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The A2 (Autostrada 2) is the third largest motorway in Albania spanning.
The A3 motorway (Autostrada 3) is a motorway in Albania, spanning, while are currently under construction and are planned.
Abdyl Halid bej Frashëri or Abdullah-Hysni Dume bej Frashëri (Fraşerli Abdül Bey; 1 June 1839 – 23 October 1892) was a prominent Hero of Albania.
The Republic of Albania has been an official candidate for accession to the European Union (EU) since June 2014 and is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.
The Administrative Courts are an integral part of the Judicial system of Albania, in that they deal with administrative law disputes, particularly disputes concerning the exercise of public power.
Following the implementation on 31 July 2014 of the Administrative Reform, the administrative divisions of Albania consist of two main levels: the Counties (Qark, Prefekturë) and the Municipalities (Bashki).
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Adriatic–Ionian motorway (Jadransko–jonska autocesta; Montenegrin: Jadransko–jonski autoput; Autostrada Adriatiko-Joniane) or the Blue Corridor is a future motorway that will stretch along the entire eastern shore of the Adriatic and Ionian seas, spanning the western coast of the Balkan peninsula.
An agricultural cooperative, also known as a farmers' co-op, is a cooperative where farmers pool their resources in certain areas of activity.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture in Albania is still a significant sector of the economy of Albania, which contributes to 22.5% of the country's GDP.
Agron (Ἄγρων) was the king of the Ardiaean Kingdom in 250–231 BC.
Ahmed İzzet Pasha (1864 – 31 March 1937), known as Ahmet İzzet Furgaç after the Turkish Surname Law of 1934, was an Ottoman general during World War I. He was also one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire (14 October 1918 - 8 November 1918) and its last Minister of Foreign Affairs.
The Albanian national basketball team (Federata Shqiptare e Basketbollit) is the national basketball team of Albania and it has represented the nation since 1947.
The Albania national football team (Kombëtarja shqiptare e futbollit) is the men's football team that has represented Albania in international competition since 1946.
Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in different periods from 1480 to 1912.
The Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast (—) is a seashore at the Southeastern Adriatic Sea, that encompasses most of the western border of the Republic of Albania, stretching from the Gulf of Drin in the north, across the port cities of Shëngjin, Durrës, and Vlorë, to the Bay of Vlorë in the south, where the Albanian Riviera and Albanian Ionian Sea Coast begins.
The Albanian Air Force (Forca Ajrore e Republikës së Shqipërisë) is the national Air Force of the Albanian military.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
American Albanians (singular: Shqiptar i Amerikes / plural: Shqiptaret e Amerikes) are Americans of full or partial Albanian ancestry.
The Albanian Armed Forces (Forcat e Armatosura të Republikës së Shqipërisë (FARSH)) are the military of Albania and were formed after the declaration of independence in 1912.
The Albanian Civil War, also known as the Albanian rebellion, Albanian unrest or the Pyramid crisis, was a period of civil disorder in Albania in 1997, sparked by Ponzi scheme failures.
Albanians in Greece are divided into distinct communities as a result of different waves of migration.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania on 31 March 1991, with later rounds on 7 April and 14 April.
The Albanian cuisine (—) is a representative of the cuisine of the Mediterranean.
The Albanian Declaration of Independence (Albanian: Shpallja e Pavarësisë, or Deklarata e Pavarësisë) is the declaration of independence of Albania from the Ottoman Empire.
The Albanian diaspora (Mërgata Shqiptare or Diaspora Shqiptare) refers to the Albanians and their descendants living outside of Albania, including Kosovo and the minorities in Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
The Albanian Football Association (Federata Shqiptare e Futbollit; FSHF) is the governing body of football in Albania.
The Albanian General Staff (GS; Shtabi i Përgjithshëm), is the highest military structure of the Albanian Armed Forces.
The Albanian Ionian Sea Coast (—) is a seashore at the Northeastern Ionian Sea, that encompasses the southwestern border of the Republic of Albania, stretching from the Karaburun Peninsula in the north, across the port city of Sarandë, to the Lake of Butrint in the south, where the Strait of Corfu separates the country with Greece.
Albanian iso-polyphony is a traditional part of Albanian folk music and, as such, is included in UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage list.
The Kingdom of Albania (Gheg Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, Standard Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare) was the official name of Albania between 1928 and 1939.
The Albanian Kingdom (Gheg Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, Standard Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare, Regno albanese), also known as Greater Albania, existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Albanian Kingdom (Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare, German: Königreich Albanien) existed as a de jure independent country, between 1943 and 1944.
The Albanian Land Force (Forca Tokësore të Republikës së Shqipërisë) is a branch of the Albanian Armed Forces.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
The lek (plural lekë) (sign: L; code: ALL) is the official currency of Albania.
Albanian Mobile Communications Sh.A. (AMC) was a telecommunications company that operated in Albania for 19 years.
The Albanian National Awakening (Rilindja Kombëtare) (also known as the National Renaissance or National Revival), refers to the period in the history of Albania from the 19th century until the declaration of independence in 1912.
The traditional clothing of Albania includes more than 200 different varieties of clothing in all Albania and the Albanian-speaking territories and communities (including the Arbëreshë in Italy, Arvanites in Greece and Arbanasi in Croatia).
The Albanian National Olympic Committee (Albanian: Komiteti Olimpik Kombëtar Shqipëtar - KOKSH) is a non-profit organisation and the legal authority of Albania's participation in the Olympic Games.
The Albanian Naval Force (Forca Detare të Republikës së Shqipërisë) is the naval branch of the Albanian military.
Parliamentary elections were held in Albania on 22 March 1992, with a second round of voting for eleven seats on 29 March.
Parliamentary elections were held in Albania on 29 June 1997 alongside a simultaneous referendum on restoring the monarchy, with a second round of voting for 32 seats on 6 July.
Parliamentary elections were held in Albania on 23 June 2013.
Parliamentary elections were held in Albania on 25 June.
The Albanian State Police (Policia e Shtetit) is the national police and law enforcement agency which operates throughout the Republic of Albania.
The term Albanian Principalities refers to a number of principalities created in the Middle Ages in Albania and Epirus that were ruled by Albanian nobility.
