261 relations: Abdullah al-Muhaysini, Abdullah Ramo Pazara, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, Abu Jaber Shaykh, Abu Khayr al-Masri, Abu Maria Al-Qahtani, Abu Mohammad al-Julani, Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Abu Omar al-Turkistani, Abu Qatada, Adana Province, Agence France-Presse, Ahmad Salama Mabruk, Ahrar al-Sham, Airstrike, Ajnad al-Kavkaz, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Al-Ahram Weekly, Al-Monitor, Al-Nusra Front–SRF/Hazzm Movement conflict, Al-Qaeda, Alawites, Aleppo, Aleppo Governorate, Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016), Amnesty International, Ansar al-Din Front, Ansar al-Islam, Antifreeze, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Army of Conquest, Army of Mujahideen, Army of Revolutionaries, Arsal, Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq, Aydınlık, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Bashar al-Assad, Battle of Aleppo (2012–2016), Battle of Arsal (2014), Battle of Bosra (2015), Battle of Idlib (2015), Battle of Tora Bora, Battle of Yarmouk Camp (2015), Battle of Zabadani (2015), BGM-71 TOW, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, ..., Bosnian Americans, Bounty (reward), Brigade, Car bomb, Caucasus Emirate, Child abduction, Children in the military, Christiane Amanpour, Clandestine cell system, Classical Arabic, Council of Ministers (Syria), Damascus, Daraa, Davao City, David Ignatius, Deir ez-Zor, Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Director of National Intelligence, Division 30, Druze, Eid al-Adha, Emir, Emirate, European Parliament, Execution-style murder, Fastaqim Union, Field hospital, Fiji, Financial Times, Foreign Affairs, Foreign fighters in the Syrian and Iraqi Civil Wars, Free Idlib Army, Free Syrian Army, Golan Heights, Haaretz, Hajj, Hama, Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba, Harem, Harem, Syria, Hassan Nasrallah, Hatay Province, Hürriyet, Hürriyet Daily News, Hezbollah, Homs, Hoshyar Zebari, Houthis, Hudud, HuffPost, Human Rights Watch, Idlib, Idlib Governorate, Idlib Governorate clashes (January–March 2017), Imam Bukhari Jamaat, Indo-Asian News Service, Inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War, International Business Times, International military intervention against ISIL, Interrogation, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic Jihad Union, Islamic Muthanna Movement, Islamic state, Islamic State of Iraq, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamism, ITV News, Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar, James Clapper, January 2012 al-Midan bombing, Jaysh al-Islam, Jaysh al-Jihad, Jihad, Jihadism, Jisr al-Shughur, Jund al-Aqsa, Kata'ib Hezbollah, Kata'ib Sayyid al-Shuhada, Kenneth R. 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Abdullah al-Muhaysini عبد الله المحيسني is a Saudi Arabian Islamic cleric who is known for having served as a religious judge in the Army of Conquest in the Syrian Civil War.
Abdullah Ramo Pazara was a Bosnian-American who was suspected of an association with Daesh, or ISIS.
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (عبد الله يوسف عزام, ‘Abdu’llāh Yūsuf ‘Azzām; 194124 November 1989) also known as Father of Global Jihad was a Palestinian Sunni Islamic scholar and theologian and founding member of Al-Qaeda.
Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (أبو بكر البغدادي; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي in 1971) is the leader of the Salafi jihadist militant terrorist organisation known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),Rewards for Justice – Retrieved 25 January 2017 which controls territory in several countries.
Hashim al-Shaykh (هاشم الشيخ), also known by his nom de guerre Abu Jaber Shaykh (أبو جابر الشيخ) is a rebel commander during the Syrian Civil War who is a senior leader of Tahrir al-Sham.
Abdullah Muhammad Rajab Abd al-Rahman (عبد الله محمد رجب عبد الرحمن), known as Ahmad Hasan Abu al-Khayr al-Masri (أحمد حسن أبو الخير المصري), (3 November 1957 – 26 February 2017) was an Egyptian al-Qaeda leader who has been described as the general deputy to al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.
Maysar Ali Musa Abdullah al-Juburi, also known as Abu Mariya al-Qahtani (أبو ماريا القحطاني), is an Iraqi Islamic militant fighting in the Syrian Civil War.
