414 relations: A Madman Dreams of Turing Machines, A roads in Zone 6 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, Aarhus, Aarhus University, Abraham Wald, Absolute Genius with Dick and Dom, AGH University of Science and Technology, Alan Garner, Alan Turing Centenary Conference, Alan Turing Institute, Alan Turing law, Alan Turing Memorial, Alan Turing Year, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Albert Einstein, Algorithm, Alick Glennie, Alonzo Church, American Journal of Mathematics, American Lyric Theater, Amnesty law, Amsterdam Science Park, Amstrad, Andrew Hodges, Anglo-Irish people, Apple Inc., Artificial intelligence, Asa Briggs, Asperger syndrome, Association for Computing Machinery, Astronomer Royal, Atheism, Autocatalysis, Automatic Computing Engine, Autopsy, École Polytechnique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Über (comics), Banburismus, Bangor University, Barbican Centre, Baronet, Battle of the Atlantic, Baudot code, BBC, BBC News, Bell Labs, Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, Bendix G-15, Benedict Cumberbatch, ..., Bengal Army, Bertrand Russell, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Biuro Szyfrów, Bletchley Park, Blue plaque, Bogotá, Bomba (cryptography), Bombe, Boris Pavlovich Belousov, Bratislava, Breaking the Code, Breaking the Code (film), Brian Randell, British Army, British Society for the History of Mathematics, Calculus, Canal Street (Manchester), CAPTCHA, Carnegie Mellon University, Central limit theorem, Channel 4, Charles Babbage Institute, Chemical castration, Chemical clock, Chemical reaction, Chess, Chhatrapur, Chris Grayling, Chris Lowe, Christopher Chope, Church–Turing thesis, Cipher, Classics, Codebreaker (film), Colonnade Hotel, Colossus computer, Committal procedure, Computability in Europe, Computation, Computer, Computer science, Computer scientist, Computing Machine Laboratory, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander, Cora Diamond, Counterfactual history, County Clare, County Longford, County Tipperary, Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, Cryptanalysis, Cryptanalysis of the Enigma, Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher, Cryptonomicon, Cyanide poisoning, D. G. Champernowne, Dancehouse, David Cameron, David Hilbert, David Leavitt, David Temple, Dayton, Ohio, De La Salle University, Decision problem, Derek Jacobi, Diethylstilbestrol, Dilly Knox, DNA, Dorset, Drama Desk Award, East Sussex, Eduardo Paolozzi, Electromechanics, Electroplating, Elizabeth II, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, English Electric DEUCE, English Heritage, Enigma machine, Enigma rotor details, Entscheidungsproblem, Erectile dysfunction, Estrogen, Faculty of Informatics and Information Technologies, Fellow, Ferranti Mark 1, Fibonacci number, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, Foundations of mathematics, Frant, French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation, French language, Garry Kasparov, Gay pride, Göttingen, Gentry, George VI, Ghent University, Good–Turing frequency estimation, Gordon Brown, Gordon Welchman, Government Communications Headquarters, Gross indecency, Guildford, Gynecomastia, Halting problem, Hampton, London, Hanslope Park, Hartley (unit), Hastings, Hastings & St. Leonards Observer, Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, Heath Robinson (codebreaking machine), Heinz Billing, Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre, Hertfordshire Chorus, Hidrogenesse, Hormone, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, Hugh Whitemore, Hut 8, I. 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A Madman Dreams of Turing Machines is a book by Janna Levin which contrasts fictionalized accounts of the lives and ideas of Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing (who never met).
List of A roads in zone 6 in Great Britain starting east of the A6 and A7 roads and west of the A1 (road beginning with 6).
Aarhus (officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.
Aarhus University (Aarhus Universitet, abbreviated AU) is a public research university located in Aarhus, Denmark.
Abraham Wald (Hungarian: Wald Ábrahám, –) was an American mathematician who contributed to decision theory, geometry, and econometrics, and founded the field of statistical sequential analysis.
Absolute Genius with Dick and Dom (Previously also known as Appsolute Genius: with Dick & Dom and Absolute Genius: Super Tech with Dick & Dom) (Currently known as Absolute Genius: Monster Builds) is a British television series broadcast on CBBC and presented by Richard McCourt and Dominic Wood (Dick and Dom).