The Albanian Republic was the official name of Albania as enshrined in the Constitution of 1925.
The Albanian revolt of 1912 was the last Albanian revolt in the Ottoman Empire and lasted from January until August 1912.
The Albanian Riviera (Riviera Shqiptare) is a steep coastal section in southwestern Albania.
The Albanian Vilayet (ولايت ارناود, Vilâyet-i Arnavid) was a projected vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in the western Balkan Peninsula, which was to include the four Ottoman vilayets with substantial ethnic Albanian populations: Kosovo Vilayet, Scutari Vilayet, Manastir Vilayet and Janina Vilayet.
The Albanian wine is produced in several regions throughout Albania within the Mediterranean Basin.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Albanians Got Talent (also known as Ti Vlen) was an Albanian talent show.
Approximately 350,000 to 500,000 ethnic Albanians live in Germany.
The Albani were an aristocratic Roman family, members of which attained the highest dignities in the Roman Catholic Church, one, Clement XI, having been Pope.
Albanians in Montenegro (Shqiptarët e Malit të Zi; Albanci u Crnoj Gori) are an ethnic group in Montenegro of Albanian descent, which constitute 4.91% of Montenegro's total population.
Albanians in Serbia (Shqiptarët në Serbi; Албанци у Србији / Albanci u Srbiji) are an officially recognized ethnic minority living in the present-day country of Serbia.
Albanians are the largest ethnic minority in the Republic of Macedonia.
Albanians in Turkey (Shqiptarët në Turqi, Türkiye'deki Arnavutlar) are ethnic Albanian citizens and denizens of Turkey.
The Albanoi (Ἀλβανοί, Albanoi; Albanët) or Albani were an Illyrian tribe whose first historical account appears in a work of Ptolemy in addition to a town called Albanopolis (Ἀλβανόπολις) located east of the Ionian sea, in modern-day Albania.
Albanopolis (Ancient Greek: Ἀλβανόπολις, tr. Alvanópolis) was a city in ancient Roman Macedon specifically in Epirus Nova, the city of the Albanoi, an Illyrian tribe.
AlbChrome is an Albanian-based private company founded in 1948.
Albpetrol is an Albanian upstream petroleum production and marketing company, which also monitors state petroleum agreements in Albania.
Aleksandër Gabriel Meksi (born March 8, 1939) was the 28th Prime Minister of Albania from April 13, 1992, to March 11, 1997.
Alexander Moissi (Aleksandër Moisiu; Alexander Moissi, Alessandro Moissi; better known as Alexander Moissi, 2 April 1879 – 22/23 March 1935) was an Austrian stage actor of Albanian origin.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali Pasha (1740 – 24 January 1822), variously referred to as of Tepelena or of Janina/Yannina/Ioannina, or the Lion of Yannina, was an Ottoman Albanian ruler who served as pasha of a large part of western Rumelia, the Ottoman Empire's European territories, which was referred to as the Pashalik of Yanina.
The All-Albanian Congress or Albanian National Congress or Albanian Independence Congress was a held in Vlorë (then Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Albania) on November 28, 1912.
Amantia (Ἀμάντια) or Abantia (Ἀβάντια) was an ancient Greek polis in Epirus.
The Amphitheatre of Durrës (Amfiteatri i Durrësit; Amphitheatrum Dyrrhachium) is an amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Durrës, Albania.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
An ancient lake is a lake that has consistently carried water for more than one million years.
Andamion Murataj is an Albanian film director, producer, and screen writer currently living in New York, NY.
Anri Sala (born 1974) is an Albanian contemporary artist whose primary medium is video.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
Antea Cement Sh.A. is a cement manufacturing company in Albania.
Antigonea, also transliterated as Antigonia and Antigoneia, was an ancient Greek city in Chaonia, Epirus, and the chief inland city of the ancient Chaonians.
Antireligion is opposition to religion of any kind.
The Aoös (Αώος) or Vjosë is a river in northwestern Greece and southwestern Albania.
Apollonia (Apolonia; Ἀπολλωνία κατ᾿ Ἐπίδαμνον or Ἀπολλωνία πρὸς Ἐπίδαμνον, Apollonia kat' Epidamnon or Apollonia pros Epidamnon) was an ancient Greek city located on the right bank of the Aous river (modern-day Vjosë).
An apostle, in its most literal sense, is an emissary, from Greek ἀπόστολος (apóstolos), literally "one who is sent off", from the verb ἀποστέλλειν (apostéllein), "to send off".
The Courts of Appeal in Albania are Second Instance Courts that have the power to review cases adjudicated by the District Courts that have been appealed by the parties to such cases.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Arbëreshë (Arbëreshët e Italisë or Shqiptrarët e Italisë), also known as Albanians of Italy or Italo-Albanians, are an Albanian ethnic and linguistic group in Southern Italy, mostly concentrated in scattered villages in the region of Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Molise and Sicily.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.
The Architecture of Albania (— Arkitektura e Shqipërisë) is a reflection of Albania's historical and cultural heritage.
Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.
The Ardiaei (Ἀρδιαῖοι or Οὐαρδαῖοι, Ouardiaei; Vardiaei) were an Illyrian tribe, residing inland,, " The Ardiaei were certainly also settled in the hinterland, along the Naro River at least as far as the Konjic region..." that eventually settled on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan Peninsula with Scodra as the capital.
The Arianiti were an Albanian noble family that ruled large areas in Albania and neighbouring areas from the 11th to the 16th century.
ARMO oil refiner is one of the two oil refiners in Albania.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
The Aromanians (Rrãmãnj, Armãnj; Aromâni) are a Latin European ethnic group native to the Balkans, traditionally living in northern and central Greece, central and southern Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and south-western Bulgaria.
The Aromanians in Albania (Rrãmãnjã di tu Arbinishii, Minoriteti Vllah në Shqipëri) also known as Aromanians (Arumunët), Vllehët, Çobenjtë, Llacifacët, or Xinxarët, are an officially recognised ethnic group native in central and south Albania.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Arta Dobroshi (born 2 October 1980) is a Kosovo-Albanian actress.
The Ashkali (also Aškalije, Haškalije, Hashkali) and Balkan Egyptians (Jevgs, Egjiptjant or Gjupci) are Albanian-speaking ethnic cultural minorities (recognized communities) which mainly inhabit Kosovo.