Ahmed Hussein al-Shar’a (أحمد حسين الشرع), known by the nom de guerre Abu Mohammad al-Julani (أبو محمد الجولاني), is the commander-in-chief of the Syrian militant group Tahrir al-Sham; he was also the emir of its predecessor organisation al-Nusra Front, the Syrian branch of al-Qaeda.
Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi (أبو محمد المقدسي), or more fully Abu Muhammad Essam al-Maqdisi (أبو محمد عصام المقدسي), is the assumed name of Essam Muhammad Tahir al-Barqawi (عصام محمد طاهر البرقاوي), an Islamist Jordanian-Palestinian writer.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
Abu Omar al-Turkistani (أبو عمر التركستاني, died 1 January 2017) was a high-ranking commander for several al-Qaeda-affiliated groups, such as the Islamic Jihad Union (IJU), the Al-Nusra Front, and the Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria (TIP).
Abu Qatada al-Filistini (أبو قتادة الفلسطيني, ’Abū Qatāda al-Filisṭīnī), born Omar Mahmoud Othman (عمر بن محمود بن عثمان ‘Umar ibn Maḥmūd ibn ‘Uṯmān) in 1959/1960, is a Salafi cleric and Jordanian national.
Adana Province, (Adana ili) is a province of Turkey located in south-central Anatolia.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Ahmad Salama Mabruk (الشيخ أحمد سلامة مبروك; December 8, 1956 – October 3, 2016), known as Abu Faraj al-Masri (أبو الفرج المصري), was a senior leader in the Syrian militant group Jabhat Fateh al-Sham, and was previously a leader in Jabhat al-Nusra and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad militant groups.
Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya (lit), commonly referred to as Ahrar al-Sham, is a coalition of multiple Islamist and Salafist units that coalesced into a single brigade and later a division in order to fight against the Syrian Government led by Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Ajnad al-Kavkaz (أجناد القوقاز, "Soldiers of the Caucasus"; short: AK or AAK) is a Chechen-led Jihadi Islamic fundamentalist rebel group active in northern Syria, primarily in the mountainous, forested areas of northern Latakia Governorate.
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Ahram Weekly is an English-language weekly broadsheet printed by the Al-Ahram Publishing House in Cairo, Egypt.
Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.
The al-Nusra Front–SRF/Hazzm Movement conflict started in late October 2014, during the Syrian Civil War, in Idlib and Aleppo governorates, during which al-Nusra attempted to establish an Islamic state rival to that of ISIL.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016), code named Operation Dawn of Victory by government forces, was a successful military offensive launched by the Syrian Armed Forces and allied groups against rebel-held districts in Aleppo.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Jabhat Ansar al-Din (جبهة أنصار الدين, The Supporters of the Religion Front) is a jihadist alliance that announced itself on 25 July 2014, during the Syrian Civil War.
Ansar al-Islam (أنصار الإسلام) or Ansar al-Islam fi Kurdistan (أنصار الإسلام في كردستان), also referred to as AAIChalk, Peter, Encyclopedia of Terrorism Volume 1, 2012, ABC-CLIO is a Sunni Muslim insurgent group in Iraq and Syria.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Army of Conquest (جيش الفتح) or Jaish al-Fatah, abbreviated JaF, was a joint command center of Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel factions participating in the Syrian Civil War.
The Army of Mujahideen (جيش المجاهدين, Jaysh al-Mujahideen) was a Sunni Islamist rebel group formed in order to fight the Syrian government and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the Syrian Civil War.
The Army of Revolutionaries (Jayš al-Thuwwār), or Jaysh al-Thuwar, is a multi-ethnic armed Syrian rebel coalition that is allied with the primarily Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and participating in the Syrian Civil War as part of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).
Arsal (also spelled Aarsal, Ersal or 'Irsal; عرسال), is a town and municipality situated east of Labweh, northeast of Beirut, in Baalbek District of Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon.
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq (AAH; عصائب أهل الحق ‘Aṣayib Ahl al-Haq, "League of Righteous People"), also known as the Khazali Network, is an Iraqi Shi'a paramilitary group active in the Iraqi insurgency and Syrian Civil War. During the Iraq War it was known as Iraq's largest "Special Group" (the Americans' term for Iran-backed Shia paramilitaries in Iraq), and claimed responsibility for over 6,000 attacks on American and Coalition forces. The group is currently fighting against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant as part of the Popular Moblization Forces. The group is funded and trained by Iran's Quds Force., The Guardian, 12 March 2014.
