259 relations: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Rahman I, Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri, Abd ar-Rahman III, Abdallah ibn Buluggin, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi, Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani, Abu l-Khattar al-Husam ibn Darar al-Kalbi, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, Afonso III of Portugal, Afonso IV of Portugal, Akhbār majmūʿa, Al-'Awasim, Al-Hakam II, Al-Walid I, Al-Zahrawi, Alentejo, Alfonso I of Asturias, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Alfonso VIII of Castile, Alfonso XI of Castile, Algarve, Algeciras, Alhambra, Almanzor, Almohad Caliphate, Almoravid dynasty, Alpujarras, Andalusia, Andalusian Arabic, Aquitaine, Arab Agricultural Revolution, Arab diaspora, Arabesque, Arabic, Aragon, Archidona, Arles, Astrology, Astronomy, Atlantis, Avempace, Averroes, Averroism, Avicenna, Avignon, Badajoz, Baghdad, ..., Battle of Alarcos, Battle of Bagdoura, Battle of Guadalete, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, Battle of Río Salado, Battle of Sagrajas, Battle of Toulouse (721), Battle of Tours, BBC, Beja, Portugal, Berber languages, Berber Revolt, Berbers, Bilad al-Sham, Black Death, Book burning, Brethren of Purity, Burgundy, Burkina Faso, Caliphate, Caliphate of Córdoba, Cantabria, Carolingian Empire, Castile (historical region), Catholic Monarchs, Córdoba, Spain, Cerdanya, Charles Martel, Christian, Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz, Constantinople, County of Barcelona, Crown of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Crypto-Islam, Damascus, Dhimmi, DIN 31635, Dinar, Douro, Dunash ben Labrat, Early Muslim conquests, Egypt, Emir, Emirate of Córdoba, Emirate of Granada, Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity, Entrepôt, Expulsion of the Moriscos, Fatimid Caliphate, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, Fihrids, Fitna of al-Andalus, Forced conversions of Muslims in Spain, Francia, Franks, Galicia (Spain), Germanic peoples, Gharb Al-Andalus, Gibraltar, Granada, Granada War, Hermes Trismegistus, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Hisham II, Hispanic and Latino American Muslims, History of Islam, History of the Jews in Spain, History of the Jews under Muslim rule, Horseshoe arch, Iberian Peninsula, Ibn al-'Awwam, Ibn Bassal, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Zuhr, Ifriqiya, Isabella I of Castile, Islam in Spain, Islamic calligraphy, Islamic Golden Age, Ismail I, Sultan of Granada, Jaén, Spain, Jabir ibn Aflah, Jerez de la Frontera, Jewish Encyclopedia, Jews, Jizya, Judah Halevi, Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400), Jund, Jund al-Urdunn, Jund Dimashq, Jund Filastin, Jund Hims, Jund Qinnasrin, Kairouan, Kemal Reis, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Asturias, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Galicia, Kingdom of León, Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of Portugal, La Convivencia, Latin, Levant, List of Umayyad governors of al-Andalus, Liutprand, King of the Lombards, Logic, Lombards, Lower March, Maghreb, Maimonides, Majus, Mali, Marca Hispanica, March (territorial entity), Marinid dynasty, Marrakesh, Maslama al-Majriti, Mawla, Málaga, Mérida, Spain, Medicine, Medina-Sidonia, Mediterranean Basin, Mesopotamia, Michael Scot, Middle Ages, Moorish Gibraltar, Moors, Morisco, Mozarabic language, Mozarabs, Muhammad I of Granada, Muhammad XII of Granada, Muhammed V of Granada, Muladi, Munuza, Muqarnas, Murcia, Musa bin Nusayr, Muslim, Narbonne, Nasrid dynasty, Navarre, Niebla, Spain, North Africa, Odo the Great, People of the Book, Pepin the Short, Peter IV of Aragon, Peter of Castile, Platonism, Pope Sixtus IV, Portugal, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, Provence, Province of León, Pyrenees, Rageh Omaar, Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501), Reconquista, Reinhart Dozy, Renaissance, Repoblación, Rhône, Rhombus, Roderic, Romance languages, Ronda, Sacks of Córdoba (1009–13), Sahara, Said al-Andalusi, Septimania, Seville, Siege of Narbonne (752–59), Sierra Nevada (Spain), Silk, Slavery, Social and cultural exchange in Al-Andalus, Strait of Gibraltar, Sufism, Taifa, Tarifa, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, Toledo School of Translators, Toledo, Spain, Trade, Tunis, Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, UNESCO, Upper March, Uqba ibn Nafi, Valencia, Vandals, Visigothic Kingdom, Visigoths, Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada, Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, Yusuf II, Almohad caliph, Zaragoza, 1066 Granada massacre. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
, also known as Al-Zarkali or Ibn Zarqala (1029–1087), was an Arab Muslim instrument maker, astrologer, and one of the leading astronomers of his time.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (731–788), was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba).
Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri (died 755) was an Arab noble of the Oqbid or Fihrid family, and ruler of Ifriqiya (North Africa) from 745 through 755 AD.
Abd ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/9115 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus.
Abdallah ibn Buluggin, full name:ʿAbd Allāh ben Buluggīn ben Bādīs ben Ḥabūs ben Zīrī (1056–after 1090), also known as "Al-Muzaffar" (the conqueror), was the grandson of Badis ben Habus and the last Zirid ruler of the Taifa of Granada (1073-1090).
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (died 732; عبد الرحمن الغافقي), also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame, and Abd el-Rahman, unsuccessfully led the Andalusian Muslims into battle against the forces of Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours on October 10, 732 AD.
Abdullah ibn Muhammad (عبد الله بن محمد ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad; January 11, 844 – October 15, 912) of the Umayyad dynasty was the seventh Emir of Córdoba, reigning from 888 to 912 in Al-Andalus (Islamic Iberia).
Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani (أبو الحكم الكرماني; d. 1066 CE) was a prominent philosopher and scholar from the Muslim al-Andalus.
Abu l-Khattar al-Husam ibn Darar al-Kalbi (أبو الخطار الحسام بن ضرار الكلبي) was Umayyad governor of Al-Andalus from May 743 until August 745.
Abū Yūsuf Ya‘qūb al-Manṣūr (c. 1160 Morocco – 23 January 1199 Marrakesh, Morocco), also known as Moulay Yacoub, was the third Almohad Caliph.
Afonso III (rare English alternatives: Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin), the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhês), King of Portugal (5 May 121016 February 1279) was the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249.
Afonso IVEnglish: Alphonzo or Alphonse, or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin).
The Akhbār majmūʿa fī fatḥ al-Andalus ("Collection of Anecdotes on the Conquest of al-Andalus") is an anonymous history of al-Andalus compiled in the second decade of the 11th century and only preserved in a single manuscript, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
Al-ʿAwāṣim (اَلْـعَـوَاصِـم, The "defences, fortifications"; singular: al-ʿāṣimah (اَلْـعَـاصِـمَـة, "protectress")) was the Arabic term used to refer to the Muslim side of the frontier zone between the Byzantine Empire and the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates in Cilicia, northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia.
Al-Hakam II (Abū'l-ʿĀs al-Mustansir bi-llāh al-Hakam ibn ʿAbd ar-Rahmān; January 13, 915 – October 16, 976) was the second Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan.
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.
Alfonso I of Asturias, called the Catholic (el Católico), (c. 693 – 757) was the third King of Asturias, reigning from 739 to his death in 757.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (El Noble) or the one of the Navas (el de las Navas), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.
Alfonso XI of Castile (13 August 131126/27 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
Algeciras (translit) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras).
The Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One",The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite articleالْحَمْرَاء, trans.; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic: the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra)الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ, trans.