The Assembly of Vlorë (Kuvendi i Vlorës) was an Albanian assembly constituted during the All-Albanian Congress in Vlorë, on November 28, 1912.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic associated with European early modern humans (EEMH).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664) or fourth Austro-Turkish War was a short war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus (translit) was a short-lived, self-governing entity founded in the aftermath of the Balkan Wars on February 28, 1914 by Greeks living in southern Albania (Northern Epirotes).
The Šar Mountains (Macedonian and Шар планина, Šar planina) or Sharr Mountains (Malet e Sharrit), form a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from Kosovo and the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia, to northeastern Albania.
Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
The Balšić (Балшић, Balšići / Балшићи; also Bašići; Latin: Balsich; Albanian: Balsha) was a noble family that ruled "Zeta and the coastlands" (southern Montenegro and northern Albania), from 1362 to 1421, during and after the fall of the Serbian Empire.
The Balkan mixed forests constitute a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Balli Kombëtar (literally National Front), known as Balli, was an Albanian anti-communist resistance movement and a political organization established in November 1942.
Banjë Hydro Power Plant is a large hydroelectricity plant under construction on the river Devoll situated near the village Banjë, Albania.
Bar (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Бар) is a coastal town and seaport in southern Montenegro.
Barış Arduç (born 1987) is a Turkish television and film actor.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).
The Batra mine is a large chromium mine located in central Albania in Dibër County, east of the capital, Tirana.
The Battle of Novšiće (Boj na Novšiću/Бој на Новшићу; Bitka na Novšićima/Битка на Новшићима, Beteja e Nokshiqit)) was a battle for control over Plav and Gusinje fought on 4 December 1879 between the forces of Principality of Montenegro led by Marko Miljanov and local pro-Ottoman forces which included irregulars of the League of Prizren, both commanded by Ali Pasha, the kaymekam of Gusinje. "ihnen auf dem Berliner Kongreß als Gebietsabtretung der Türkei zugesprochen worden waren, militärisch einzunehmen. Die Bewohner des Gebirgstals am oberen Lim verteidigten unter Leitung des Ali Pascha von Gusinje ihre Heimat gegen die Montenegriner. Die historische Schlacht bei Novšiće (alb.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Bleta "Bebe" Rexha (born August 30, 1989) is an American singer, songwriter, and record producer.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Bekim Fehmiu (Беким Фехмију; 1 June 1936 – 15 June 2010) was a Yugoslavian theater and film actor of Albanian ethnicity.
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.
Berat (Berati), historically known as Poulcheriopólis and Antipatreia, is the ninth most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
Berat County (Qarku i Beratit) is one of the 12 counties of the Republic of Albania, spanning a surface area of with the capital in Berat.
A Berliner Pfannkuchen (referred to as Berliner for short) is a traditional German pastry similar to a doughnut with no central hole, made from sweet yeast dough fried in fat or oil, with a marmalade or jam filling and usually icing, powdered sugar or conventional sugar on top.
Besim Sahatçiu (October 2, 1935October 18, 2005) was a Kosovo Albanian screenwriter and director of theatre, film and television.
This is a list of books in the English language which deal with Albania and its geography, history, inhabitants, culture, biota, etc.
Big Brother Albania is the Albanian version of the international reality television Big Brother.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas.
Bleona Qereti, professionally known as Bleona is an Albanian singer and actress.
Blerim Destani is an Albanian actor and producer.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
The following list includes the international border crossings of Albania, via air, sea and land.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
Bosnians (Serbo-Croatian: Bosanci/Босанци; singular: Bosnian (Bosanac/Босанац) are people who live in Bosnia, or who are of Bosnian descent. Bosnia is one of two main regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the latest official population census made in Bosnia and Herzegovina, most of the people identified with Bosniak, Croat or Serb nationality. Some people identified with "Bosnian" nationality, however these are listed under the category "Others" (along with all the other options such as Jews, Romas etc.). According to the latest population census (2013), there were around 2.7% "Others". According to some, a Bosnian can be anyone who holds citizenship of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and thus is largely synonymous with the all-encompassing national demonym Bosnians and Herzegovinians. This includes, but is not limited to, members of the constituent ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Those who reside in the smaller geographical region of Herzegovina usually prefer to identify as Herzegovinians. CIA factbook, used in this article as a source for numbers, does not mention a sole "Bosnian" nationality. Instead it mentions "Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)" thereby emphasizing the regional significance and equity between the terms. Ethnic minorities in this territory, such as Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins and others, may consider Bosnian as an adjective modifying their ethnicity (e.g. Bosnian Roma) to indicate place of residence. Other times they use (with equal rights) the term Herzegovinians. In addition, a sizable population in Bosnia and Herzegovina believe that the term "Bosnians" defines a people who constitute a distinct collective cultural identity or ethnic group. According to the latest (2013) census however, this population does not rise above 2.7%. According to a study conducted by University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikšić, Montenegro and University of Novi Sad in Serbia, Bosnian people are the tallest in the world.
Brewed coffee is made by pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans, then allowing to brew.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Bulqizë mine is a large mine located in central Albania in Dibër County, east of the capital, Tirana.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
Butrint (Buthrōtum; from Bouthrōtón) was an ancient Greek and later Roman city and bishopric in Epirus.
Byllis (Βύλλις or Βουλλίς) was an ancient city located in the region of Illyria.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Albania is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
In the Catholic Church, liturgy is divine worship, the proclamation of the Gospel, and active charity.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Mountain Range (Krahina Malore Qëndrore) is a physiogeographical region encompassing central and eastern Albania.
The Ceraunian Mountains (Vargu Detar or Malësia Akrokeraune; Κεραύνια Όρη, Keravnia ori; Cerauni Montes) are a coastal mountain range in Southwestern Albania, within the county of Vlorë.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.
The Chaonians (Greek: Χάονες, Cháones) were an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Epirus located in the north-west of modern Greece and southern Albania.
Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
The Cinema of Albania refers to the film industry based in Albania and comprises the art of films and movies made within the country or by Albanian directors abroad.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
The Congress of Manastir (Kongresi i Manastirit) was an academic conference held in the city of Manastir (Bitola) from November 14 to November 22, 1908, with the goal of standardizing the Albanian alphabet.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The present Constitution of Albania (Kushtetuta e Shqipërisë) was adopted by the Parliament on 28 November 1998.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Albania (Gjykata Kushtetuese e Republikës së Shqipërisë) is the final authority for the interpretation of the Constitution (Kushtetuta) and the compliance of laws in accordance with the constitution.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of Ministers is the executive branch that constitutes the Government of Albania.
The Counties of Albania (qark or qarqe, or) are the primary administrative divisions of the Republic of Albania.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The crossed hands gesture sometimes referred to as the "eagle gesture" is a symbol used by ethnic Albanians in Albania, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia and other regions of the world where Albanians live.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The Culture of Albania is a term that embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Albania and Albanians.
Cuneus Prophetarum (Çeta e profetëve, The Band of the Prophets) is a philosophical, theological and scientific treatise written by Pjetër Bogdani, an Albanian philosopher, originally published in Padua in 1685 in the Albanian and Latin language.
The extinct Dacian language was spoken in the Carpathian region in antiquity.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Dajti standing at above sea level, is a mountain on the edge of Tirana, Albania.
Dalmatia was a Roman province.
The Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is the most massive member of the pelican family, and perhaps the world's largest freshwater bird, although rivaled in weight and length by the largest swans.
Dancing with the Stars is the name of several international television series based on the format of the British TV series Strictly Come Dancing, which is distributed by BBC Worldwide, the commercial arm of the BBC.
David Selenica (17th century18th century), also commonly known as Selenicasi, was an Albanian Orthodox icon and fresco painter of the Post-Byzantine period in the seventeenth century.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Party of Albania (Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë, PD or PDSh) is a conservative political party in Albania.
The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Albania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
The Despotate of Arta was a despotate established by Albanian rulers during the 14th century, after the defeat of the local Despot of Epirus, Nikephoros II Orsini, by Albania tribesmen in the Battle of Achelous in 1359 and ceased to exist in 1416, when it passed to Carlo I Tocco.
The Despotate of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της Ηπείρου) was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Devoll (Devoll, Devolli; Eordaïcus; Eordaikos) is a river in southern Albania.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
Dey (Arabic: داي, from Turkish dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli,Bertarelli (1929), p. 203.
Dhimitër Anagnosti (born 12 January 1936) is an Albanian film director of the 20th century.
Dibër County (Qarku i Dibrës) is one of the 12 counties of the Republic of Albania, spanning a surface area of with the capital in Peshkopi.
The Dinaric Mountains mixed forests form a terrestrial ecoregion of the Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests Biome in Southeastern Europe, according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency.
Districts (rrethe) were geographic subdivisions of Albania that functioned from 1913-2000.
Ditmir Bushati (born 24 March 1977) is an Albanian politician and diplomat who has served as Minister of Foreign Affairs since September 2013.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.
In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.
Doukas, Latinized as Ducas (Δούκας; feminine: Doukaina/Ducaena, Δούκαινα; plural: Doukai/Ducae, Δοῦκαι), from the Latin tile dux ("leader", "general", Hellenized as δοὺξ), is the name of a Byzantine Greek noble family, whose branches provided several notable generals and rulers to the Byzantine Empire in the 9th–11th centuries.
The Drin (Drin or Drini; Дрим) is a river in Southern and Southeastern Europe with two distributaries one discharging into the Adriatic Sea and the other one into the Buna River.
Dua Lipa (born 22 August 1995) is an English singer, songwriter, and model.
Dukagjin highlands is a mountainous region in northern Albania, east of Shkodra and north of the Drin.
The Dukagjini family (Ducagini or Ducaginus) was one of the most important feudal families in medieval Albania.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
Durrës County is a county in North-west Albania.
The Durrës-Kukës Highway (Autostrada Durrës-Kukës or Rruga e Kombit), is a four-lane highway constructed between 2006-2009 and connects the coastal city of Durrës with the north-eastern border region of Kukës.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Orthodoxy in Albania arrived in the area of contemporary Albania during the Roman period.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The economy of Albania went through a process of transition from a centralized economy to a market-based economy on the principles of the free market.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Edi Rama (born 4 July 1964) is an Albanian politician, artist, writer and former basketball player, who has been the Prime Minister of Albania since 2013.
Education in Albania for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels are mostly supported by the state.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city and a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania.
Elbasan County is one of the 12 counties of Albania.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
The electronics industry, especially meaning consumer electronics, emerged in the 20th century and has now become a global industry worth billions of dollars.
Eliza Patricia Dushku (born December 30, 1980) is an American actress and model known for her television roles, including starring as Faith on Buffy the Vampire Slayer and its spinoff series Angel.
Elvana Gjata (born 3 February 1987) is an Albanian singer, songwriter and model.
The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 by W. A. Heurtley, H. C. Darby, C. W. Crawley, C. M. Woodhouse (1967), page 55: "There in the prosperous city of Nicaea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire." rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.
The Energy Community, also referred to in the past as the Energy Community of South East Europe is an international organisation established between the European Union (EU) and a number of third countries to extend the EU internal energy market to Southeast Europe and beyond.
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
Enver Halil Hoxha (16 October 190811 April 1985) was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
Epic films are a style of filmmaking with large scale, sweeping scope, and spectacle.
The ancient Greek city of Epidamnos or Epidamnus (Ἐπίδαμνος), later the Roman Dyrrachium (modern Durrës, Albania, c. 30 km W of Tirana) was founded in 627 BC in Illyria by a group of colonists from Corinth and Corcyra (modern Corfu).
Epirus (Northwest Greek: Ἄπειρος, Ápeiros; Attic: Ἤπειρος, Ḗpeiros) was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessaly and Macedonia to the east, and Illyrian tribes to the north. For a brief period (280–275 BC), the Epirote king Pyrrhus managed to make Epirus the most powerful state in the Greek world, and his armies marched against Rome during an unsuccessful campaign in Italy.
Epoka University (EU) is a private non-profit university founded in 2007 in Tirana, Albania.
Era Istrefi (born 4 July 1994) is a Kosovar singer and songwriter.
Ermonela Jaho is an Albanian soprano.