AGH University of Science and Technology (Polish Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica) is a technical university in Poland, located in Kraków.
Alan Garner OBE (born 17 October 1934) is an English novelist best known for his children's fantasy novels and his retellings of traditional British folk tales.
The Alan Turing Centenary Conference was an academic conference celebrating the life and research of Alan Turing by bringing together distinguished scientists to understand and analyse the history and development of Computer Science and Artificial intelligence.
The Alan Turing Institute is the United Kingdom's national institute for data science and artificial intelligence, founded in 2015.
The "Alan Turing law" is an informal term for the law in the United Kingdom, contained in the Policing and Crime Act 2017, which serves as an amnesty law to pardon men who were cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts.
The Alan Turing Memorial, situated in Sackville Park in Manchester, England, is in memory of Alan Turing, a pioneer of modern computing.
The Alan Turing Year, 2012, marked the celebration of the life and scientific influence of Alan Turing during the centenary of his birth on 23 June 1912.
Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983) is a biography of the British mathematician, codebreaker, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954) by Andrew Hodges.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Alick Edwards Glennie (1925–2003) was a British computer scientist, most famous for having developed Autocode, which many people regard as the first ever computer compiler.
Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.
The American Journal of Mathematics is a bimonthly mathematics journal published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
American Lyric Theater (ALT) an opera company based in New York City and they specialize in the development of new works.
An amnesty law is any law that retroactively exempts a select group of people, usually military leaders and government leaders, from criminal liability for crimes committed.
Amsterdam Science Park is a science park in the Oost city district of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Amstrad is a British electronics company.
Andrew Hodges (born 1949) is a British mathematician and author.
Anglo-Irish is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are mostly the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Asa Briggs, Baron Briggs (7 May 1921 – 15 March 2016) was an English historian.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Households of the United Kingdom.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
A single chemical reaction is said to be autocatalytic if one of the reaction products is also a catalyst for the same or a coupled reaction.
The Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) was an early electronic stored-program computer designed by Alan Turing.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
École Polytechnique (also known as EP or X) is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris.
The École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is a research institute and university in Lausanne, Switzerland, that specializes in natural sciences and engineering.
Über is a comic book series written by British author Kieron Gillen and illustrated by Caanan White, Gabriel Andrade and Daniel Gete.
Banburismus was a cryptanalytic process developed by Alan Turing at Bletchley Park in England during the Second World War.
Bangor University (Prifysgol Bangor) is a university in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
The Barbican Centre is a performing arts centre in the Barbican Estate of the City of London and the largest of its kind in Europe.
A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
A Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, or BZ reaction, is one of a class of reactions that serve as a classical example of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, resulting in the establishment of a nonlinear chemical oscillator.
The Bendix G-15 computer was introduced in 1956 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California.
Benedict Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch (born 19 July 1976) is an English actor who has performed in film, television, theatre and radio.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
The Biuro Szyfrów (Polish for "Cipher Bureau") was the interwar Polish General Staff's Second Department's unit charged with SIGINT and both cryptography (the use of ciphers and codes) and cryptanalysis (the study of ciphers and codes, for the purpose of "breaking" them).
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
The bomba, or bomba kryptologiczna (Polish for "bomb" or "cryptologic bomb") was a special-purpose machine designed about October 1938 by Polish Cipher Bureau cryptologist Marian Rejewski to break German Enigma-machine ciphers.
The bombe is an electro-mechanical device used by British cryptologists to help decipher German Enigma-machine-encrypted secret messages during World War II.
Boris Pavlovich Belousov (Бори́с Па́влович Белоу́сов; 19 February 1893 – 12 June 1970) was a Soviet chemist / biophysicist who discovered the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction (BZ reaction) in the early 1950s.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Breaking the Code is a 1986 play by Hugh Whitemore about British mathematician Alan Turing, who was a key player in the breaking of the German Enigma code at Bletchley Park during World War II and a pioneer of computer science.
Breaking the Code is a 1996 BBC television movie directed by Herbert Wise, based on the 1986 play by Hugh Whitemore about British mathematician Alan Turing, the play thematically links Turing's cryptographic activities with his attempts to grapple with his homosexuality.