Aydınlık ("Clarify" or "Enlightenment" in Turkish) is the newspaper of the Patriotic Party (Vatan Partisi).
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Battle of Aleppo (معركة حلب) was a major military confrontation in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria, between the Syrian opposition (including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and other largely-Sunni groups, such as the Levant Front and the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra Front) against the government of Bashar al-Assad, supported by Hezbollah, Shia militias and Russia, and against the Kurdish People's Protection Units. The battle began on 19 July 2012 and was part of the ongoing Syrian Civil War. A stalemate that had been in place for four years finally ended in July 2016, when Syrian government troops closed the rebels' last supply line into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes. In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign that resulted in the recapture of all of Aleppo by December 2016. The Syrian government victory was widely seen as a potential turning point in Syria's civil war. The large scale devastation of the battle and its importance led combatants to name it the "mother of battles" or "Syria's Stalingrad". The battle was marked by widespread violence against civilians, alleged repeated targeting of hospitals and schools (mostly by pro-government Air Forces and to a lesser extent by the rebels), and indiscriminate aerial strikes and shelling against civilian areas. It was also marked by the inability of the international community to resolve the conflict peacefully. The UN special envoy to Syria proposed to end the battle by giving East Aleppo autonomy, but the idea was rejected by the Syrian government. Hundreds of thousands of residents were displaced by the fighting and efforts to provide aid to civilians or facilitate evacuation were routinely disrupted by continued combat and mistrust between the opposing sides. Various claims of war crimes emerged during the battle, including the use of chemical weapons by both Syrian government forces and rebel forces, the use barrel bombs by the Syrian Air Force, the dropping of cluster munitions on populated areas by Russian and Syrian forces, the carrying out of "double tap" airstrikes to target rescue workers responding to previous strikes, summary executions of civilians and captured soldiers by both sides, indiscriminate shelling and use of highly inaccurate improvised artillery by rebel forces. During the 2016 Syrian government offensive, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights warned that "crimes of historic proportions" were being committed in Aleppo. Fighting also caused severe destruction to the Old City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage site. An estimated 33,500 buildings have been either damaged or destroyed. After four years of fighting, the battle represents one of the longest sieges in modern warfare and one of the bloodiest battles of the Syrian Civil War, leaving an estimated 31,000 people dead, almost a tenth of the estimated overall war casualties at that time.
On 2 August 2014, after Lebanese security forces arrested an al-Nusra Front commander, fighters from al-Nusra Front and ISIL surrounded Lebanese Army checkpoints in Arsal before attacking them and storming the northeastern town's police station, where they took at least 16 policemen hostage.
The Battle of Bosra refers to a military operation launched by Syrian rebels during the Syrian Civil War, in order to capture the city of Bosra.
The Battle of Idlib ("Operation to Free Idlib") was a military operation in the Idlib Governorate, during the Syrian Civil War, conducted by rebels against Syrian government forces defending Idlib city.
The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place in Afghanistan from December 6, 2001 to December 17, 2001, during the opening stages of the War in Afghanistan launched by the United States following the September 11 attacks.
The Battle of Yarmouk Camp (2015) was a battle that broke out in April 2015, during the Syrian Civil War, when the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant stormed the rebel-held Yarmouk Camp.
The Battle of Zabadani (2015) started in early July 2015, during the Syrian Civil War, as a military offensive launched by the Syrian Army, and Hezbollah to capture the rebel-held town of Al-Zabadani.
The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is an American anti-tank missile.
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
Bosnian Americans are Americans whose ancestry can be traced to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A bounty (from Latin bonitās, goodness) is a payment or reward often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.
The Caucasus Emirate (Имарат Кавказ Imarat Kavkaz (IK); Кавказский Эмират Kavkazskiy Emirat), also known as the Caucasian Emirate, was a militant Jihadist organisation active in the southwestern region of the Russian Federation.
