224 relations: Absberg, Action 14f13, Adolf Hitler, Albert Widmann, Alfred Hoche, Allied-occupied Germany, Am Spiegelgrund clinic, American Journal of Psychiatry, Antisemitism, Appendicitis, Aryan, August Becker, Łódź, Świecie, Basic Books, Bavaria, Bełżec extermination camp, Bernburg Euthanasia Centre, Bethel Institution, Bezirk Bialystok, Bielefeld, Bielefeld University, Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Carbon monoxide, Caritas Internationalis, Carl Schneider, Cerebral palsy, Chełm, Chełmno extermination camp, Choroszcz, Christian ethics, Christian Wirth, Clemens August Graf von Galen, Clubfoot, Compulsory sterilization, Confessing Church, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Crimes against humanity, Czech Republic, Das Erbe, Düsseldorf, Dementia, Denmark, Down syndrome, Dresden, Działdowo, East Prussia, East Upper Silesia, ..., Einsatzkommando, Emil Kraepelin, Encephalitis, Epilepsy, Erich Koch, Ernst Illing, Ernst-Robert Grawitz, Erwin Lambert, Eugen Bleuler, Eugenics, Euthanasia, Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg, Extermination camp, Final Solution, Fort VII, Franconia, Frankfurt, Franz Gürtner, Franz Schwede, Franz Stangl, Friedrich von Bodelschwingh, Fulda, Gallaudet University Press, Gas chamber, Gauleiter, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Gemeinnützige Krankentransport GmbH, General Government, Gerhard Kretschmar, Gerhard Wagner (physician), German Federal Archives, German reunification, German-occupied Europe, Gitta Sereny, Gniezno, Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre, Graz, Great Depression, Gugging, Hadamar Euthanasia Centre, Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt, Hans Heinze, Hans Lammers, Hartheim Euthanasia Centre, Harvard College, Heinrich Gross, Heinrich Himmler, Henry Friedlander, Herbert Lange, Hereditary Health Court, Hermann Göring, Hesse-Nassau, History of the Jews in Poland, Holy See, Huntington's disease, Hydrocephalus, Ich klage an, Institute of Contemporary History (Munich), Institute of National Remembrance, Intellectual disability, Intelligenzaktion, Internment, Invasion of Poland, Involuntary euthanasia, Irmfried Eberl, Irmgard Huber, Irsee, Jewish skeleton collection, Jews, Joseph Goebbels, Karl Binding, Karl Brandt, Kaufbeuren, Kiel, Kościan, Kriminalpolizei, Leipzig, Leonardo Conti, Life unworthy of life, Linz, List of Nazi doctors, Lorenz Hackenholt, Lothar Kreyssig, Lubliniec, Mass murder, Max de Crinis, Münster, Mein Kampf, Michael Burleigh, Microcephaly, Mystici corporis Christi, Nazi eugenics, Nazi euthanasia and the Catholic Church, Nazi Germany, Nazi human experimentation, Nuremberg, Oberführer, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Operation Barbarossa, Operation Reinhard, Operation Tannenberg, Osteomyelitis, Owińska, Paderborn University, Palgrave Macmillan, Paralysis, Paul Nitsche, Phenol, Philipp Bouhler, Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse, Pneumonia, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany, Pomerania, Poznań, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Province of Upper Silesia, Racial hygiene, Reich Main Security Office, Reichsführer-SS, Reichsgau, Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia, Reichsgau Wartheland, Reichsleiter, Reinhard Heydrich, Richard J. Evans, Robert Jay Lifton, Roman Catholic Diocese of Münster, Romani people, Routledge, Royal Air Force, Rybnik, S. Fischer Verlag, Sagamihara stabbings, Saxony, Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, Schloss Hartheim, Schutzstaffel, Selbstschutz, Sicherheitsdienst, Sobibór extermination camp, Society of Jesus, Soldau concentration camp, Sonderbehandlung, Sonnenstein Euthanasia Centre, Starogard Gdański, Stasi, Suicide, Switzerland, Syphilis, T4-Gutachter, Tübingen, The Holocaust, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Theophil Wurm, Tiergarten (park), Tiergarten, Berlin, Tiergartenstraße, Treblinka extermination camp, United States, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, University of North Carolina Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Victims of the Past, Viktor Brack, Vintage Books, Wannsee Conference, Warta, Poland, Werner Blankenburg, Werner Catel, Werner Heyde, Wilhelm Frick, William L. Shirer. Expand index (174 more) » « Shrink index
Absberg is a municipality in the Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen district, in Bavaria, Germany.