Brian Randell (born 1936) is a British computer scientist, and Emeritus Professor at the School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, UK He specialises in research into software fault tolerance and dependability, and is a noted authority on the early pre-1950 history of computers.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Society for the History of Mathematics (BSHM) was founded in 1971 to promote research into the history of mathematics at all levels and to further the use of the history of mathematics in education.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
Canal Street, the centre of the Manchester Gay Village, is a street in Manchester city centre in North West England.
A CAPTCHA (an acronym for "Completely Automated Public '''T'''uring test to tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a type of challenge–response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) establishes that, in some situations, when independent random variables are added, their properly normalized sum tends toward a normal distribution (informally a "bell curve") even if the original variables themselves are not normally distributed.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.
Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or otherwise.
A chemical clock (or clock reaction) is a complex mixture of reacting chemical compounds in which the onset of an observable property occurs after a predictable induction time.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chatrapur (also spelt as Chhatrapur) is a town and a notified area committee in Ganjam District in the state of Odisha, India.
Christopher Stephen Grayling (born 1 April 1962) is a British politician and author serving as the Secretary of State for Transport since July 2016, and as a member of the House of Commons since 2001.
Christopher Sean Lowe (born 4 October 1959) is an English musician, singer, songwriter and co-founder of the synthpop duo Pet Shop Boys which he formed with Neil Tennant in 1981.
Sir Christopher Robert Chope (born 19 May 1947) is a British barrister and Conservative politician.
In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as computability thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis about the nature of computable functions.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Codebreaker (2011), original UK title Britain's Greatest Codebreaker, is a TV film aired on 21 November 2011 by Channel 4 about the life of Alan Turing.
The Colonnade Hotel (previously known as The Esplanade hotel) is a 4-star London hotel with 43 rooms, of which 3 are suites.
Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
In law, a committal procedure is the process by which a defendant is charged with a serious offence under the criminal justice systems of all common law jurisdictions except the United States.
Computability in Europe (CiE) is an international organization of mathematicians, logicians, computer scientists, philosophers, theoretical physicists and others interested in new developments in computability and in their underlying significance for the real world.
Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.
The Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester in the north of England was established by Max Newman shortly after the end of World War II, around 1946.
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence.
Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander (19 April 1909 – 15 February 1974), known as Hugh Alexander and C. H. O'D.
Cora Diamond (born 1937) is an American philosopher who works on Ludwig Wittgenstein, Gottlob Frege, moral philosophy, political philosophy, philosophy of language, and philosophy and literature.
Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a form of historiography that attempts to answer "what if" questions known as counterfactuals.
County Clare (Contae an Chláir) is a county in Ireland, in the Mid-West Region and the province of Munster, bordered on the West by the Atlantic Ocean.
County Longford (Contae an Longfoirt) is a county in Ireland.
County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland.
The Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 (48 & 49 Vict. c.69), or "An Act to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls, the suppression of brothels, and other purposes", was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the latest in a 25-year series of legislation in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland beginning with the Offences against the Person Act 1861 that raised the age of consent and delineated the penalties for sexual offences against women and minors.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Cryptanalysis of the Enigma ciphering system enabled the western Allies in World War II to read substantial amounts of Morse-coded radio communications of the Axis powers that had been enciphered using Enigma machines.
Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher was the process that enabled the British to read high-level German army messages during World War II.
Cryptonomicon is a 1999 novel by American author Neal Stephenson, set in two different time periods.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
Professor David Gawen Champernowne FBA (9 July 1912 – 19 August 2000).
The building which now houses the Dancehouse Theatre, on Oxford Road in Manchester, was originally designed by Pendleton and Dickson for property developer Emannuel Nove a Ukrainian who came to Manchester in the late 1800s.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.
David Leavitt (born June 23, 1961) is an American novelist, short story writer, and biographer.
David Temple MBE is a British conductor and musical director of Crouch End Festival Chorus and Hertfordshire Chorus.
Dayton is the sixth-largest city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County.
De La Salle University (Pamantasang La Salle, Universidad ng La Salle), also known as La Salle and abbreviated DLSU, is a private, Catholic research university run by De La Salle Brothers located in Taft Avenue, Malate, Manila, Philippines.
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a problem that can be posed as a yes-no question of the input values.
Sir Derek George Jacobi, (born 22 October 1938) is an English actor and stage director.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.
