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Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Index Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997. [1]

171 relations: Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi, Abolhassan Banisadr, Akbar Ganji, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani presidential campaign, 2013, Al Jazeera English, Ali Akbar Parvaresh, Ali Akbar Velayati, Ali Fallahian, Ali Khamenei, Ali Meshkini, Ali Movahedi-Kermani, AMIA bombing, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Assembly of Experts, Authoritarianism, Ayatollah, Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani Airport, Azerbaijan, Bahá'í Faith, Bahreman, Baqer Moin, Basij, Buenos Aires, Central Asia, Civil society, Collection of daily memos of Hashemi Rafsanjani, Combatant Clergy Association, Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces, Conservatism, Council of the Islamic Revolution, Durham University, Economic liberalism, Effat Marashi, Election law, Executives of Construction Party, Expediency Discernment Council, Faezeh Hashemi Rafsanjani, Fars News Agency, Fatemeh Hashemi Rafsanjani, Forbes, Free market, Freedom of speech, Guardian Council, Gulf War, Habibollah Peyman, Hashem Sabbaghian, Hassan Ali Mansur, Hassan Habibi, Hassan Rouhani, Hujjat al-Islam, ..., Hussein-Ali Montazeri, I.B. Tauris, Iran, Iran hostage crisis, Iran–Contra affair, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 1982, Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 1990, Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 1998, Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 2006, Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 2016, Iranian Green Movement, Iranian legislative election, 1980, Iranian legislative election, 1984, Iranian legislative election, 1988, Iranian legislative election, 2000, Iranian legislative election, 2016, Iranian peoples, Iranian presidential election, 1989, Iranian presidential election, 1993, Iranian presidential election, 2005, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian presidential election, 2013, Iranian presidential election, October 1981, Iranian Principlists, Iranian Reformists, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islam, Islamic Azad University, Islamic Coalition Party, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic republic, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Islamic Republican Party, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Javad Saeed, Judicial system of Iran, Jumu'ah, Kazakhstan, Kerman, Kerman Province, Lebanon, List of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, List of Tehran's Friday Prayer Imams, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, Majlis, Mausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini, Mehdi Bazargan, Mehdi Hashemi, Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani, Mehdi Karroubi, Ministry of Interior (Iran), Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Moderation and Development Party, Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani, Mohammad Hejazi, Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani, Mohammed Kazem Yazdi, Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani, Morteza Motahhari, Mostafa Chamran, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, Mykonos restaurant assassinations, Myocardial infarction, National day of mourning, Nematollah Salehi Najafabadi, Order of Fath, Oxford University Press, Palgrave Macmillan, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Pistachio, Presidency of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, President of Iran, Prime Minister of Iran, Privatization, Privatization in Iran, Qom, Qom Seminary, Rafsanjan, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sa'adat Abad, Saïd Amir Arjomand, Salman Rushdie, Sanctions against Iran, Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi, Shahab al-Din Mar'ashi Najafi, Shargh, Shemiran, Supreme Leader of Iran, Syria, Tafsir Rahnama, Tajrish, Taylor & Francis, Tehran, Tehran Metro, Tehran Province, Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr (electoral district), The Economist, The Guardian, The New York Times, Toleration, Turkmenistan, United Nations Security Council Resolution 598, United States, University of Tehran, UTC+03:30, Western world, White Revolution, Yadollah Sahabi, Yasser Hashemi Rafsanjani, Zan (newspaper), 2009 Iranian presidential election protests. Expand index (121 more) »

Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi

Grand Ayatollah Hajj Sheikh Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi (عبدالکریم حائری یزدی; عبد الكريم الحائري اليزدي) (1859 — 30 January 1937) was a Twelver Shia Muslim cleric and marja.

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Abolhassan Banisadr

Seyyed Abolhassan Banisadr (Seyyed Abolhasan Banisadr; born 22 March 1933) is an Iranian politician and economist.

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Akbar Ganji

Akbar Ganji (اکبر گنجی., born 31 January 1960 in Tehran) is an Iranian journalist and writer.

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Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani presidential campaign, 2013

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (‌اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی,, Hashemi Bahramani هاشمی بهرمانی) served as the fourth president of Iran from 1989 until 1997.

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Al Jazeera English

Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.