Action 14f13, also called "Sonderbehandlung (special treatment) 14f13" and Aktion 14f13, was a campaign by Nazi Germany to murder Nazi concentration camp prisoners.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Albert Widmann (8 June 1912 – 24 December 1986) was an SS officer and German chemist who worked for the Action T4 euthanasia program during the regime of Nazi Germany.
Alfred Erich Hoche (1 August 1865 in Wildenhain, Province of Saxony – 16 May 1943 in Baden-Baden) was a German psychiatrist well known for his writings about eugenics and euthanasia.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
Am Spiegelgrund was a children's clinic in Vienna during World War II, where 789 patients were killed under the Nazi Regime's Children's Euthanasia Program also known as Aktion T4.
The American Journal of Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of psychiatry and the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
August Becker (17 August 1900 – 31 December 1967) was a mid-ranking functionary in the SS of Nazi Germany and chemist in the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA).
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Świecie (Schwetz) is a town in northern Poland with 25,968 inhabitants (2006), situated in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999); it was in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
The Nazi Euthanasia Centre at Bernburg (NS-Tötungsanstalt Bernburg) operated from 21 November 1940 to 30 July 1943 in a separate wing of the State Sanatorium and Mental Hospital (Landes-Heil- und Pflegeanstalt) in Bernburg on the River Saale in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Bethel Institution (officially in v. as of 2009, i.e. v. Bodelschwinghian Foundations of Bethel, previously v. Bodelschwinghsche Anstalten Bethel) is a diaconal (i.e. Protestant charitable) hospital for the mentally ill in Bethel, today a neighbourhood of Bielefeld, Germany.
Bezirk Bialystok (German for District or Region of Białystok, also Belostok) was an administrative unit of Nazi Germany created during the World War II invasion of the Soviet Union.
Bielefeld is a city in the Ostwestfalen-Lippe Region in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Bielefeld University (Universität Bielefeld) is a university in Bielefeld, Germany.
The Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Brandenburg), officially known as the Brandenburg an der Havel State Welfare Institute (Landes-Pflegeanstalt Brandenburg a. H.) was established in 1939 and acted during the Nazi era as a killing centre as part of the Nazi Euthanasia Programme, subsequently referred to after the war as Action T4.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Caritas Internationalis is a confederation of 165 Catholic relief, development and social service organisations operating in over 200 countries and territories worldwide.
Not to be confused with bioethicist Carl E. Schneider or psychologist Kurt Schneider.Carl Schneider (December 19, 1891 in Gembitz, Kreis Mogilno, Province of Posen – December 11, 1946 in Frankfurt am Main), professor at Heidelberg University, (1933–1945) chairman of its department of Psychiatry, director of its clinic, was a senior researcher for the Action T4 euthanasia program.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.
Chełm (Kulm, Холм) is a city in eastern Poland with 63,949 inhabitants (2015).
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
Choroszcz is a town in north-eastern Poland.
Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective.
Christian Wirth (24 November 1885 – 26 May 1944) was a German policeman and SS officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland, known as Operation Reinhard.
The Blessed Clemens August Graf von Galen (16 March 1878 – 22 March 1946) was a German count, Bishop of Münster, and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Clubfoot is a birth defect where one or both feet are rotated inwards and downwards.