Alfred Dillwyn "Dilly" Knox, CMG (23 July 1884 – 27 February 1943) was a British classics scholar and papyrologist at King's College, Cambridge and a codebreaker.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
The Drama Desk Awards are presented annually and were first awarded in 1955 to recognize excellence in New York theatre productions on Broadway, Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway.
East Sussex is a county in South East England.
Sir Eduardo Luigi Paolozzi (7 March 1924 – 22 April 2005) was a Scottish sculptor and artist.
In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Englewood Cliffs is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
The DEUCE (Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine) was one of the earliest British commercially available computers, built by English Electric from 1955.
English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
This article contains technical details about the rotors of the Enigma machine.
In mathematics and computer science, the Entscheidungsproblem (German for "decision problem") is a challenge posed by David Hilbert in 1928.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
The Faculty of Informatics and Information Technology (Fakulta informatiky a informačných technológií) is one of the faculties of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava in Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia.
A fellow is a member of a group (or fellowship) that work together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice.
The Ferranti Mark 1, also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, and thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.
In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of the sequence, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.
The First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC (commonly shortened to First Draft) is an incomplete 101-page document written by John von Neumann and distributed on June 30, 1945 by Herman Goldstine, security officer on the classified ENIAC project.
Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.
Frant is a village and civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England, on the Kentish border about three miles (5 km) south of Royal Tunbridge Wells.
The French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique) is a French national research institution focusing on computer science and applied mathematics.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Ghent University (Universiteit Gent, abbreviated as UGent) is a public research university located in Ghent, Belgium.
Good–Turing frequency estimation is a statistical technique for estimating the probability of encountering an object of a hitherto unseen species, given a set of past observations of objects from different species.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
William Gordon Welchman (15 June 1906 – 8 October 1985) was an English mathematician, university professor, Second World War codebreaker at Bletchley Park and author.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
Gross indecency is a legal term that was originally used to criminalize sexual activity between men short of sodomy, which required penetration.
Guildford is a large town in Surrey, England, United Kingdom located southwest of central London on the A3 trunk road midway between the capital and Portsmouth.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running (i.e., halt) or continue to run forever.
Hampton is a suburban area on the north bank of the River Thames, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, England, which includes Hampton Court Palace.
Hanslope Park is located about half a mile south-east of the village of Hanslope in the Borough of Milton Keynes.
The hartley (symbol Hart), also called a ban, or a dit (short for decimal digit), is a logarithmic unit which measures information or entropy, based on base 10 logarithms and powers of 10, rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms which define the bit, or shannon.
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.
The Hastings & St.
General Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, (21 June 1887 – 17 December 1965), nicknamed Pug, was a British Indian Army officer and diplomat, remembered primarily for his role as Winston Churchill's chief military assistant during the Second World War and his service as the first Secretary General of NATO from 1952 to 1957.
Heath Robinson was a machine used by British codebreakers at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park during World War II in Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
Heinz Billing (7 April 1914 – 4 January 2017) was a German physicist and computer scientist, widely considered a pioneer in the construction of computer systems and computer data storage, who built a prototype laser interferometric gravitational wave detector.
Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre (HMGCC) is a small group tasked to provide electronics and software to support the communication needs of the British Government.
Hertfordshire Chorus, formed in 1970, is one of the leading large choirs in England with over 130 members from across the county of Hertfordshire, London and the surrounding areas, performing across the country and regularly touring.
Hidrogenesse is a Catalan pop band whose members are Carlos Ballesteros (singer) and Genís Segarra (synthesizers, also of Astrud).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hugh Whitemore (born 1936) is an English playwright and screenwriter.
Hut 8 was a section in the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park (the British World War II codebreaking station) tasked with solving German naval (Kriegsmarine) Enigma messages.
Irving John ("I. J."; "Jack") Good (9 December 1916 – 5 April 2009) The Times of 16-apr-09, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article6100314.ece was a British mathematician who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing.
The IEEE Annals of the History of Computing is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the IEEE Computer Society.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.
Inquests in England and Wales are held into sudden and unexplained deaths and also into the circumstances of discovery of a certain class of valuable artefacts known as "treasure trove".
The International Churchill Society (ICS), formerly known as the Churchill Centre, was founded in 1968 to educate new generations on the leadership, statesmanship, vision, courage and boldness of Sir Winston Churchill.