Abu ʿĀmir Muḥammad bin ʿAbdullāh ibn Abi ʿĀmir, al-Ḥājib al-Manṣūr (أبو عامر محمد بن عبد الله بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور) (c. 938 – August 8, 1002), better known as Almanzor, was for 24 years (978–1002) the de facto ruler of Muslim Iberia (al-Andalus) under the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba (Khilāfat Qurṭuba).
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
The Alpujarra is a natural and historical region in Andalusia, Spain, on the south slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the adjacent valley.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) under Muslim rule (and for some time after) from the 9th century to the 17th century.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
The Arab Agricultural Revolution is the transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World.
Arab diaspora refers to descendants of the Arab immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands to non-Arab countries, primarily in South America, Europe, North America, and parts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa.
The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
Archidona is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga, part of the autonomous community of Andalusia in southern Spain.
Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atlantis (Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens", the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic.
Avempace (– 1138) is the Latinate form of Ibn Bâjja (ابن باجه), full name Abû Bakr Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyà ibn aṣ-Ṣâ’igh at-Tûjîbî Ibn Bâjja al-Tujibi (أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصائغ), was an Arab Andalusian polymath: his writings include works regarding astronomy, physics, and music, as well as philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
Badajoz (formerly written Badajos in English) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a battle between the Almohads led by Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur and King Alfonso VIII of Castile.
The Battle of Bagdoura (or Baqdura) was a decisive confrontation in the Berber Revolt in late 741 CE.
The Battle of Guadalete was fought in 711 or 712 at an unidentified location between the Christian Visigoths of Hispania under their king, Roderic, and the invading forces of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate, comprising Arabs and Berbers under the commander Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad.
The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab (معركة العقاب), took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.
The Battle of Río Salado, also known as the Battle of Tarifa (30 October 1340) was a battle of the armies of King Afonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile against those of sultan Abu al-Hasan 'Ali of the Marinid dynasty and Yusuf I of Granada.
The Battle of Sagrajas (23 October 1086), also called Zalaca or Zallaqa (translit), was a battle between the Almoravid army led by the Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin and an army led by the Castilian King Alfonso VI.
The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of an Aquitanian Christian army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad Muslim army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani.
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beja is a city and a municipality in the Alentejo region, Portugal.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Great Berber Revolt of 739/740–743 AD (122–125 AH in the Muslim calendar) took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the Arab caliphate (ruled from Damascus).
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bilad al-Sham (بِـلَاد الـشَّـام Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context.
The Brethren of Purity (Ikhwān Al-Ṣafā; also The Brethren of Sincerity) were a secret society of Muslim philosophers in Basra, Iraq, in the 8th or 10th century CE.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya (Latin: Ceretani or Ceritania, Cerdagne, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz y Menduiña (Madrid April 7, 1893 – Ávila July 8, 1984) was an eminent Spanish medieval historian, statesman, and president of the Spanish Republican government in Exile during the rule of Francisco Franco.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The County of Barcelona (Comitatus Barcinonensis) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Crypto-Islam is the secret adherence to Islam while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Islam are referred to as "crypto-Muslims".
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet adopted in 1982.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
Dunash ha-Levi ben Labrat (920-990) (דוֹנָש הלוי בֵּן לָבְרָט; دناش بن لبراط) was a medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Córdoba (إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
The Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (رسائل إخوان الصفا) also variously known as the Epistles of the Brethren of Sincerity, Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends was a large encyclopedia"The work only professes to be an epitome, an outline; its authors lay claim to no originality, they only summarize what others have thought and discovered.
An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.
The Expulsion of the Moriscos (Expulsión de los moriscos, Expulsió dels moriscos) was decreed by King Philip III of Spain on April 9, 1609.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
The Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, mounted between August 1349 and March 1350, was a second attempt by King Alfonso XI of Castile to retake the fortified town of Gibraltar.
The Fihrids (also known as Oqbids) were an illustrious Arab family and clan, prominent in North Africa and Muslim Iberia during the 8th century.
The Fitna of al-Andalus (فتنة الأندلس.) (1009–1031) was a period of instability and civil war that preceded the ultimate collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba.