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Ali Akbar Parvaresh

Ali Akbar Parvaresh (علی اکبر پرورش‎; 1942 – 27 December 2013) was an Iranian politician.

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Ali Akbar Velayati

Ali Akbar Velayati (علی‌اکبر ولایتی; born 24 June 1945, Tehran) is an Iranian physician and conservative politician.

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Ali Fallahian

Ali Fallahian, (علی فلاحیان., born 23 October 1945) is an Iranian politician and cleric.

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Ali Khamenei

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

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Ali Meshkini

Ali Akbar Feyz Aleni (علی‌اکبر فیض آلنی; 2 December 1921 – 30 July 2007), more known as Ali Meshkini, was an Iranian hardline cleric and politician.

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Ali Movahedi-Kermani

Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Movahedi-Kermani (محمدعلی موحدی کرمانی) is Tehran's Friday Prayer Ephemeral Imam and the current secretary-general of Combatant Clergy Association.

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AMIA bombing

The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA; Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building.

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Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).

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Assembly of Experts

The Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari) —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Ayatollah

Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.

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Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani Airport

Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani International Airport, previously known as Kerman International Airport, is an airport in Kerman, Iran.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Bahreman

Bahreman (بهرمان, also Romanized as Bahremān; also known as Bāhermūn and Bahrmun) is a city and capital of Nuq District, in Rafsanjan County, Kerman Province, Iran.

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Baqer Moin

Baqer Moin is a BBC journalist and author.

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Basij

The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Civil society

Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".

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Collection of daily memos of Hashemi Rafsanjani

Collection of daily memoriess of Hashemi Rafsanjani is a collection of diaries written by late Iranian politician Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.

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Combatant Clergy Association

The Combatant Clergy Association (Jāme'e-ye Rowhāniyyat-e Mobārez) is a politically active group in Iran, but not a political party in the traditional sense.

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Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces

Farmandeye Koll-e Qova (فرمانده کل قوا), formerly known as Bozorg Arteshtaran (بزرگ‌ارتشتاران), is the supreme commanding authority of all the Armed Forces of Iran and the highest possible military position within the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Conservatism

Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Council of the Islamic Revolution

The Council of the Islamic Revolution (Šūrā-ye enqelāb-e eslāmī) was a group formed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to manage the Iranian Revolution on 10 January 1979, shortly before he returned to Iran.

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Durham University

Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.

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Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.

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Effat Marashi

Effat Marashi (عفت مرعشی), is the widow of Iranian politician and former president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.

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Election law

Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science.

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Executives of Construction Party

The Executives of Construction of Iran Party (حزب کارگزاران سازندگی ایران) is a reformist political party in Iran, founded by 16 members of the cabinet of the then President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani in 1996.

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Expediency Discernment Council

The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.

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Faezeh Hashemi Rafsanjani

Faezeh Hashemi Bahramani, more known as Faezeh Hashemi Rafsanjani (فائزه هاشمی رفسنجانی; born 7 January 1962) is an Iranian women's rights activist, politician and former journalist who served as a member of Iranian parliament from 1996 to 2000.

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Fars News Agency

The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran.

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Fatemeh Hashemi Rafsanjani

Fatemeh Hashemi Rafsanjani (فاطمه هاشمی رفسنجانی) is an Iranian politician.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Guardian Council

The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Habibollah Peyman

Habibollah Peyman (born 1935 in Shiraz, Iran) is an Iranian politician.

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Hashem Sabbaghian

Hashem Sabbaghian (هاشم صباغيان; born 1937) is an Iranian politician, humanitarian, democracy activist and former parliament member.

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Hassan Ali Mansur

Hasan Ali Mansur (13 April 1923 – 27 January 1965) was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister from 1964 to 1965.

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Hassan Habibi

Hassan Ebrahim Habibi (29 January 1937 – 31 January 2013) was an Iranian politician, lawyer, scholar and the first vice president from 1989 until 2001 under Presidents Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami.

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Hassan Rouhani

Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.

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Hujjat al-Islam

Hujjat al-Islam (from ḥujjatu l-Islām) (also Hojatoleslam) is an honorific title meaning "authority on Islam" or "proof of Islam".

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Hussein-Ali Montazeri

Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran hostage crisis

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.

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Iran–Contra affair

The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 1982

The very first Iranian Assembly of Experts election was held on December 10, 1982 to elect all 82 members in 24 constituencies.