Internet activism (also known as web activism, online activism, digital campaigning, digital activism, online organizing, electronic advocacy, cyberactivism, e-campaigning, and e-activism) is the use of electronic communication technologies such as social media, e-mail, and podcasts for various forms of activism to enable faster and more effective communication by citizen movements, the delivery of particular information to large and specific audiences as well as coordination.
Ioan Mackenzie James FRS (born 23 May 1928) is a British mathematician working in the field of topology particularly in homotopy theory.
Istanbul Bilgi University (İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi) is a university in Istanbul, Turkey, privately owned by US-based Laureate Education, which is a for-profit college corporation.
Ivor Owen Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941 – 12 December 2014) was a historian of mathematics and logic.
Brian Jack Copeland (born 1950) is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, and author of books on the computing pioneer Alan Turing.
Jade Esteban Estrada (born September 17, 1975, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas) is a Latin pop singer, comedian, burlesque performer, choreographer, actor, journalist, political commentator, and human rights activist.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Jane Eliza Procter Fellowships are scholarships supporting academic research at Princeton University.
Jarl Waldemar Lindeberg (4 August 1876, Helsinki – 24 December 1932, Helsinki) was a Finnish mathematician known for work on the central limit theorem.
Jean Alys Barker, Baroness Trumpington (née Campbell-Harris; born 23 October 1922) is an English Conservative politician, a former member of the House of Lords.
Joan Elisabeth Lowther Murray, MBE (née Clarke; 24 June 1917 – 4 September 1996) was an English cryptanalyst and numismatist best known for her work as a code-breaker at Bletchley Park during the Second World War.
John Graham-Cumming is a British programmer and writer best known for having originated a successful petition to the British Government asking for an apology for its persecution of Alan Turing.
John Sampson Macfarlane Leech (born 11 April 1971, Wakefield, West Yorkshire) is a British Liberal Democrat politician who is currently the leader of the opposition on Manchester City Council.
John William Mills (born 4 March 1933, London) is an English sculptor.
John Ronald Womersley (20 June 1907 – 7 March 1958) was a British mathematician and computer scientist who made important contributions to computer development, and hemodynamics.
John Kevin Sharkey, Baron Sharkey (born 24 September 1947) is a British Liberal Democratic politician.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
Juliet Anne Virginia Stevenson, CBE (born 30 October 1956) is an English actress of stage and screen.
Keele University, officially known as the University of Keele, is a public research university located about 3 miles (5 km) from Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England.
Keira Christina Knightley, OBE (born 26 March 1985) is an English actress.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.
The known-plaintext attack (KPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has access to both the plaintext (called a crib), and its encrypted version (ciphertext).
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
The Laboratoire d'Informatique Fondamentale de Lille (LIFL), is a computer science research laboratory of Lille University of Science and Technology (USTL), in Lille, France.
Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, commonly known as the Labouchere Amendment, made "gross indecency" a crime in the United Kingdom.
Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.
The Legacy Walk is an outdoor public display in Chicago, Illinois, USA which celebrates LGBT history and people.
LGBT Foundation (formerly known as The Lesbian & Gay Foundation) is a charity based in Manchester with a wide portfolio of services.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
The Lille University of Science and Technology (Université Lille 1: Sciences et Technologies) was a French university located on a dedicated main campus in Villeneuve d'Ascq with 20,000 full-time students plus 14,500 students in continuing education (2004).
This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1951.
This list of IEEE Milestones describes the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) milestones, representing key historical achievements in electrical and electronic engineering.
The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected Head of the Royal Society of London who presides over meetings of the society's council.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b were German rotor stream cipher machines used by the German Army during World War II.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Louisa Warren Hall (born June 24, 1982 in Philadelphia) is an American novelist and poet.
In numerical analysis and linear algebra, LU decomposition (where "LU" stands for "lower–upper", and also called LU factorization) factors a matrix as the product of a lower triangular matrix and an upper triangular matrix.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Lyn Lloyd Newman (née Irvine) (3 May 1901 – 19 May 1973) was a literary journalist and author.
The Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway was a railway company that operated in southern India.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Maida Vale is an affluent residential district comprising the northern part of Paddington in west London, west of St John's Wood and south of Kilburn.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester City Council is the local government authority for Manchester, a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England.