Child abduction or child theft is the unauthorized removal of a minor (a child under the age of legal adulthood) from the custody of the child's natural parents or legally appointed guardians. According to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, in the United States an estimated 460,000 children were reported missing in 2015, most of which are not abducted. 97% return or are found alive. The term child abduction conflates two legal and social categories which differ by their perpetrating contexts: abduction by members of the child's family or abduction by strangers.
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
Christiane Amanpour (Kristiane Amānpur; born 12 January 1958) is a British-Iranian journalist and television host.
A clandestine cell system is a method for organizing a group of people such as resistance fighters, sleeper agents, or terrorists so that such people can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization (such as law enforcement).
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
The Cabinet of Syria is the chief executive body of the Syrian Arab Republic.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Daraa (درعا, Levantine Arabic:, also Darʿā, Dara’a, Deraa, Dera'a, Dera, Derʿā and Edrei; means "fortress", compare Dura-Europos) is a city in southwestern Syria, located about north of the border with Jordan.
, officially the (Dakbayan sa Dabaw, Lungsod ng Dabaw), is a highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao,.
David R. Ignatius (May 26, 1950), is an American journalist and novelist.
Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.
Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.
The 30th Infantry Division (الفرقة 30 مشاة), commonly referred to as Division 30, also called the New Syrian Forces, was a Syrian rebel group formed by the United States.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
An execution-style murder, also known as execution-style killing, is an act of criminal murder where the perpetrator kills at close range a conscious victim who is under the complete physical control of the assailant and who has been left with no course of resistance or escape.
The Fastaqim Kama Umirt Union (lit) is a rebel group active during the Syrian Civil War.
A field hospital is a small mobile medical unit, or mini hospital, that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent facilities.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foreign fighters have fought on all four sides of the Syrian Civil War, as well both sides of the Iraqi Civil War.
The Free Idlib Army (Jaysh ‘Idlib al-Ḥarr) is a Syrian rebel coalition consisting of 3 armed groups from northwestern Syria affiliated with the Free Syrian Army: the 13th Division, the Northern Division, and the Mountain Hawks Brigade.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba (HHN; حركة حزب الله النجباء Ḥaraka Ḥizballāh an-Nujabā’, "Movement of the Party of God's Nobles") is an Iraqi Shi'ite paramilitary group.
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Harem or Harim (حارم) is a Syrian city within the Idlib Governorate.
Hassan Nasrallah (حسن نصرالله; born 31 August 1960) is the third and current Secretary General of the Lebanese political and paramilitary party Hezbollah since his predecessor, Abbas al-Musawi, was assassinated by the Israel Defense Forces in February 1992.
Hatay Province (Hatay ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The administrative capital is Antakya (Antioch), and the other major city in the province is the port city of İskenderun (Alexandretta). It is bordered by Syria to the south and east and the Turkish provinces of Adana and Osmaniye to the north. The province is part of Çukurova (Cilicia), a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, and Hatay. There are border crossing points with Syria in the district of Yayladağı and at Cilvegözü in the district of Reyhanlı. Sovereignty over the province remains disputed with neighbouring Syria, which claims that the province was separated from itself against the stipulations of the French Mandate of Syria in the years following Syria's independence from the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Although the two countries have remained generally peaceful in their dispute over the territory, Syria has never formally renounced its claims to it.
Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Hoshyar Mahmud Mohammed Zebari, also simply known as Hoshyar Zebari (also spelled Hoshyar Zubari/Zibari, Kurdish: Hişyar Zêbarî; born 1953) is an Iraqi politician who formerly served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Iraq in 2014 and also as the Finance Minister until 2016.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
Hudud (Arabic: حدود Ḥudūd, also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural of hadd, حد) is an Arabic word meaning "borders, boundaries, limits".
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Idlib (إدلب, also spelled Edlib or Idleb) is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, southwest of Aleppo.
Idlib Governorate (مُحافظة ادلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Idlib) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Idlib Governorate clashes (January–March 2017) were military confrontations between Syrian rebel factions led by Ahrar al-Sham and their allies on one side and the al-Qaeda-affiliated Jabhat Fatah al-Sham (later as Tahrir al-Sham) and their allies on the other.