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Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 1990

The second Iranian Assembly of Experts election was held on October 8, 1990 to elect all 83 members in 24 constituencies.

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Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 1998

The third Iranian Assembly of Experts election was held on October 23, 1998 to elect all 86 members in 28 constituencies.

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Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 2006

The Iranian Assembly of Experts election of 2006 was held on 15 December 2006.

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Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 2016

Assembly of Experts election were held in Iran on 26 February 2016 to elect Assembly of Experts members.

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Iranian Green Movement

The Iranian Green Movement (جنبش سبز ایران), also known as the Persian Awakening or Persian Spring by the western media, refers to a political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office.

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Iranian legislative election, 1980

Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 13 March 1980, with a second round on 9 May.

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Iranian legislative election, 1984

Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 15 April 1984, with a second round on 17 May.

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Iranian legislative election, 1988

Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 8 April 1988, with a second round on 13 May.

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Iranian legislative election, 2000

Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 18 February 2000, with a second round on 5 May.

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Iranian legislative election, 2016

Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 26 February 2016 to elect members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly for all seats in the 10th parliament in the Islamic Republic era and the 34th since the Persian Constitutional Revolution.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian presidential election, 1989

The Iranian presidential election of 1989 took place on July 28, 1989, after the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the selection of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the previous President of Iran, as the new Supreme Leader of Iran.

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Iranian presidential election, 1993

The Iranian presidential election of 1993 took place on June 11, 1993 which resulted in the re-election of the incumbent president, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.

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Iranian presidential election, 2005

Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.

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Iranian presidential election, 2009

Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.

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Iranian presidential election, 2013

Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013.

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Iranian presidential election, October 1981

The Iranian presidential election of October 1981, took place on 2 October 1981, after the assassination of Mohammad-Ali Rajai, the previous President of Iran, during the interim premiership of Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani.

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Iranian Principlists

The Principlists (Osul-Garâyân, also interchangeably known as the Iranian Conservatives Open access material licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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Iranian Reformists

The Iranian reformists (Eslâh-Talabân) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy.

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic Azad University

The Islamic Azad University (IAU; دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی, Dāneshgāh-e Āzād-e Eslāmi) is a non-governmental private university system in Iran.

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Islamic Coalition Party

The Islamic Coalition Party (ICP; Ḥezb-e moʾtalefa-ye eslāmi) is a conservative political party in Iran that favors economic liberalism.

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Islamic Consultative Assembly

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.

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Islamic republic

An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.

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Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting

The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.

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Islamic Republican Party

The Islamic Republican Party (IRP; Ḥezb-e Jomhūrī-e Eslāmī, also translated Islamic Republic Party) formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran.

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Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.

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Javad Saeed

Javad Saeed (جواد سعید) was an Iranian politician who served as the last Speaker of the Parliament of Iran during Pahlavi dynasty, and was the last secretary-general of the ruling Resurgence Party.

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Judicial system of Iran

A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era.

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Jumu'ah

Jumu'ah (صلاة الجمعة, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah, "Friday prayer"), is a congregational prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Kerman

Kerman (كرمان, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania) is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran.

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Kerman Province

Kerman Province (استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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List of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran

Following is a list of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, from the Persian Constitutional Revolution to present.

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List of Tehran's Friday Prayer Imams

This list of Tehran's Friday Prayer Imams after 1979 Iranian Revolution contains both permanent and temporary ones.

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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.

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Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi

Sayyid Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi (سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی, born 15 August 1948) is an Iranian cleric and conservative politician who is currently Chairman of Expediency Discernment Council since 14 August 2017.

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Majlis

(or Mejlis; مجلس, pl. مجالس) is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries.

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Mausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini

The Mausoleum of Ayatollah Khomeini houses the tomb of Ruhollah Khomeini and his family—his wife Khadijeh Saqafi and his second son Ahmad Khomeini—and some political figures, such as former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, former Vice President Hassan Habibi, Lieutenant General Ali Sayad Shirazi, Iranian Revolution figure Sadeq Tabatabaei, and MP Marzieh Hadidchi.

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Mehdi Bazargan

Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان; 1 September 1907 – 20 January 1995) was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.