Essad Pasha Toptani or Esad Pasha Toptani (Esad Pashë Toptani; 1863 – 13 June 1920), primarily known as Essad Pasha, was an Ottoman army officer who served as the Albanian deputy in the Ottoman Parliament.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine, and weasel.
The European polecat (Mustela putorius) – also known as the common ferret, black or forest polecat, or fitch (as well as some other names) – is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and north Morocco.
The European sea sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), also known as the Atlantic sturgeon or common sturgeon, is a species of sturgeon previously found on most coasts of Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European Weightlifting Championships is an annual event organised by the European Weightlifting Federation (EWF).
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The expulsion of Cham Albanians from Greece was the forced migration of thousands of Cham Albanians from parts of the Greek region of western Epirus after the Second World War to Albania, at the hands of elements of the Greek Resistance; the National Republican Greek League (EDES) (1944) and EDES veteran resistance fighters (1945).
The fall of Communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the USSR, started in earnest on December 1990 with student demonstrations in the capital, Tirana, although protests had begun earlier that year in other cities.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Feta (φέτα, féta, "slice") is a brined curd white cheese made in Greece from sheep's milk or from a mixture of sheep and goat's milk.
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
Fier (Fieri) is a city and a municipality in Fier County in southwest Albania.
Fier County is a county located in southwestern Albania.
The Fierza Hydroelectric Power Station (Hidrocentrali i Fierzës) is a large hydroelectric power station on the Drin River, in Albania.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The FIFA World Ranking is a ranking system for men's national teams in association football, currently led by Germany.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
Futboll Klub Dinamo Tirana is an Albanian football club based in the capital city Tiranë.
FK Partizani is an Albanian professional football club based in Tirana, that competes in the Superliga.
The flag of Albania is a red flag with a silhouetted black double-headed eagle in the center.
The Fletorja Zyrtare e Republikës së Shqipërisë (Official Gazette of the Republic of Albania) is the official journal of the Government of Albania.
Flia, also known as fli or flija, is a dish in Albanian cuisine It consists of multiple crepe-like layers brushed with cream and served with sour cream.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Football is the most popular sport in Albania, both at a participatory and spectator level.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
The formula e pagëzimit (baptismal formula) is the first written document in Albanian retrieved.
The Fortress of Bashtovë (Kalaja e Bashtovës) is a medieval quadrangular fortress located close to the outflow of the Shkumbin River into the Adriatic Sea in Central Albania.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) is a multilateral treaty of the Council of Europe aimed at protecting the rights of minorities.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frang Bardhi (Latin: Franciscus Blancus, Italian: Francesco Bianchi, 1606–1643) was an Albanian Catholic bishop and writer.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The Constitution of Albania provides for freedom of religion, and the Government has generally respected this right in practice.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
Fushë-Krujë is a town in Durrës County, Albania.
Fustanella (for spelling in various languages, see chart below) is a traditional pleated skirt-like garment that is also referred to as a kilt worn by men of many nations in the Balkans (Southeast Europe).
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
Gentiana lutea, the great yellow gentian, is a species of gentian native to the mountains of central and southern Europe.
Gentius (Γένθιος, "Génthios"; 181–168 BC) was a king of the Ardiaei, a powerful tribe in Illyria.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
The geography of Albania is defined by its location.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gheg (or Geg; Gheg Albanian: gegnisht, Standard Albanian: gegë or gegërisht) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
Gjergj Xhuvani (born Tirana, 1963) is an Albanian film director, screenwriter, and producer.
Gjin Progoni (Ginius) was an archon (or lord) of Kruja, located in present-day Albania, from c. 1200 until his death in 1208.
Gjirokastër is a city in southern Albania, on a valley between the Gjerë mountains and the Drino, at 300 metres above sea level.
Gjirokastër County (Qarku i Gjirokastrës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania.
Gjon Buzuku (16th century) was an Albanian Catholic priest who wrote the first known printed book in Albanian.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Golem (Γουλάμος/Goulamos, 1250s) was an Albanian nobleman, specifically a local magnate from Arbanon, who married the daughter of sebastos Gregorios Kamonas and Komnena Nemanjić, and was thus entitled the rule of his father-in-law, as lord of Krujë and Elbasan.
The Gorani (also Goranski) or Našinski (literally meaning "our language") language is the variety of South Slavic spoken by the Gorani people in the border area between Kosovo, Albania, and Macedonia.
The Gorani (Горани) or Goranci (Serbian Cyrillic: Горанци) are a Slavic Muslim ethnic group inhabiting the Gora region - the triangle between Kosovo, Albania, and the Republic of Macedonia.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija), also known as Raška (Serbian Cyrillic: Рашка, Rascia) was a Serb medieval state that comprised parts of what is today Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and southern Dalmatia, being centred in the region of Raška (hence its exonym).
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Greeks of Albania are ethnic Greeks who live in or originate from areas within modern Albania.
Gregorios Kamonas (1215) was a Greek-Albanian Lord or Prince (archon) of Krujë (Arbanon) in ca.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae.
Gusinje (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Гусиње, Gucia), is a small town and municipality in north-eastern Montenegro.
The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact that was introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in July 2006.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hekurudha Shqiptare or HSH (Albanian Railways) is the state-owned operator of the Albanian railway system.
Helen of Anjou (Jelena Anžujska/Јелена Анжујска,; c. 1236 – 8 February 1314) was the Queen consort of the Serbian Kingdom, as spouse of King Stefan Uroš I. Her children were later kings Stefan Dragutin and Stefan Milutin.
Helidon Gjergji (born 1970 in Tirana, Albania) is a contemporary artist who works in various mediums.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Himara or Himarë (from Χειμάρρα, Himarra) is a bilingual region and municipality in southern Albania, part of Vlorë County.
Himni i Flamurit or Betimi mbi Flamur ("Hymn of the Flag" or "The Pledge on the Flag") is the national anthem of Albania.
The Historic Centres of Berat and Gjirokastër (Qendrat historike të Beratit dhe Gjirokastrës) encompasses the cities of Berat and Gjirokastër in southern Albania.
Historicism or also historism (Historismus) comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans.
The history of Albania forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.
