Sūrat al-Aʻrāf (سورة الأعراف, "The Heights") is the seventh sura of the Qur'an, with 206 verses.
Amr ibn Hisham (عمرو بن هشام), often known as Abu Jahl (أبو جهل), (born 556? — died 17 March 624), was one of the Meccan polytheist pagan Qurayshi leaders known for his critical opposition towards Muhammad the Islamic prophet and the early Muslims in Mecca.
Sūrat Al-Tawbah (سورة التوبة, "The Repentance"), also known as al-Barā'ah ("The Repudiation"), is the ninth chapter of the Qur'an.
In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula.
The Madaniy Surahs (Surah Madaniyyah) or Madaniy chapters of the Quran are the latest 24 Surahs that, according to Islamic tradition, were revealed at Medina after Muhammad's hijra from Mecca.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
Ubay ibn Khalaf (أبي بن خلف) was a non-Muslim who was a contemporary and an enemy of Muhammad.