The Manchester computers were an innovative series of stored-program electronic computers developed during the 30-year period between 1947 and 1977 by a small team at the University of Manchester, under the leadership of Tom Kilburn.
The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948).
Manchester Withington is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2015 by Jeff Smith of Labour.
Martin David Davis (born March 8, 1928) is an American mathematician, known for his work on Hilbert's tenth problem.
Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: (born 23 June 1942) is a British cosmologist and astrophysicist.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.
The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) is an independent nonprofit mathematical research institution in Berkeley, California.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matmos is an experimental electronic music duo originally from San Francisco but now residing in Baltimore.
Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, FRS, (7 February 1897 – 22 February 1984), generally known as Max Newman, was a British mathematician and codebreaker.
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
The Millennium Mathematics Project (MMP) was set up within the University of Cambridge in England as a joint project between the Faculties of Mathematics and Education in 1999.
Mind is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind Association.
Monopoly is a board game where players roll two six-sided dice to move around the game board, buying and trading properties, and develop them with houses and hotels.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Morten Tyldum (born 19 May 1967) is a Norwegian film director.
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB).
The National Heritage Memorial Fund (NHMF) was set up in 1980 to save the most outstanding parts of the British national heritage, in memory of those who have given their lives for the UK.
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.
Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer and game designer known for his works of speculative fiction.
Neil Francis Tennant (born 10 July 1954) is an English musician, singer, songwriter, music journalist and co-founder of the synthpop duo Pet Shop Boys, which he formed with Chris Lowe in 1981.
Neuromancer is a 1984 science fiction novel by American-Canadian writer William Gibson.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
The Hall of Honor is a memorial at the National Security Agency headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland.
"Official Secrets Act" is a term used in Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom, and formerly in Canada and New Zealand for legislation that provides for the protection of state secrets and official information, mainly related to national security.
An online petition (or Internet petition, or e-petition) is a form of petition which is signed online, usually through a form on a website.
The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.
In complexity theory and computability theory, an oracle machine is an abstract machine used to study decision problems.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
In mathematics, ordinal logic is a logic associated with an ordinal number by recursively adding elements to a sequence of previous logics.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford Brookes University is a public university in Oxford, England.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
Paris Diderot University, also known as Paris 7 (French: Université Paris Diderot (Paris 7)), is a French university located in Paris, France.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
Sir Paul Maxime Nurse (born 25 January 1949), is an English geneticist, former President of the Royal Society and Chief Executive and Director of the Francis Crick Institute.
Paul Sabatier University (Université Paul Sabatier, UPS, also known as Toulouse III) is a French university, in the Academy of Toulouse.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
A pedestal (from French piédestal, Italian piedistallo, "foot of a stall") or plinth is the support of a statue or a vase.
The Pet Shop Boys are an English synthpop duo, formed in London in 1981 and consisting of Neil Tennant (lead vocals, keyboards, occasional guitar) and Chris Lowe (keyboards, vocals).
Peter Gary Tatchell (born 25 January 1952) is a British human rights campaigner, originally from Australia, best known for his work with LGBT social movements.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").
The Pilot ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) was one of the first computers built in the United Kingdom at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the early 1950s.
In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.
Plausible deniability is the ability of people (typically senior officials in a formal or informal chain of command) to deny knowledge of or responsibility for any damnable actions committed by others in an organizational hierarchy because of a lack of evidence that can confirm their participation, even if they were personally involved in or at least willfully ignorant of the actions.
The Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR) —commonly referred as Poly or La Poly in Spanish— is a private non-profit university located in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
The Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (UC) (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile) is one of the six Catholic Universities existing in the Chilean university system and one of the two Pontifical Universities in the country, along with the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso.
A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Princeton Alumni Weekly (PAW) is a magazine published for the alumni of Princeton University.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Protestantism is a Christian minority on the island of Ireland.
Reaction–diffusion systems are mathematical models which correspond to several physical phenomena: the most common is the change in space and time of the concentration of one or more chemical substances: local chemical reactions in which the substances are transformed into each other, and diffusion which causes the substances to spread out over a surface in space.
The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robin Oliver Gandy (22 September 1919 – 20 November 1995) was a British mathematician and logician.