The Imam Bukhari Jamaat (Imom Buxoriy Katibasi, also Katibat Imam al Bukhari) is an Islamist Salafi group fighting in the Syrian Civil War and the War in Afghanistan, composed of primarily Uzbeks, and expressing loyalty to the Taliban movement.
Indo-Asian News Service or IANS is a private Indian news agency.
The inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War started after fighting erupted between the Syrian opposition groups: the Free Syrian Army (FSA), the Army of Mujahedeen, the Islamic Front, and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the first half of 2014, and its universally-condemned executions, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War, many states began to intervene against it in both the Syrian Civil War and the Iraqi Civil War (2014–present).
Interrogation (also called questioning) is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
The Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) is a militant Islamist organization founded in 2002 as a splinter group of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU).
The Islamic Muthanna Movement (حركة المثنى الإسلامية, Harakat al-Muthanna al-Islamiya) is a Syrian Salafist rebel group based in Daraa that had been active during Syrian Civil War.
An Islamic state (دولة إسلامية, dawlah islāmiyyah) is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a (Islamic law), dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.
The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; دولة العراق الإسلامية) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
ITV News is the branding of news programmes on the British television network ITV.
Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar (JMA or JAMWA, جيش المهاجرين والأنصار Army of Emigrants and Supporters), formerly known as the Muhajireen Brigade (Katibat al-Muhajireen), is a jihadist group made up of Arabs that has been active in the Syrian Civil War against the Syrian Government.
James Robert Clapper Jr. (born March 14, 1941) is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is the former Director of National Intelligence.
On 6 January 2012, a bomb exploded in the Al-Midan district of Damascus, Syria.
Jaysh al-Islam (جيش الإسلام, meaning Army of Islam), formerly known as Liwa al-Islam (لواء الإسلام, Brigade of Islam), is a coalition of Islamist rebel units involved in the Syrian Civil War.
Jaysh al-Jihad (Jihad Army) was an Islamic State group based in Quneitra Governorate.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.
Jisr ash-Shugur (جسر الشغور,, Cisr eş-ŞuğurGünümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri. — ORSAM Rapor № 83. ORSAM – Ortadoğu Türkmenleri Programı Rapor № 14. Ankara — Kasım 2011, 33 pages. also spelled Jisr al-Shughour) is a city in the Idlib Governorate in northwestern Syria.
Jund al-Aqsa (جند الأقصى Jund al-‘Aqṣā, "Garrison of al-Aqsa"), later known as Liwa al-Aqsa after 7 February 2017, was a Salafist jihadist organization that was active during the Syrian Civil War.
Kata'ib Hezbollah (كتائب حزب الله, Brigades of the Party of God) or Hezbollah Brigades is an Iraqi Shia paramilitary group that is supported by Iran.
The Martyrs of Sayyid Battalions, or Kata'ib Sayyid al-Shuhada (KSS) (كتائب سيد الشهداء), are an Iraqi Shia militia formed in 2013 to protect "(Shia) shrines across the globe", preserve "Iraqi unity" and to "put an end to the sectarian conflict".
Kenneth R. Timmerman (born November 4, 1953) is a political writer and conservative activist who was the 2012 Republican nominee for U.S. Representative for the newly redrawn, facing the incumbent Chris Van Hollen, a Democrat.
The Khorasan group, sometimes known simply as Khorasan, is an alleged group of senior al-Qaeda members operating in Syria.
Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Lādhiqīyah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The border between the Syrian Arab Republic and the Lebanese Republic runs for a total length of about; it accounts for most of the land border of Lebanon (except for the short border with Israel in the south).
A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
This is a list of terror attacks in Damascus within modern Syria (after independence in 1946).
This is a timeline of incidents in Syria that have been labelled as terrorism and are not believed to have been carried out by a government or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism).
The Brigade of Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas (Arabic:لواء أبو الفضل العباس, Liwa Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas), also known as the al-Abbas Brigade (Arabic:كتائب العباس, Kata'ib al-Abbas), was a pro-government Twelver Shia Muslim militant group operating throughout Syria.
Liz Sly (born in the United Kingdom) is a British journalist based in Beirut.
FDD's Long War Journal (LWJ) is an American news website, also described as a blog, which reports on the war on terror.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Maaloula or Maҁlūlā (ܡܥܠܘܠܐ - מעלולא; معلولا) is a town in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria.