The history of the Jews in Albania dates back about 2,000 years.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
The House of Kastrioti (Dera e Kastriotit) was an Albanian royal and noble family, active in the 14th and 15th centuries as the rulers of the Principality of Kastrioti.
Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Ilir Meta (born 24 March 1969) is an Albanian diplomat and politician who has served as President of Albania since 24 July 2017.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrian deciduous forests form a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
The Illyrian Wars were a set of wars fought in the period 229–168 BC between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).
There was substantial immigration to Switzerland from the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s and 2000s.
An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations.
Important Plant Areas (IPA) is a programme set up in the UK, by the organisation Plantlife, to provide a framework for identifying and maintaining the richest sites for plant life, possibly within existing protected areas; though the protection of the IPA itself is not legally enforced.
Independent Albania (Shqipëria e Pavarur) was a parliamentary state declared in Vlorë (then Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Albania) on 28 November 1912.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Albania include.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Instant coffee, also called soluble coffee, coffee crystals, and coffee powder, is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans that enables people to quickly prepare hot coffee by adding hot water to the powder or crystals and stirring.
The Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), is the statistical agency of Albania.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
The International Commission of Control (Komisioni Ndërkombëtar i Kontrollit) was the commission established on October 15, 1913, on the basis of the decision by the six Great Powers made on July 29, 1913, according to the London Treaty signed on May 30, 1913.
The Durrës International Film Festival or Durrës International Film Summerfest, officially International Film Summerfest of Durrës (Festivali Ndërkombëtar Veror i Filmit në Durrës, is the newest international film festival in Albania. Founded by Durrës Municipality in 2008, the festival has since taken place every year in late August or early September on Durrës Amphitheatre in Durrës, Albania. The 7th Festival is taking place from 9 to 14 September 2014.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Gendarmerie was the first law enforcement agency of the Principality of Albania.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
Since its declaration of independence from Serbia (enacted on 17 February 2008), international recognition of Kosovo has been mixed, and the international community continues to be divided on the issue.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Inva Mula (born June 27, 1963) is an Albanian opera lyric soprano.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isa Boletini (15 January 1864 – 23 (24) January 1916) was a Kosovo Albanian nationalist figure and guerrilla fighter in the Ottoman Kosovo Vilayet.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Albania mainly arrived during the Ottoman period when the majority of Albanians over time converted to Islam and in particular two of its denominations: Sunni and Bektashi (a Shia-Sufi order).
Ismail Kadare (also spelled Kadaré; born 28 January 1936) is an Albanian novelist, poet, essayist and playwright.
Ismail Qemal Bej Vlora (16 October 1844 – 24 January 1919), commonly Ismail Qemali, was a member of the Albanian national movement.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Vilayet of Janina, Yanya or Ioannina (ولايت يانیه, Vilâyet-i Yanya) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1867.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
James Adam Belushi (born June 15, 1954) is an American actor, voice actor, comedian, singer and musician.
John Adam Belushi (January 24, 1949 – March 5, 1982) was an American comedian, actor, and singer.
The Judiciary of Albania interprets and applies the law of Albania.
The Karaburun-Sazan Marine Park (Parku Detar Karaburun-Sazan) is a marine park in Vlorë County in southwestern Albania.
The Kararname ("Decree") of Prizren Committee for National Defence is the name of the decree (the Book of Decisions) signed by 47 Muslim deputies from the districts of Prizren, Yakova (present-day Gjakova), Ipek (present-day Peć), Gucia, Yeni Pazar (present-day Novi Pazar), Sjenica, Pljevlja, Mitrovica, Vučitrn, Pristina, Gnjilane, Skopje, Kalkandelen (present-day Tetovo), Kičevo, Gostivar, and Lower Dibra (present-day Peshkopi) and Upper Dibra (present-day Debar) on June 18, 1878.
Kavajë (Kavaja) is a municipality centrally located in the Western Lowlands region of Albania.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (كپرولی محمد پاشا, Köprülü Mehmet Paşa; or Qyprilliu, also called Mehmed Pashá Rojniku; 1575, Roshnik,– 31 October 1661, Edirne) was the founder of the Köprülü political dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, a family of viziers, warriors, and statesmen who dominated the administration of the Ottoman Empire during the last half of the 17th century, an era known as the Köprülü era.
Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (كپرولى زاده فاضل احمد پاشا, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmet Paşa;; 1635 – 3 November 1676) was a member of the renowned Köprülü family originating from Albania, which produced six grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire.
Kelmend is a former municipality in the Shkodër County, northwestern Albania.
Kelmendi (Kelmendi) is a northern Albanian tribe and region (Kelmendi mountains, Malet e Kelmendit) in the mountainous borderlands of Albania towards Montenegro, of the wider Malësia-region.
Klubi Futbollistik Skënderbeu Korçë, is an Albanian professional football club based in Korçë, a city in southeastern Albania.
KF Tirana (Klubi i Futbollit Tirana) is an Albanian football club based in the country's capital city, Tirana.
Klubi I Futbollit Vllaznia Shkodër, commonly known as Vllaznia is an Albanian football club based in the city of Shkodër.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
The Kingdom of Albania (Regnum Albaniae) was established by Charles of Anjou in the Albanian territories he conquered from the Byzantine Empire in 1271.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
Klement Tinaj (born February 26, 1990) is an Albanian American actor, martial artist, stuntman, and producer.
The Koman Hydroelectric Power Station is a large hydroelectric power station, for which a dam on the Drin River was built.
Konispol (Konispoli) is the southernmost town in Albania.
Korab is a mountain range in the eastern corner of Albania and the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, running along the border between both countries.
Mount Korab (Maja e Korabit or Mali i Korabit; Голем Кораб, Golem Korab) is the highest peak of the eponymous fourth highest mountain in the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at.
Korçë ((Korça), other names see below) is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, and the seat of Korçë County.
Korçë County is one of the 12 counties of Albania, located in the eastern part of the country.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo, commonly called Kosovar Albanians, Kosovan Albanians or Kosovo Albanians and simply Kosovars.
The Vilayet of Kosovo (ولايت قوصوه, Vilâyet-i Kosova; Kosova Vilayeti; Vilajeti i Kosovës; Macedonian: Косовски вилает, Kosovski vilaet; Serbian: Косовски вилајет, Kosovski vilajet) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the western part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Kristaq Mitro (born 1 December 1948 in Vlorë) is an Albanian film director.