George Ronald Lewin CBE (11 October 1914 – 6 January 1984), later known as Ronald Lewin, was a British officer, publishing editor, radio producer and military historian.
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.
Royal Mail plc (Post Brenhinol; a' Phuist Rìoghail) is a postal service and courier company in the United Kingdom, originally established in 1516.
In the English and British tradition, the royal prerogative of mercy is one of the historic royal prerogatives of the British monarch, in which he or she can grant pardons (informally known as a royal pardon) to convicted persons.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Sackville Gardens in Manchester, England, is bounded by Manchester College's Shena Simon Campus on one side and Whitworth Street, Sackville Street and the Rochdale Canal and Canal Street on the others.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a sovereign state in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lies in the West Indies at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean.
Salvatore Adamo (born 1 November 1943) is an Italian musician and singer known for his romantic ballads.
Sara Teasdale (August 8, 1884January 29, 1933) was an American lyric poet.
The School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester is one of the largest Certainly the Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cambridge is larger.
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
Secure voice (alternatively secure speech or ciphony) is a term in cryptography for the encryption of voice communication over a range of communication types such as radio, telephone or IP.
In statistics, sequential analysis or sequential hypothesis testing is statistical analysis where the sample size is not fixed in advance.
Sherborne is a market town and civil parish in north west Dorset, in South West England.
Sherborne School is a British independent boys' school, located in the town of Sherborne in north-west Dorset, England.
Sidney E. Frank (October 2, 1919 – January 10, 2006) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
In cryptography, SIGSALY (also known as the X System, Project X, Ciphony I, and the Green Hornet) was a secure speech system used in World War II for the highest-level Allied communications.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Smith's Prize was the name of each of two prizes awarded annually to two research students in mathematics and theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge from 1769.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and originally released by RKO Radio Pictures.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Speak is a 2015 novel by Louisa Hall.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge (the full, formal name of the college is The Master, Fellows and Scholars of the College of St John the Evangelist in the University of Cambridge).
St Leonards-on-Sea (commonly known as St Leonards) has been part of Hastings, East Sussex, England, since the late 19th century though it retains a sense of separate identity.
Stanley Phillips "Stan" Frankel (1919 – May, 1978) was an American computer scientist.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Stephen Kettle (born 12 July 1966, in Castle Bromwich, Warwickshire, England) is a British sculptor who works exclusively with slate.
Stephen Wolfram (born August 29, 1959) is a British-American computer scientist, physicist, and businessman.
Stevan Robert Harnad (Hernád István Róbert, Hesslein István, born June 2, 1945, Budapest) is a cognitive scientist.
Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur and business magnate.
A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.
Sir Philip Stuart Milner-Barry (20 September 1906 – 25 March 1995) was a British chess player, chess writer, World War II codebreaker and civil servant.
Studio 360 is an American weekly public radio program about the arts and culture hosted by novelist Kurt Andersen and produced by Public Radio International (PRI) and Slate in New York City.
Superhuman qualities are qualities that exceed those found in humans.
The Surrey Research Park is a large research park in Guildford, Surrey, UK populated mainly with ICT and Space-centred commercial enterprises and partly by university initiatives.
Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals was the PhD dissertation of the mathematician Alan Turing.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Annotated Turing: A Guided Tour Through Alan Turing’s Historic Paper on Computability and the Turing Machine is a book by Charles Petzold, published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Petzold annotates Alan Turing's paper "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem".
"The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" is an article written by the English mathematician Alan Turing in 1952 describing the way in which natural patterns such as stripes, spots and spirals may arise naturally out of a homogeneous, uniform state.
The Control Revolution is a book by James Beniger that explains the origins of the information society in part from the need to manage and control the production of an industrial society.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Imitation Game is a 2014 American historical drama film directed by Morten Tyldum and written by Graham Moore, loosely based on the biography Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges (which was previously adapted as the stage play and BBC drama Breaking the Code).
The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood is a book by science history writer James Gleick published in March 2011 which covers the genesis of our current information age.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Proms is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall in central London.
The Turing Guide (2017), written by Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Mark Sprevak, Robin Wilson, and others, is a book about the work and life of the British mathematician, philosopher, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954).
Theoretical computer science, or TCS, is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.
In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
Thomas Harold Flowers, MBE (22 December 1905 – 28 October 1998) was an English engineer with the British Post Office.