In Arabic culture, a Majlis-ash-Shura (مجلس الشورى) is an advisory council or consultative council.
Maksar al-Hisan (مكسر الحصان) is a village in northern Syria located east of Homs in the Homs Governorate.
Malhama Tactical is a private military contractor operating in the Syrian Civil War.
The March 2012 Damascus bombings were two large car bombs that exploded in front of the air intelligence and criminal security headquarters in the Syrian capital of Damascus.
Media activism is a broad category of activism that utilizes media and communication technologies for social and political movements.
The Mersin Province (Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.
The Middle East Eye (MEE) is an online news portal covering events in the Middle East.
A military exclusion zone (MEZ) is an area in the immediate vicinity of a military action established by a country to prevent the unauthorized entry of civilian personnel/equipment for their own safety or to protect natural assets already in place in the zone.
Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
The Mountain Hawks Brigade (Liwa’ Suqour al-Jabal), formerly the Hawks of Mount Zawiya Brigade (Liwa' Suqour Jabal al-Zawiya), is a Saudi-sponsored Free Syrian Army rebel group operating in northwestern Syria.
The Mujahideen Shura Council (مجلس شورى مجاهدي الشرقية Majlis Shūrā Mujāhidīn ash-Sharqīyah, meaning "Shura Council of the Mujahideen of the Eastern Area", also known by the Arabic acronym Mishmish), is a coalition of Islamist rebel groups in Deir ez-Zor which formed in order to fight the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the Syrian Civil War.
Abu Musab al-Suri, born Mustafa bin Abd al-Qadir Setmariam Nasar (مصطفى بن عبد القادر ست مريم نصار), is a suspected Al-Qaeda member and writer best known for his 1600-page book The Global Islamic Resistance Call (Da'wat al-muqawamah al-islamiyyah al-'alamiyyah).
The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.
The National Defence Forces (NDF) (قوات الدفاع الوطني Quwāt ad-Difāʿ al-Watanī) is a pro-government militia, formed after summer 2012 and organized by the Syrian government during the Syrian Civil War as a part-time volunteer reserve component of the Syrian Armed Forces.
A news presenter – also known as a newsreader, newscaster (short for "news broadcaster"), anchorman or anchorwoman, news anchor or simply an anchor – is a person who presents news during a news program on the television, on the radio or on the Internet.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nineveh Governorate (محافظة نينوى) (ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ) is a governorate in northern Iraq that contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.
The Northern Aleppo offensive (February 2016) refers to a military operation launched northwest of Aleppo in early February 2016 by the Syrian Arab Army and its allies.
The Northwestern Syria offensive (April–June 2015), dubbed by the rebels as the Battle of Victory, took place in the Idlib and Hama governorates during the Syrian Civil War.
The Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement (حركة نور الدين الزنكي Ḥaraka Nūr ad-Dīn az-Zankī) is a Sunni Islamist rebel group involved in the Syrian Civil War.
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.
On 3 October 2012, three suicide car bombs exploded at the eastern corner of the Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square and the nearby areas killing 40 people.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The People's Protection Units (یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, وحدات حماية الشعب, translit; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces.
Peter Theo Curtis (a.k.a. Theo Padnos; born 1968) is an American journalist who was released by the al-Nusra Front in August 2014, after being held hostage for almost two years.
The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is a newspaper in the Philippines.
A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads/sections/patrols.
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).
The Qalamoun offensive (May–June 2015) was an offensive led by the Iranian-backed militia Hezbollah, supported by the Syrian Army, during the Syrian Civil War, against the al-Nusra Front and other Syrian opposition forces entrenched in the mountains of the Qalamoun region.
The Qalamun Mountains (جبال القلمون) are the northeastern portion of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, and they are located northeast of the Syrian capital Damascus.
The Qalb Loze massacre was a reported massacre of Syrian Druze on 10 June 2015 in the village of Qalb Loze in Syria's northwestern Idlib Governorate.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Quilliam is a London-based left-of-centre think tank that focuses on counter-extremism, specifically against Islamism, which it argues represents a desire to impose a given interpretation of Islam on society.