Krujë (Kruja, see also the etymology section) is a town and a municipality in north central Albania.
The Ksamil Islands, consist of four rocky islands located in the direct proximity to the Ionian Sea in Southern Albania.
Kuçovë (Kuçova) is a municipality in lower-central Albania.
Kujtim Çashku (born 5 August 1950) is an Albanian film director and screenwriter who has won numerous awards at international film festivals, including the Critics Prize at the 1996 Bastia Mediterranean Film Festival and the UNESCO Award at the 1998 Venice Film Festival for Colonel Bunker, the Best Screenplay Award, the FIRESCI Prize and the Silver Pyramid at the 2005 Cairo International Film Festival as well as the Bronze Palm at the Valencia Festival of Mediterranean Cinema for The Magic Eye, and the CEI Award at the Trieste Film Festival for his "brave commitment to the development of Albanian cinema".
Kukës (Kukësi) is a city in the Republic of Albania.
Kukës County (Qarku i Kukësit) is a landlocked county in northeastern Albania, with the capital in Kukës.
Kukës Airport Shaikh Zayed is an airport about south of Kukës, Albania.
Laç (Laçi) is a town and a former municipality in Lezhë County, northwestern Albania.
Labëria is a historic region that is roughly situated in southwestern Albania.
Lake Koman (Liqeni i Komanit) is a reservoir on the Drin River in northern Albania.
Lake Ohrid (Liqeni i Ohrit, Liqeni i Pogradecit; Охридско Езеро) straddles the mountainous border between southwestern Macedonia and eastern Albania.
Prespa is the name of two freshwater lakes in southeast Europe, shared by Albania, Greece, and the Republic of Macedonia.
Lake Skadar (Montenegrin: Skadarsko jezero, Скадарско језеро,; Liqeni i Shkodrës) — also called Lake Scutari, Lake Shkodër and Lake Shkodra — lies on the border of Albania and Montenegro, and is the largest lake in Southern Europe.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter).
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
The Laskaris or Lascaris (Λάσκαρις, later Λάσκαρης) family was a Byzantine Greek noble family whose members formed the ruling dynasty of the Empire of Nicaea from 1204 to 1261 and remained among the senior nobility up to the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire, whereupon many emigrated to Italy and then to Smyrna (much later).
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
Law enforcement in Albania is the responsibility of several agencies.
The League of Lezhë (Besëlidhja e Lezhës) was a military alliance of Albanian feudal lords forged in Lezhë on 2 March 1444, with Skanderbeg as leader of the regional Albanian and Serbian chieftains united against the Ottoman Empire.
The League of Prizren (Besëlidhja e Prizrenit), officially the League for the Defense of the Rights of the Albanian Nation (Lidhja për mbrojtjen e të drejtave te kombit Shqiptar), was an Albanian political organization officially founded on June 10, 1878 in the old town of Prizren, in the Kosova Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire.
Lefkada (Λευκάδα, Lefkáda), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge.
Regular elections in Albania are mandated by the Constitution and legislation enacted by Parliament.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
Leon Qafzezi (born 23 February 1953 in Tirana, Albania) is an Albanian writer and cineaste.
Lezhë (Lezha or Lezhë) is a town and municipality in northwest Albania, in the county with the same name.
Lezhë County (Qarku i Lezhës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania.
Librazhd (Librazhdi) is a town and a municipality in Elbasan County, eastern Albania.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a list of Albanian film directors.
This is a list of historical and living Albanians (ethnic Albanian people or people of full or partial Albanian ancestry) who are famous or notable, sorted by occupation and name.
This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria (Ancient Greek: Ἰλλυρία).
Albania is a small predominantly mountainous country in Southeastern Europe, facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas within the Mediterranean sea.
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Albania.
There are 74 cities in Albania holding the status of a city according to data by the Institute of Statistics.
Albania's transition from a socialist centrally planned economy to a capitalist mixed economy has been largely successful.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.
This is a list of countries by literacy rate.
This is a list of countries by proven oil reserves.
This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.
This is a list of countries by unemployment rate.
This page lists diplomatic missions resident in Albania.
This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Albania.
The Mediterranean countries are those that surround the Mediterranean Sea.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Albania who have served since the Declaration of Independence of 1912.
This is a list of rulers in Illyria, a region of the classical antiquity in what is today the Western Balkans.
A signature song is the one song (or, in some cases, one of a few songs) that a popular and well-established recording artist or band is most closely identified with or best known for, even if they have had success with a variety of other songs.
This is a list of all sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
The London Conference of 1912–1913, also known as the London Peace Conference or the Conference of the Ambassadors, was an international summit of the six Great Powers of that time (Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Italy) convened in December 1912 due to the successes of the Balkan League armies against the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lorik Agim Cana (born 27 July 1983) is an Albanian former professional footballer.
Loro Boriçi (also known as Lorenzo Borici) (born in Shkodër, 4 August 1922 – 25 April 1984) was an Albanian football (soccer) player most famous in 1940s and 1950s.
Luca Matranga (Albanian: Lekë Matrënga; 1567–1619) was an Arbëresh writer and Catholic priest of Byzantine rite in the Albanian community of Sicily.
Luljeta Hoxha is a Tirana-born Albanian stage director and actress.
Lushnjë (in Lushnje's own dialect Lushnje, Lushnja) is a city in west-central Albania.
A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, Bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Macedonians (Македонци; transliterated: Makedonci), also known as Macedonian Slavs or Slavic Macedonians, are a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia.
The Macedonians in Albania (Македонци во Албанија/Makedonci vo Albanija; Maqedonasit në Shqipëri) are an officially recognized ethnic minority.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
The Vilayet of Manastir (ولايت مناستر, Vilâyet-i Manastır) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, created in 1874, dissolved in 1877 and re-established in 1879.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Low Maquis in Corsica High ''macchia'' in Sardinia Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.
Margarita Xhepa (born 2 April 1932) is an Albanian stage and film actress.
Marin Barleti (Marinus Barletius, Marino Barlezio; c. 1450–60 – c. 1512–13) was a historian and Catholic priest from Shkodra.