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Mehdi Hashemi

Mehdi Hashemi (1946 – 28 September 1987) was an Iranian Shi'a cleric who was defrocked by the Special Clerical Court.

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Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani

Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani (مهدی هاشمی رفسنجانی; born 20 September 1969) is an Iranian businessman and the fourth child of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, former President of Iran.

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Mehdi Karroubi

Mehdi Karroubi (Mehdī Karrūbĩ, born 26 September 1937) is an Iranian Shia cleric and reformist politician leading the National Trust Party.

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Ministry of Interior (Iran)

The Ministry of Interior (وزارت کشور) of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in charge of performing, supervising and reporting elections, policing, and other responsibilities related to an interior ministry.

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Mir-Hossein Mousavi

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.

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Moderation and Development Party

Moderation and Development Party (Hezb-e E'tedāl va Towse'eh) is a political party in Iran.

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Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani

Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani (محمد هاشمی رفسنجانی) is an Iranian politician who has been a member of the Expediency Discernment Council since 1997.

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Mohammad Hejazi

Mohammad Hejazi (سید محمد حجازی) (born 1956) is a military commander in Iran.

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Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari

Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Məhəmməd Kazım Şəriətmədari, محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), also spelled Shariat-Madari (5 January 1905 – 3 April 1986), was an Iranian Grand Ayatollah.

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Mohammad Khatami

Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.

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Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.

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Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha

Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha (born 1942) is an Iranian cleric and secretary general of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics.

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

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Mohammad Yazdi

Mohammad Yazdi (محمد یزدی, born 2 July 1931) is an Iranian cleric who served as the head of Judiciary System of Iran between 1989 and 1999.

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Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani

Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani (20 March 1899 – December 9, 1993) was an Iranian Shia cleric and marja.

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Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani

Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani (محمدرضا مهدوی کنی., 6 August 1931 – 21 October 2014) was an Iranian cleric, writer and conservative politician who was Acting Prime Minister of Iran from 2 September until 29 October 1981.

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Mohammed Kazem Yazdi

Mohammed Kazem Yazdi (1831 – April 1919) was a prominent Shia Islamic scholar centered in Najaf, most famous for his anti-constitutionalist stand during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1911.

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Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani

Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani (محسن هاشمی رفسنجانی, born 24 October 1961 in Qom) is an Iranian politician, academic and engineer who currently serves as member and chairman of City Council of Tehran.

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Morteza Motahhari

Morteza Motahari (مرتضی مطهری; January 31, 1919 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian cleric, philosopher, lecturer, and politician.

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Mostafa Chamran

Mostafa Chamran Save'ei (مصطفی چمران ساوه‌ای) (8 March 1932 – 21 June 1981, Tehran, Iran) was an Iranian physicist, politician, commander and guerrilla who served as the first defense minister of post-revolutionary Iran and as member of parliament, as well as the commander of paramilitary volunteers in Iran–Iraq War, known as "Irregular Warfare Headquarters".

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Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i

Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabataba'i (علامه سید محمد حسین طباطبائی, 16 March 1903 – 15 November 1981) was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam.

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Mykonos restaurant assassinations

In the Mykonos restaurant assassinations (Persian: ترور رستوران میکونوس, also the "Mykonos Incident"), Iranian-Kurdish opposition leaders Sadegh Sharafkandi, Fattah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan and their translator Nouri Dehkordi were assassinated at the Mykonos Greek restaurant in Berlin, Germany on 17 September 1992.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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National day of mourning

A national day of mourning is a day marked by mourning and memorial activities observed among the majority of a country's populace.

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Nematollah Salehi Najafabadi

Ayatollah Nematollah Salehi Najafabadi (1923/24 in Najafabad, Isfahan province – 2006 in Tehran) was an Iranian cleric and proponent of Islamic Unity, who spent most years after the Iranian revolution of 1979 under house arrest.

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Order of Fath

The Fath Medal (نشان فتح, meaning Victory Medal) is a military award of the Iranian armed forces which is awarded by Commander-in-chief, Supreme Leader of Iran.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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People's Mujahedin of Iran

The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.

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Pistachio

The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.

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Presidency of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Presidency of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was the 5th and 6th government of Iran after Iranian Revolution.

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President of Iran

The President of Iran (Persian: رییس‌جمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Prime Minister of Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

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Privatization

Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Privatization in Iran

--> According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005–2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the Tehran Stock Exchange.