Quneitra Governorate (مُحافظة القنيطرة / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Al-Qunayṭrah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Rajm is an Arabic word that means "stoning".
A regiment is a military unit.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rif Dimashq Governorate (محافظة ريف دمشق, literally, the "Governorate of the Countryside of Damascus") is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Robin B. Wright (born August 27, 1948) is an American foreign affairs analyst, journalist, and author, who is noted for her foreign tours, having reported from all around the world.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.
Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square (ساحة سعدالله الجابري) is the central town square at the heart of the Syrian city of Aleppo.
Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salqin (سلقين) is a town in Syria, administratively part of Idlib Governorate.
Sami al-Oraydi was the chief religious authority for al-Nusra Front and the group's former second-in-command.
Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
Sarmada (سرمدا) is a town in the Harem District, Idlib Governorate of Syria.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sayyid Qutb (or;,; سيد قطب Sayyid Quṭb; also spelled Said, Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, Sayed; Koteb, Qutub, Kotb, Kutb; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Syrian Civil War is an intensely sectarian conflict.
Sednaya Prison (سجن صيدنايا) is a military prison near Damascus in Syria operated by the government of Bashar al-Assad.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shabiha (North Levantine Arabic: شبيحة,; also romanized Shabeeha or Shabbiha; loosely translated "spirits", "ghosts", "shadows", or "apparitions") are mostly Alawite groups of armed militia in support of the Ba'ath Party government of Syria, led by the Al-Assad family.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sharif Hikmat Nashashibi is a London-based journalist, analyst on Arab affairs, and co-founder and chairman of Arab Media Watch, a media watchdog organization that monitors and responds to British media coverage of the Arab world.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Siege of al-Fu'ah and Kefriya is an ongoing siege of the towns of al-Fu'ah and Kafriya in the Idlib Governorate, during the Syrian Civil War.
The Siege of Nubl and al-Zahraa during the Syrian Civil War was laid by rebels to capture two Syrian government-held towns north of Aleppo, after they had seized most of the northern countryside in July 2012.
SITE Intelligence Group is an American company that tracks online activity of white supremacist and jihadist organizations.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Sulayman al-ʿAlwān or more fully Sulaimān ibn Nāṣir ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAlwān (سليمان بن ناصر بن عبد الله العلوان) is a Saudi Arabian Salafi Islamist Scholar and theoretician of militant jihad.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
The Suqour al-Sham Brigades (ألوية صقور الشام, Hawks of the Levant Brigades), also known as the Sham Falcons Brigades, is an armed rebel organisation formed by Ahmed Abu Issa early in the Syrian Civil War to fight against the Syrian Government.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian Civil War spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian rebels travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil.
The Syrian Democratic Forces (translit, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk, translit), commonly abbreviated as SDF, HSD or QSD, are a multi-ethnic and multi-religious alliance of predominantly Kurdish, but also Arab and Assyrian/Syriac militias, as well as some smaller Turkmen, Armenian, Circassian and Chechen groups/participation in the Syrian Civil War. The SDF is mostly composed of, and militarily led by, the People's Protection Units (YPG), a mostly Kurdish militia. Founded in October 2015, the SDF states its mission as fighting to create a secular, democratic and federal Syria, along the lines of the Rojava Revolution in northern Syria. The updated December 2016 constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria names the SDF as its official defence force. The primary opponents of the SDF and their allies are the Salafist and Islamic fundamentalist groups involved in the civil war, in particular the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, al-Qaeda affiliates, and their allies. The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL, successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (also known as SOHR; المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان), founded in May 2006, is a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in Syria; it has focused since 2011 on the Syrian Civil War.
The Syrian Revolutionaries Front (جبهة ثوار سوريا, Jabhat Thowar Suriya, SRF, also translated Syrian Rebel Front) is, according to Lebanon's Daily Star, an alliance of 14 relatively moderate Islamist and some secular armed groups fighting under the banner of the Free Syrian Army, formed in December 2013, thus according to Arutz Sheva further sidelining the FSA and its leadership Supreme Military Council.
Syrian Turkmen Brigades (Suriye Türkmen Tugayları), also called the United Turkmen Army (Birleşik Türkmen Ordusu), are an informal armed opposition structure composed of Syrian Turkmen and Turks that form the military wing of the Syrian Turkmen Assembly, primarily fighting against the Syrian Armed Forces, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Democratic Forces.
