 non-fiction book written by Iranian-American Muslim scholar Reza Aslan.

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Oneworld Publications

Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Ramadan (calendar month)

Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Religious Tract Society

The Religious Tract Society, founded 1799, 56 Paternoster Row and 65 St.

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Reza Aslan

Reza Aslan (رضا اصلان,; born May 3, 1972) is an Iranian-American author, public intellectual, religious studies scholar, producer, and television host.

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Sa'id Akhtar Rizvi

Sayyid Sa‘eed Akhtar Rizvi (سيد سعيد اختر رضوي) was an Indian born, Twelver Shī‘ah scholar, who promoted Islam in East Africa.

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Safiyya bint Huyayy

Safiyyah bint Huyayy (صفية بنت حيي) (c. 610 – c. 670) was one of the wives of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Safwan ibn Muattal

Ṣafwān ibn al-Muʿaṭṭal al-Sulamī (صفوان بن المعطل السلمي) (d. 638 or 679) was a sahaba (companion) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and an Arab commander in the Muslim conquests.

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The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Sahih al-Bukhari

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.

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Hakim Abul-Majd Majdūd ibn Ādam Sanā'ī Ghaznavi (حکیم ابوالمجد مجدود ‌بن آدم سنایی غزنوی) was a Persian poet who lived in Ghazni between the 11th century and the 12th century in what is now Afghanistan.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Seclusion is the act of secluding, i.e. shutting out or keeping apart from society, or the state of being secluded, or a place that facilitates it (a secluded place).

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shia view of Aisha

The Shi'a view of Aisha is generally unfavourable.

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Sibt ibn al-Jawzi

Shams al-din Abu al-Muzaffar Yusuf ibn Kizoghlu (c. 581AH/1185–654AH/1256), famously known as Sibṭ ibn al-Jawzi (سبط بن الجوزي) was a notable preacher and historian.

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Succession to Muhammad

The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.

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Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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SUNY Press

The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.

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A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.

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Tahajjud (تهجد), also known as the "night prayer", is a voluntary prayer performed by followers of Islam.

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Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (طلحة بن عبيدالله) (594-656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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TDR (journal)

TDR: The Drama Review is an academic journal focusing on performances in their social, economic, aesthetic, and political contexts.

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The Complete History

The Complete History (al-Kāmil fit-Tārīkh), is a classic Islamic history book written by Ali ibn al-Athir.

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The Jewel of Medina

The Jewel of Medina is a historical novel by Sherry Jones.

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The Succession to Muhammad

The Succession to Muhammad is a book by Wilferd Madelung published by the Cambridge University Press in 1997.

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Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umm Ruman

Umm Rumān Zaynab bint ‘Āmir' ibn Uwaymir ibn Abd Shams ibn Attab Al-Kinaniyah (death 628), known by her kunyah "Umm Rumān" (أمّ رومان زينب بنت عامر بن عويمر بن عبد شمس بن عتاب الكنانية) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Umm Salama

Hind bint Abi Umayya (هند بنت أبي أمية), also known as Hind al-Makhzumiyah, Hind bint Suhayl or Umm Salama (أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية) Umme Salma went through trials and tribulations following her conversion to Islam (c. 596 AD – 64 AH) was one of Muhammad's wives.

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(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Texas Press

The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.

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Urwah ibn Zubayr

'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi (عروة بن الزبير بن العوام الأسدي., died 713) was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians.

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Usama ibn Zayd

Usama bin Zayd (أسامة بن زيد) was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, Muhammad's freed slave, whom he adopted as his son.

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Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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A veil is an article of clothing or hanging cloth that is intended to cover some part of the head or face, or an object of some significance.

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W. Montgomery Watt

William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Zayd ibn Harithah

Zayd ibn Harithah (زيد بن حارثة) (c. 581 – 629 CE) was a companion of Muhammad who was at one stage regarded as his (adoptive) son.

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Zaynab bint Jahsh

Zaynab bint Jahsh (زينب بنت جحش; c. 590–641) was a cousin and wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.

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Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse.

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Zubayr ibn al-Awam

Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (594–656) was a companion of Muhammad and a commander in the Rashidun army.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aisha

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