The forced conversions of Muslims in Spain were enacted through a series of edicts outlawing Islam in the lands of Spain.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gharb Al-Andalus (غرب الأندلس, trans. gharb al-ʼandalus; "The West of Al-Andalus"), or just Al-Gharb (الغرب, trans. al-gharb; "The West"), was the name given by the Muslims of Iberia to the region of southern modern-day Portugal and part of West-central modern day Spain during their rule of the territory, from 711 to 1249.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Granada War (Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada.
Hermes Trismegistus (Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος, "thrice-greatest Hermes"; Mercurius ter Maximus; חרם תלת מחזות) is the purported author of the ''Hermetic Corpus'', a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
Abu'l-Walid Hisham II al-Mu'ayyad bi-llah (Abū'l-Walīd Hishām al-Muʾayyad bi-ʾllāh) (son of Al-Hakam II and Subh of Cordoba) was the third Umayyad Caliph of Spain, in Al-Andalus from 976–1009, and 1010–13.
Hispanic and Latino American Muslims are Hispanic and Latino Americans who are of the Islamic faith.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities in the world.
Jewish communities have existed across the Middle East and North Africa since Antiquity.
The horseshoe arch (Spanish: arco de herradura /ˈarko de eraˈduɾa/), also called the Moorish arch and the keyhole arch, is the emblematic arch of Moorish architecture.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ibn al-Awwam (ابن العوام), also called Abu Zakariya Ibn al-Awwam or Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī (أبو زكريا بن العوام), was an Andalusian Arab agriculturist who flourished at Seville in southern Spain in the later 12th century.
Ibn Bassal (1085 C.E.) was an Andalusian Arab botanist and agronomist in Toledo and Seville, Spain who wrote about horticulture and arboriculture.
Ibn Tufail (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi; Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abubekar or Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Arab Andalusian Muslim polymath: a writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official.
Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet.
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
Islam was a widespread religion in what is now Spain and Portugal for nine centuries, beginning with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and ending (at least overtly) with its prohibition by the modern Spanish state in the mid-16th century and the expulsion of the Moriscos in the early 17th century.
Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Ismail I (1279 – 6 June or 7 July 1325) was the grandson of Muhammed II al-Faqih and the fifth Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula in 1314–1325.
Jaén is a city in south-central Spain.
Abū Muḥammad Jābir ibn Aflaḥ (أبو محمد جابر بن أفلح, Geber/Gebir; 1100–1150) was an Arab Muslim astronomer and mathematician from Seville, who was active in 12th century al-Andalus.
Jerez de la Frontera, or simply Jerez, is a Spanish city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in southwestern Spain, located midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Cádiz Mountains.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.
This article covers the influence of Jewish and Islamic philosophy on each other, focusing especially on the period from 800–1400 CE.
Under the early Caliphates, jund (جند; plural ajnad, اجناد) was a term for a military division, which became applied to Arab military colonies in the conquered lands and, most notably, to the provinces into which Greater Syria (the Levant) was divided.
Jund al-Urdunn (جُـنْـد الْأُرْدُنّ, translation: "Military district of Jordan") was one of the five districts of Bilad ash-Sham during the period of the Arab Caliphates.
Jund Dimashq (جند دمشق) was the largest of the sub-provinces (ajnad, sing. jund), into which Syria was divided under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties.
Jund Filasṭīn (جُـنْـد فِـلَـسْـطِـيْـن, "military district of Palestine") was one of the military districts of the Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphate province of Bilad al-Sham (Syria), organized soon after the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 630s.
Jund ḤimṣAlthough the modern district and the city are known in English as "Homs", the military districts of the Caliphate are known by their transliterated names.
Jund Qinnasrīn (جُـنْـد قِـنَّـسْـرِيْـن, "military district of Qinnasrin") was one of five sub-provinces of Syria under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate, organized soon after the Muslim conquest of Syria in the 7th century CE.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Galicia (Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Reino de Galicia; Reino da Galiza; Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
La Convivencia ("The Coexistence") is an academic hypothesis regarding the period of Spanish history from the Muslim Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early eighth century until the expulsion of the Jews in 1492.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The southern part of the Iberian peninsula was under Islamic rule for seven hundred years.
Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
The Lower March (الثغر الأدنى, al-Ṯaḡr al-ʾAdnā) was a march of the Al Andalus.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Majūs (Arabic: مجوس, Persian: مگوش, plural of majūsī) was originally a term meaning Zoroastrians (and specifically, Zoroastrian priests).
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Maslama al-Majriti or Abu al-Qasim al-Qurtubi al-Majriti (full name: Abu ’l-Qāsim Maslama ibn Aḥmad al-Faraḍī al-Ḥāsib al-Maj̲rīṭī al-Qurṭubī al-Andalusī; أبو القاسم مسلمة بن أحمد المجريطي, Methilem) (c. 950 in Madrid – 1007 in Córdoba) was an Arab Muslim astronomer, chemist, mathematician, economist and Scholar in Islamic Spain, active during the reign of Al-Hakam II.
Mawlā (مَوْلًى), plural mawālī (مَوَالِي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
Mérida (Extremaduran: Méria) is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medina-Sidonia is a city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, southern Spain.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Michael Scot (Latin: Michael Scotus; 1175 –) was a mathematician and scholar in the Middle Ages.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The history of Moorish Gibraltar began with the landing of the Muslims in Hispania and the fall of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo in 711 and ended with the fall of Gibraltar to Christian hands 751 years later, in 1462, with an interregnum during the early 14th century.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.
The Mozarabs (mozárabes; moçárabes; mossàrabs; مستعرب trans. musta'rab, "Arabized") is a modern historical term that refers to the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr (1195 – 22 January 1273), also known as Ibn al-Aḥmar (ابن الأحمر) and by his epithet al-Ghalib billah ("The Victor by the Grace of God"), was the first ruler of the Emirate of Granada, the last independent Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula, and the founder of its ruling Nasrid dynasty.
Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII (أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر Abū ‘Abdi-llāh Muḥammad ath-thānī ‘ashar) (c. 1460 – 1533), known to the Castilians as Boabdil (a Spanish rendering of the name Abu Abdillah), was the 22nd and last Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Iberia.
Muhammed V (4 January 1338 – 16 January 1391) was the eighth Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
Uthman ibn Naissa, better known as Munuza, was a Berber governor depicted in different contradictory chronicles during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.
Muqarnas (مقرنص; مقرنس) is a form of ornamented vaulting in Islamic architecture, the "geometric subdivision of a squinch, or cupola, or corbel, into a large number of miniature squinches, producing a sort of cellular structure", sometimes also called a "honeycomb" vault.
Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).
Musa bin Nusayr (موسى بن نصير Mūsá bin Nuṣayr; 640–716) served as a governor and general under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I. He ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania (Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of France).
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
The Nasrid dynasty (بنو نصر banū Naṣr or banū al-Aḥmar) was the last Arab Muslim dynasty in Iberia, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Niebla is a town and municipality located in the province of Huelva, in Andalusia, southern Spain.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Odo the Great (also called Eudes or Eudo) (died 735), was the Duke of Aquitaine by 700.
People of the Book/Scripture (أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
Peter IV (5 September 1319 – 6 January 1387), called the Ceremonious (Catalan: el Cerimoniós), was from 1336 until his death the King of Aragon and also King of Sardinia and Corsica (as Peter I), King of Valencia (as Peter II), and Count of Barcelona (and the rest of the Principality of Catalonia as Peter III).
Peter (Pedro; 30 August 133423 March 1369), called the Cruel (el Cruel) or the Just (el Justo), was the king of Castile and León from 1350 to 1369.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Rageh Omaar (Raage Oomaar; راجح عمر; born 19 July 1967) is a Somali-born British journalist and writer.
The Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501) was a series of uprisings by the Muslim population of the Kingdom of Granada, Crown of Castile (formerly, the Emirate of Granada) against their Catholic rulers.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Reinhart Pieter Anne Dozy (Leiden, Netherlands, 21 February 1820 – Leiden, 29 April 1883) was a Dutch scholar of French (Huguenot) origin, who was born in Leiden.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Repoblación (Repovoação) was the ninth-century repopulating of a large region between the River Duero and the Cantabrian Mountains which had been depopulated in the early years of the Reconquista.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
In plane Euclidean geometry, a rhombus (plural rhombi or rhombuses) is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length.
Ruderic (also spelled Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick; Spanish and Rodrigo, لذريق; died 711 or 712) was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Ronda is a city in the Spanish province of Málaga.
The city of Córdoba in al-Andalus, under the rule of Umayyad Caliph Hisham II al-Hakam, was besieged, pillaged, and attacked by Berbers twice: from 1009 to 1010 and from 1010 to 1013.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Abū al-Qāsim Ṣāʿid ibn Abū al-Walīd Aḥmad ibn Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Ṣāʿid ibn ʿUthmān al-Taghlibi al-Qūrtūbi, often referred to as Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, (1029–July 6,1070; 420- 6th Shawwal, 462) was an Andalusian-Arab Muslim Qadi.
Septimania (Septimanie,; Septimània,; Septimània) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Siege of Narbonne took place between 752 and 759 led by Pepin the Short against the Umayyad stronghold defended by an Andalusian garrison and its Gothic and Gallo-Roman inhabitants.
Sierra Nevada (meaning "mountain range covered in snow" in Spanish) is a mountain range in the region of Andalucia, in the province of Granada and, a little further, Málaga and Almería in Spain.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Muslims, Christians, and Jews co-existed for over seven centuries in the geographic area known as Al-Andalus or Moorish Spain and Portugal.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of mainland Spain.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.
The Toledo School of Translators (Escuela de Traductores de Toledo) is the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Upper March (in الثغر الأعلى, aṯ-Tagr al-A'la; in Spanish: Marca Superior) was an administrative and military division in northeast Al-Andalus, roughly corresponding to the Ebro valley and adjacent Mediterranean coast, from the 8th century to the early 11th century.
ʿUqbah ibn Nāfiʿ (عقبة بن نافع, also referred to as Oqba ibn Nafi, Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba ibn al Nafia, or Akbah; 622–683) was an Arab general serving the Rashidun Caliphate since the Reign of Umar and later on the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of Muawiyah I and Yazid I, leading the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada (June 29, 1318 – October 19, 1354) was the seventh Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula.
Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri (يوسف بن عبد الرحمن الفهري) was an Umayyad governor of Narbonne in Septimania and governor of al-Andalus from 747 to 756, ruling independently following the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate in 750.
Yusuf ibn Tashfin also, Tashafin, Teshufin; or Yusuf (full name: Yûsuf bnu Tâšfîn Nâçereddîn bnu Tâlâkâkîn aç-Çanhâjî, يوسف بن تاشفين ناصر الدين بن تالاكاكين الصنهاجي; reigned c. 1061 – 1106) was leader of the Berber Moroccan Almoravid empire.
Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf al-Mustanṣir (also known as Yusuf II, c.1203–1224) (يوسف بن الناصر Yūsuf bin an-Nāṣir) was Caliph of Morocco from 1213 until his death.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
The 1066 Granada massacre took place on 30 December 1066 (9 Tevet 4827; 10 Safar 459 AH) when a Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, in the Taifa of Granada, crucified the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela, and massacred much of the Jewish population of the city.
Al Andalus, Al Andaluz, Al Andulus, Al-Andalus, etymology(ies), Al-Andaluz, Al-andalus, Al-Ándalus, Al-ʼAndalus, An-Andalus, Andalous, Arab Spain, Etymology of Al-Andalus, Hispano-Muslim, History of Muslim Spain, Islamic Iberia, Islamic Spain, Moorish Iberia, Moorish Portugal, Moorish Spain, Muslim Spain, Muslim rule of Spain, The Moorish Occupation of Spain, Umayyad Spain, Wandalus.