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
The Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) was a movement within German Protestantism during Nazi Germany that arose in opposition to government-sponsored efforts to unify all Protestant churches into a single pro-Nazi Protestant Reich Church.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Das Erbe ("The Inheritance")Poore (1997), p. 110 was a Nazi propaganda movie published in 1935.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
East Upper Silesia (Ostoberschlesien) is a term denoting the easternmost extremity of Silesia, the eastern part of the Upper Silesian region around the city of Katowice (Kattowitz).
During World War II, the Nazi German Einsatzkommandos were a sub-group of five Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads (term used by Holocaust historians) – up to 3,000 men total – usually composed of 500–1,000 functionaries of the SS and Gestapo, whose mission was to exterminate Jews, Polish intellectuals, Romani, homosexuals, communists and the NKVD collaborators in the captured territories often far behind the advancing German front.
Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Erich Koch (19 June 1896 – 12 November 1986) was a Gauleiter of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in East Prussia from 1928 until 1945.
Ernst-Robert Grawitz (8 June 1899 – 24 April 1945) was a German physician and an SS functionary (Reichsarzt, "arzt" meaning "physician") during the Nazi era.
Erwin Hermann Lambert (7 December 1909 – 15 October 1976) was a perpetrator of the Holocaust.
Paul Eugen Bleuler (30 April 1857 – 15 July 1939) was a Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist most notable for his contributions to the understanding of mental illness.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
The Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg (Evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg; analoguous translation in Evangelical State Church in Württemberg) is a Lutheran member church of the Evangelical Church in Germany in the German former state of Württemberg, now part of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
Fort VII, officially Konzentrationslager Posen (renamed later), was a Nazi German death camp set up in Poznań in German-occupied Poland during World War II, located in one of the 19th-century forts circling the city.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franz Gürtner (26 August 1881 – 29 January 1941) was a German Minister of Justice in Adolf Hitler's cabinet, responsible for coordinating jurisprudence in the Third Reich.
Franz Reinhold Schwede (5 March 1888 – 19 October 1960) was a Nazi German politician, Lord Mayor of Coburg and Gauleiter of Pomerania.
Franz Paul Stangl (26 March 1908 – 28 June 1971) was an Austrian-born police officer who became an employee of the T-4 Euthanasia Program and an SS commander in Nazi Germany.
Friedrich von Bodelschwingh, Junior (14 August 1877, Bethel – 4 January 1946) was a German theologian and public health advocate.
Fulda (historically in English called Fuld) is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the river Fulda and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis).
Gallaudet University Press (GUPress) is a publisher that focuses on issues relating to deafness and sign language.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Gemeinnützige Krankentransport GmbH (known as "Gekrat" or "GeKraT", commonly translated as "Charitable Ambulance") was a National Socialist subdivision of the Action T4 organization.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Gerhard Herbert Kretschmar (20 February 1939 – 25 July 1939), was a German child born with severe disabilities.
Gerhard Wagner (18 August 1888 in Neu-Heiduk, Prussian Silesia, now in Poland – 25 March 1939 in Munich) was the first Reich Doctors' Leader (Reichsärzteführer) in the time of Nazi Germany.
The German Federal Archives or Bundesarchiv (BArch) (Bundesarchiv) are the National Archives of Germany.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
Gitta Sereny, CBE (13 March 192114 June 2012) was an Austrian-British biographer, historian, and investigative journalist who came to be known for her interviews and profiles of controversial figures, including Mary Bell, who was convicted in 1968 of killing two children when she herself was a child, and Franz Stangl, the commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
The Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Grafeneck) housed in Grafeneck Castle was one of Nazi Germany's killing centres as part of their forced euthanasia programme.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Maria Gugging Psychiatric Clinic, known as Gugging, is a psychiatric institution located on the outskirts of Vienna, Austria.