The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre.
Turing is a Pascal-like programming language developed in 1982 by Ric Holt and James Cordy, then of University of Toronto, Canada.
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".
The Turing Baronetcy, of Foveran in the County of Aberdeen, is a title in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia.
In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.
In computer science and mathematical logic the Turing degree (named after Alan Turing) or degree of unsolvability of a set of natural numbers measures the level of algorithmic unsolvability of the set.
The Turing Institute was an Artificial Intelligence laboratory based in Glasgow, Scotland between 1983 and 1994.
The BCS / IET Turing Lecture is an annual lecture given by a noted speaker on the subject of Computer Science.
A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.
Turing Pharmaceuticals is a pharmaceutical company incorporated in Zug, Switzerland, with offices in New York City.
In computability theory, a Turing reduction from a problem A to a problem B, is a reduction which solves A, assuming the solution to B is already known (Rogers 1967, Soare 1987).
In theoretical network science, the Turing switch is a logical construction modeling the operation of the network switch, just as in theoretical computer science a Turing machine models the operation of a computer.
The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.
Turing's proof is a proof by Alan Turing, first published in January 1937 with the title "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem." It was the second proof of the assertion (Alonzo Church's proof was first) that some decision problems are "undecidable": there is no single algorithm that infallibly gives a correct "yes" or "no" answer to each instance of the problem.
Turingery in Testery Methods 1942-1944 or Turing's Method (playfully dubbed Turingismus by Peter Ericsson, Peter Hilton and Donald Michie) was a hand codebreaking method devised in July 1942 by the mathematician and cryptanalyst Alan Turing at the British Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park during World War II.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
The United States Naval Computing Machine Laboratory (NCML) was a highly secret design and manufacturing site for code-breaking machinery located in Building 26 of the National Cash Register (NCR) company in Dayton, Ohio and operated by the United States Navy during World War II.
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.
The University of Buenos Aires (Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Campinas (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), commonly called Unicamp, is a public research university in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
The School of Informatics is an academic unit of the University of Edinburgh, in Scotland, responsible for research, teaching, outreach and commercialisation in Informatics.
The University of Kent (formerly the University of Kent at Canterbury), abbreviated as UKC, is a semi-collegiate public research university based in Kent, United Kingdom.
The University of los Andes (Universidad de los Andes), also commonly self-styled as Uniandes, is a private research university located in the city centre of Bogotá, Colombia.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Manchester Library is The University of Manchester's library and information service.
The University of Mons (Université de Mons) is a new Belgian university located in the city of Mons, created by merging the Engineering Faculty of Mons (FPMs) and the University of Mons-Hainaut.
The University of Oregon (also referred to as UO, U of O or Oregon) is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Puerto Rico, Humacao Campus (also known as UPRH or UPR-Humacao) is a public, sea-grant, and space-grant state university located in the municipality of Humacao, Puerto Rico.
The University of Surrey is a public research university located within the county town of Guildford, Surrey, in the South East of England, United Kingdom.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
The University of Turin (Italian: Università degli Studi di Torino, or often abbreviated to UNITO) is a university in the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg (also referred to as the University of Würzburg, in German Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg) is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany.
The University of Wolverhampton is an English university located on four campuses across the West Midlands, Shropshire and Staffordshire.
An unorganized machine is a concept mentioned in a 1948 report in which Alan Turing suggested that the infant human cortex was what he called an "unorganised machine".
The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College.
The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of "Theatreland" in and near the West End of London.
WGBH-TV, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 19), is a PBS member television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) was an English poet and soldier.
William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk.
William Maxwell Newman (born 21 May 1939) is a British computer scientist.
Wilmslow is a town and civil parish in Cheshire, England, that is south of Manchester.
Wilmslow Road is a major road in Manchester, England, running from Parrs Wood northwards to Rusholme.
Winning Moves Games is a maker of classic card games and board games, puzzles, action games and adult party games.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Woking Crematorium is a crematorium in Woking, a large town in the west of Surrey, England.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 100 Greatest Britons was a television series broadcast by the BBC in 2002.
The 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom was a general strike that lasted 9 days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2012 Summer Olympics torch relay was run from 19 May until 27 July, prior to the London 2012 Summer Olympics.