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Qom

Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.

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Qom Seminary

Qom Hawza is the largest Hawza (seminary of traditional Islamic school of higher learning.) established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Ha'eri Yazdi in Qom.

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Rafsanjan

Rafsanjan (رفسنجان, also Romanized as Rafsanjān and Rafsinjān; also known as Bahrāmābād) is a city and capital of Rafsanjan County, Kerman Province, Iran.

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Ruhollah Khomeini

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.

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Sa'adat Abad

Sa'adat Abad is a rich neighborhood located in northwestern Tehran.

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Saïd Amir Arjomand

Saïd Amir Arjomand (Persian: سعید امیر ارجمند) is a Persian-American scholar and Distinguished Service Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York (SUNY) in Stony Brook, Long Island, and Director of the Stony Brook Institute for Global Studies.

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Salman Rushdie

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.

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Sanctions against Iran

Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the resulting hostage crisis, the United States imposed an asset freeze and trade embargo against Iran.

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Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi

Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi (Luri/Persian:آیت الله العظمی سید حسین طباطبایی بروجردی, transcript Ayatollah al-azmi Seyyed Hossein(e) Tabatabai(ye) Borujerdi) March 1875 – 30 March 1961) was an Iranian Shia Marja' and the leading Marja in Iran from roughly 1947 to his death in 1961.

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Shahab al-Din Mar'ashi Najafi

Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Abul Ma'ali Shahab ad-Din Muhammad Hussain Mar'ashi Najafi (July 21, 1897 – August 29, 1990) (اية الله العظمى السيد شهابالدين الحسينى المرعش) was an Iraqi-born scholar.

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Shargh

Shargh ("شرق" lit. "East") is the most popular reformist newspaper in Iran.

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Shemiran

Shemirān (شمیران,, also Romanized as Shemīrān or Šemirân), also known as Shemirānāt (شمیرانات) is the capital of Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran, but is actually located just north of the borders of Tehran County along Chamran Expressway and Sadr Expressway and it is the northernmost district of the city of Tehran.

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Supreme Leader of Iran

The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tafsir Rahnama

Tafsir Rahnama is a contemporary 20 volume exegesis on Qur'an in Persian.

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Tajrish

Tajrish (تجريش,, also Romanized as Tajrīš) is a former village in Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran, which has since been absorbed into Tehran.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Tehran

Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tehran Metro

The Tehran Metro (متروی تهران, Metro-ye Tehrān) is a rapid transit system serving Tehran, the capital of Iran.

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Tehran Province

Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr (electoral district)

Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr (تهران، ری، شمیرانات و اسلامشهر) is a constituency for the Islamic Consultative Assembly.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Toleration

Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.

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Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 598

United Nations Security Council resolution 598 S/RES/0598 (1987), (UNSC resolution 598) adopted unanimously on 20 July 1987, after recalling Resolution 582 and 588, called for an immediate ceasefire between Iran and Iraq and the repatriation of prisoners of war, and for both sides to withdraw to the international border.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Tehran

The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.

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UTC+03:30

UTC+03:30 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03:30.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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White Revolution

The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (انقلاب شاه و مردم Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.

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Yadollah Sahabi

Yadollah Sahabi (25 February 1905 – 12 April 2002) was a prominent Iranian scholar, writer, reformist and politician.

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Yasser Hashemi Rafsanjani

Yasser Hashemi Rafsanjani (یاسر هاشمی رفسنجانی; born 1971) is the youngest son of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the former president of Iran.

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Zan (newspaper)

Zan (زن, lit. "Woman") was an Iranian weekly newspaper focused on women's rights, published from 1998 until it was banned in 1999.

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2009 Iranian presidential election protests

Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.

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Redirects here:

'Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Akbar Hashemi, Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani, Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī, Akbar Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi, Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjan, Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI, Ali Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī, Ali Akbar Rafsanjani, Ali Akhbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Akhbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani, Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani, Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ayatollah Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ayatollah Ali-Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani, Ayatollah Rafsanjani, Hashemi Bahramani, Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hojatoleslam Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, President Hashemi Rafsanjani, President Rafsanjani, Rafsanjani, اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی, علی اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی, هاشمی بهرمانی.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akbar_Hashemi_Rafsanjani

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