The Hadamar Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Hadamar) was located at a psychiatric hospital in the German town of Hadamar, near Limburg in Hesse, from 1941 to 1945.
Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt (June 2, 1885 – December 30, 1964) was a German neuropathologist, who first described the Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.
Hans Heinze, sometimes referred to as Euthanasie-Heinze ("Euthanasia Heinze"; 18 October 1895 – 4 February 1983), was a Nazi German psychiatrist and eugenicist.
Hans Heinrich Lammers (27 May 18794 January 1962) was a German jurist and prominent Nazi politician.
The Hartheim Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Hartheim) was a killing centre involved in the Nazi euthanasia programme, also referred to as Action T4.
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University.
Heinrich Gross (14 November 1915 – 15 December 2005) was an Austrian psychiatrist, medical doctor and neurologist, a reputed expert as a leading court-appointed psychiatrist, ill-famed for his proven involvement in the killing of at least nine children with physical, mental and/or emotional/behavioral characteristics considered "unclean" by the Nazi regime, under its Euthanasia Program.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Henry Egon Friedlander (24 September 1930 – 17 October 2012) was a German-American Jewish historian of the Holocaust noted for his arguments in favor of broadening the scope of casualties of the Holocaust.
Herbert Lange (29 September 1909 – 20 April 1945) was an SS-Sturmbannführer and the commandant of Chełmno extermination camp until April 1942; leader of the SS Special Detachment Lange conducting the extermination of Jews from the Łódź Ghetto.
The Hereditary Health Court (Erbgesundheitsgericht), also known as, the Genetic Health Court, were courts that decided whether people should be forcibly sterilized in Nazi Germany.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The Province of Hesse-Nassau was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1868 to 1918, then a province of the Free State of Prussia until 1944.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Ich klage an (Eng: I Accuse) is a 1941 German pro-euthanasia propaganda film directed by Wolfgang Liebeneiner.
The Institute of Contemporary History (Institut für Zeitgeschichte) in Munich was conceived in 1947 under the name Deutsches Institut für Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Zeit ("German Institute of the History of the National Socialist Era").
The Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej – Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu; IPN) is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives, as well as prosecution powers.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intelligenzaktion (Intelligentsia action) was a secret mass murder conducted by Nazi Germany against the Polish élites (the intelligentsia, teachers, priests, physicians, et al.) early in the Second World War (1939–45).
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Involuntary euthanasia occurs when euthanasia is performed on a person who would be able to provide informed consent, but does not, either because they do not want to die, or because they were not asked.
SS-Obersturmführer Irmfried Eberl (8 September 1910 – 16 February 1948) was an Austrian psychiatrist and medical director of the euthanasia institutes in Brandenburg and Bernburg, who helped set up and was the first commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp where he worked from 11 July 1942 until his dismissal on 26 August 1942.
Irmgard Huber (1901–1983) was the head nurse of Germany's Hadamar Clinic, a psychiatric facility.
Irsee is a village and municipality in the district of Ostallgäu in Bavaria in Germany.
The Jewish skeleton collection was an attempt by the Nazis to create an anthropological display to showcase the alleged racial inferiority of the "Jewish race" and to emphasize the Jews' status as Untermenschen ("sub-humans"), in contrast to the German race, which the Nazis considered to be Aryan Übermenschen.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Karl Ludwig Lorenz Binding (4 June 1841 – 7 April 1920) was a German jurist known as a promoter of the theory of retributive justice.
Karl Brandt (8 January 1904 – 2 June 1948) was a German physician and Schutzstaffel (SS) officer in Nazi Germany.
Kaufbeuren is an independent town in the Regierungsbezirk of Swabia, Bavaria.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
Kościan (Kosten) is a town on the Obra canal in west-central Poland, with a population of 23 952 inhabitants as of June 2014.