Taftanaz Air Base is a Syrian Air Force installation located south of Taftanaz, Idlib Governorate and east of Ta'um, Idlib Governorate, Syria.
Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (transliteration:, "Organization for the Liberation of the Levant" or "Levant Liberation Committee"), commonly referred to as Tahrir al-Sham and abbreviated HTS, also known as al-Qaeda in Syria, is an active Salafist jihadist militant group involved in the Syrian Civil War.
Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (TQJBR; (Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", tanẓīm qā‘idat al-jihād fī bilād ar-rāfidayn), also referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) or Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, was an Iraqi Sunni Islamic Jihadist organization affiliated with al-Qaeda.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
Tayseer Allouni (تيسير علوني; also: Taysir, Tayseer, Alluni, Aluni, Alony) is a journalist from the Al Jazeera news channel.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Daily Caller is a conservative American news and opinion website based in Washington, D.C. It was founded by political pundit Tucker Carlson and Neil Patel, former adviser to former Vice President Dick Cheney.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Fiscal Times (TFT) is an English-language digital news, news analysis and opinion publication based in New York City and Washington, D.C..
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Timber Sycamore was a classified weapons supply and training program run by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and supported by Arab intelligence services, such as the security service in Saudi Arabia.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Today's Zaman (Zaman is Turkish for 'time' or 'age') was an English-language daily newspaper based in Turkey.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP, الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني) or Turkistan Islamic Movement (TIM), formerly known as the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and other names, is an Islamic extremist terrorist organization founded by Uyghur jihadists in western China.
The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 350 on 31 May 1974, to implement Resolution 338 (1973) which called for an immediate ceasefire and implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade (لواء شهداء اليرموك) was a rebel group in southern Syria during the Syrian Civil War.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Zahran Alloush (Zahrān ʿAlūš; 1971 – 25 December 2015) was a Syrian Islamist leader active in the Syrian Civil War.
Zara'a (الزارة also spelled Zara or Zarah) is a Syrian village located in the Hirbnafsah Subdistrict in Hama District.
Zee News is an Indian news channel launched in 6 July 1999 and is the flagship property of Zee Media Corporation Limited, company and a subsidiary of Essel Group.The channel is owned by Subhash Chandra, an independent member of the Rajya Sabha.
Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse.
The 10 May 2012 Damascus bombings were carried out using a pair of car bombs allegedly detonated by suicide bombers outside a military intelligence complex in Damascus, Syria.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2013 Latakia offensive, (called The Descendants of Aisha, Mother of the Believers by Salafist jihadists, and the Operation Liberation of the Coast by the Free Syrian Army and its supporters) was a campaign during the Syrian civil war launched by Salafist jihadist groups andrebel forces in the Latakia Governorate.
The 2014 Idlib offensive refers to a series of rebel operations in the Idlib Governorate, during the Syrian Civil War, conducted by the rebels against the Syrian Government.
The 2015 Hama offensive was a military operation launched by Syrian rebels during the Syrian Civil War in the northern parts of Hama Governorate.
The 2015 Idlib offensive refers to a series of rebel operations in the Idlib Governorate, during the Syrian Civil War.
The 2016 Aleppo summer campaign started with a military operation launched on the northern outskirts of Aleppo in late June 2016, by the Syrian Arab Army.
AQIL, Abu Hammam al-Shami, Abú Suleiman al Masri, Al Nusra, Al Nusra Front, Al nusrah, Al-Nusra, Al-Nusra Front to Protect the Levant, Al-Nusrah Front, Al-Qaeda in Lebanon, Al-Qaeda in Syria, Al-Qaeda in Syria and Lebanon, Al-Qaeda in the Levant, Al-nusra front, Conquest of the Levant Front, JaN, Jabat al-Nusura, Jabhad al Nusra, Jabhat Al-Nusra, Jabhat Fatah al-Sham, Jabhat Fateh al-Sham, Jabhat al Nusra, Jabhat al-Nusra, Jabhat al-Nusrah li-ahl al Sham, Jabhat an-Nusra, Nusra, Nusra Front, Nusrah Front, Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Sham, The Nusra Front.