Kriminalpolizei ("criminal police") is the standard term for the criminal investigation agency within the police forces of Germany, Austria and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leonardo Conti, MD (24 August 1900 in Lugano – 6 October 1945 in Nuremberg) was the Reich Health Leader (Reichsgesundheitsführer) in Nazi Germany.
The phrase "life unworthy of life" (in "Lebensunwertes Leben") was a Nazi designation for the segments of the populace which, according to the Nazi regime of the time, had no right to live.
Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).
This is a list of notable Nazi medical doctors (M.D. or physicians).
Lorenz Hackenholt (26 June 1914 -missing 1945 declared legally dead as of 31 December 1945) was a member of the Schutzstaffel (SS) with the rank of Hauptscharführer (First Sergeant).
Lothar Kreyssig (30 October 1898 – 6 July 1986) was a German judge during the Weimar and Nazi era.
Lubliniec (Lublinitz) is a town in southern Poland with 29,359 inhabitants (2004).
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity.
Professor Maximinus Friedrich Alexander de Crinis (29 May 1889 in Ehrenhausen near Graz – 2 May 1945 in Stahnsdorf near Berlin) held a Chair in psychiatry in Cologne and Berlin, and was a medical expert for the Action T4 Euthanasia Program who wrote the Euthanasia Decree, signed by Adolf Hitler on September 20, 1939.
Münster (Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city (Kreisfreie Stadt) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
Michael Burleigh (born 3 April 1955) is an English author and historian whose primary focus is on Nazi Germany and related subjects.
Microcephaly is a medical condition in which the brain does not develop properly resulting in a smaller than normal head.
Mystici corporis Christi (29 June 1943) is a papal encyclical issued by Pope Pius XII during World War II, on the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ.
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.
During the Second World War, the Roman Catholic Church protested against Aktion T4, the Nazi involuntary euthanasia programme under which the mentally ill, physically deformed, and incurably sick were to be killed.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Oberführer ("senior leader") was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) dating back to 1921.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland during World War II.
Operation Tannenberg (Unternehmen Tannenberg) was a codename for one of the extermination actions by Nazi Germany that was directed at the Polish nationals during the opening stages of World War II in Europe, part of the Generalplan Ost for the German colonization of the East.
Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone.
Owińska (Treskau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Czerwonak, within Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Paderborn University (Universität Paderborn) is one of the fourteen universities in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Hermann Paul Nitsche (November 25, 1876 – March 25, 1948) was a German psychiatrist known for his expert endorsement of the Third Reich's euthanasia authorization and who later headed the Medical Office of the T-4 Euthanasia Program.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Philipp Bouhler (11 September 1899 – 19 May 1945) was a senior Nazi Party functionary who was both a Reichsleiter (National Leader) and Chief of the Chancellery of the Führer of the NSDAP.
Philipp, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse (6 November 1896 – 25 October 1980) was head of the Electoral House of Hesse from 1940 to 1980.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
The Province of Upper Silesia (Provinz Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Oberschläsing; Prowincyjŏ Gōrny Ślōnsk; Prowincja Górny Śląsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945.
The term racial hygiene was used to describe an approach to eugenics in the early twentieth century, which found its most extensive implementation in Nazi Germany (Nazi eugenics).
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
Reichsführer-SS ("Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
A Reichsgau (plural Reichsgaue) was an administrative subdivision created in a number of areas annexed to Nazi Germany between 1938 and 1945.
The Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreussen) was a Nazi German province created on 8 October 1939 from annexed territory of the Free City of Danzig, the Greater Pomeranian Voivodship (Polish Corridor), and the ''Regierungsbezirk'' West Prussia of Gau East Prussia.
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
Reichsleiter (national leader or Reich leader) was the second highest political rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), next only to the office of Führer.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
Robert Jay Lifton (born May 16, 1926) is an American psychiatrist and author, chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes and effects of wars and political violence and for his theory of thought reform.
The Diocese of Münster is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Rybnik (Rybnick, Rybńik) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the Silesian Voivodeship.
The German publishing house S. Fischer Verlag (today in Frankfurt am Main) was founded in 1886 by Samuel Fischer in Berlin and is a leading German address for literary publications, fine literature and fiction.
The Sagamihara stabbings were committed on 26 July 2016 in Midori Ward, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Schizophrenia Bulletin is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers research relating to the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia.
Schloss Hartheim, also known as Hartheim Castle, is a castle at Alkoven in Upper Austria, some from Linz, Austria.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
Selbstschutz (Self-protection) is the name given to different iterations of ethnic-German self-protection units formed both after the First World War and in the lead-up to the Second World War.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS near the railway station of Sobibór during World War II, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government of the occupied Second Polish Republic.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Soldau concentration camp established by Nazi Germany during World War II was a concentration camp for Polish and Jewish prisoners.
Sonderbehandlung (special treatment) is a term which can refer to any sort of preferential treatment, but is known primarily as a euphemism for mass murder used by Nazi functionaries and the SS, who commonly used the abbreviation S.B. in documentation.
The Sonnenstein Euthanasia Clinic (NS-Tötungsanstalt Sonnenstein; literally "National Socialist Killing Institution Sonnenstein") was a Nazi euthanasia or extermination centre located in the former fortress of Sonnenstein Castle near Pirna in eastern Germany, where a hospital had been established in 1811.
Starogard Gdański (meaning approximately "the old stronghold"; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Starogarda; Preußisch Stargard) is a town in Eastern Pomerania in northwestern Poland with 48,328 inhabitants (2004).
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
The T4-Gutachter (in English, Action T4 experts) were medical experts who were employed by the Zentraldienststelle-T4 to organize and carry out the Action T4 "euthanasia" program in Nazi Germany.
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
Theophil Wurm (7 December 1868, Basel – 28 January 1953, Stuttgart) was the son of a pastor and was a leader in the German Protestant Church in the early twentieth century.
The Tiergarten (formal German name: Großer Tiergarten) is Berlin’s most popular inner-city park, located completely in the district of the same name.
Tiergarten (German for Animal Garden, historically for Deer Garden) is a locality within the borough of Mitte, in central Berlin (Germany).
Tiergartenstraße is a street in the Tiergarten district in central Berlin, the capital of Germany.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (V&R) is a scholarly publishing house based in Göttingen, Germany.
Victims of the Past (original German title: Opfer der Vergangenheit: Die Sünde wider Blut und Rasse (English: Victims of the Past: The Sin against Blood and Race)) was a Nazi propaganda film made in 1937.
Viktor Hermann Brack (9 November 1904 – 2 June 1948) was a German Nazi war criminal, an organiser of the Euthanasia Programme, Action T4, where the Nazi state systematically murdered over 70,000 disabled German and Austrian people.
Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.
The Wannsee Conference (Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.
Warta (Dvart) is a town in Sieradz County, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,303 inhabitants (2016).
Werner Blankenburg (19 June 1905 – 28 November 1957) was head of the Section IIa in Hitler's Chancellery (''Kanzlei des Führers'') in Nazi Germany, and thus one of the main responsible persons for the National Socialist "Euthanasia"-program Action T4, the annihilation of the Polish Jews in the "Aktion Reinhard", and the experiments with castration by X-Rays in KZ Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Werner Catel (27 June 1894 – 30 April 1981), Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Leipzig, was one of three doctors considered an expert on the programme of euthanasia for children and participated in the Action T4 "euthanasia" programme for the Nazis, the other two being Hans Heinze and Ernst Wentzler.
Werner Heyde (aka Fritz Sawade) (25 April 1902 – 13 February 1964) was a German psychiatrist.
Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent German politician of the NSDAP, who served as Reich Minister of the Interior in the Hitler Cabinet from 1933 to 1943 and as the last governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
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