A marine park is a park consisting of an area of sea (or lake) sometimes protected for recreational use, but more often set aside to preserve a specific habitat and ensure the ecosystem is sustained for the organisms that exist there.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Masiela Lusha (born October 23, 1985) is an Albanian-American actress, author, producer and humanitarian.
Mass migration refers to the migration of large groups of people from one geographical area to another.
Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Medicinal Purposes is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.
The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held usually every four years, between nations around or very close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe, Africa, and Asia meet.
The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Meshari (Albanian for "Missal") is the oldest published book in Albanian.
Metres above the Adriatic (Metri sopra l'Adriatico, Meter über Adria, Metara iznad Jadrana) is the mean sea level datum used in Austria, in the former Yugoslavian states of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, in the Kosovo territory, as well as in Albania to measure elevation, referring to the average water level of the Adriatic Sea at the Sartorio mole in the Port of Trieste.
Michael Attaleiates or Attaliates (Μιχαήλ Ἀτταλειάτης) (c. 1022-1080) was a Byzantine public servant and historian active in Constantinople and around the empire's provinces in the second half of the eleventh century.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A military hospital is a hospital that is owned and operated by the armed forces.
The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs of Albania, officially styled the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania (Ministri i Evropës dhe Punëve të Jashtme të Republikes të Shqipërisë), is the Foreign Minister of Albania, responsible for the foreign relations of the country, as well as the integration to the European Union.
The Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs (Ministria për Europën dhe Punët e Jashtme) is a department ministry of the Albanian Government, in charge of diplomacy, foreign policy and the process of admission of Albania into the European Union.
The Ministry of Defense is a department ministry of the Albanian Government, in charge of the formation and implementation of national security and ordering, coordinating and carrying out the general guidelines of the Cabinet about the defence policy and is the headquarters of the Military of Albania.
The Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth is a department ministry of the Albanian Government, responsible for Education and Sport.
The Ministry of Health and Social Protection is a department ministry of the Albanian Government, charged with the responsibility to oversee the running of Albania's health system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical, pharmaceutical and hospital services, while helping people to stay healthy through health promotion.
The Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy (Ministria e Infrastrukturës dhe Energjisë) is a department ministry of the Albanian Government, responsible for national climate policy and international cooperation on climate change, as well as energy issues, meteorology and national geological surveys, electricity, water, wastewater services and industry in Albania.
The Ministry of Tourism and Environment is a department ministry of the Cabinet of Albania, in charge of regulation for the environmental protection, sustainable use of natural resources, promotion of renewable resources, protection of nature and biodiversity, sustainable development and management of forestry and pastures, and monitoring of waters quality.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Mirdita is a region of northern Albania whose territory is synonymous with the historic Albanian tribe of the same name.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Moglicë Hydro Power Plant is a large hydroelectricity plant under construction on the river Devoll situated near the village Moglicë, Albania.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Montenegrins (Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci, or), literally "People of the Black Mountain", are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Moscopole (Voskopojë; Moscopole; Μοσχόπολις or Βοσκόπολις; İskopol or OskopolAnscombe, Frederick (2006). ". In Anscombe, Frederick. The Ottoman Balkans, 1750–1830. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 99. "İskopol/Oskopol (Voskopoje, southeast Albania") is a village in Korçë County in southeastern Albania. During the 18th century, it was the cultural and commercial center of the Aromanians. At its peak, in the mid 18th century, it hosted the first printing press in the Ottoman Balkans outside Istanbul, educational institutions and numerous churches and became a leading center of Greek culture. Historians have attributed the decline of the city to a series of raids by Muslim Albanian bandits. Moscopole was initially attacked and almost destroyed by those groups in 1769 following the participation of the residents in the preparations for a Greek revolt supported by the Russian Empire. Its destruction culminated with the abandoning and destruction of 1788. Moscopole, once a prosperous city, was reduced to a small village by Ali Pasha. According to another opinion, the city's decline was mainly due to the relocation of the trade routes in central and eastern Europe following these raids. Today Moscopole, known as Voskopojë, is a small mountain village, and along with a few other local settlements is considered a holy place by local Orthodox Christians. It was one of the original homelands of the Aromanian diaspora.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
The Mother Teresa Square is the second largest square in Tirana, Albania.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Municipalities (bashki) are the second-level administrative divisions of Albania.
Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
The Music of Albania (Muzika Shqiptare) is associated with the country of Albania and Albanian communities.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
The Muzaka were an Albanian noble family that ruled over the region of Myzeqe (central Albania) in the Late Middle Ages.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Myzeqe or Myzeqeja (also Musachia) is a plain in the southwestern-central Albania, sometimes referred to as being between the Shkumbin and Seman rivers, and sometimes extending south to the Vjose river north of Vlorë.
Naim Frashëri (25 May 1846 – 20 October 1900) was an Albanian poet, writer and one of the most prominent patriots of the Albanian national movement for independence from the Ottoman Empire.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The Albania National Center of Cinematography (Kinostudio Shqipëria e Re) is the largest film distributor and film production company in the cinema of Albania connected with over 700 films (feature films and documentaries) between 1947 and 2012.
The National Liberation Movement (Lëvizja Nacional-Çlirimtare or Lëvizja Antifashiste Nacional-Çlirimtare (LANÇ)), also translated as National Liberation Front, was an Albanian resistance organization that fought in World War II.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The Albanian State Road 1 (SH1), (Rruga Shtetërore 1) is the main road connection between the Albanian capital Tirana and Montenegrin capital Podgorica.
The Albanian State Road (SH1), (Albanian: Rruga Shteterore 2) is a dual carriageway in Albania linking the port city of Durrës with the metropolis and the capital Tirana.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
The Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region is a possible UNESCO site situated in Pogradec, Albania, around the section of Lake Ohrid located in Albania.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Naum Veqilharxhi, born Naum Bredhi (1797-1846)), was an Albanian lawyer and scholar. In 1844, he created a unique alphabet for the Albanian language using characters he had created himself, the Vithkuqi script. Veqilharxhi is one of the most prominent figures of the early Albanian National Awakening, and is considered by Albanians as its first ideologue.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neço Muko (October 21, 1899 – 1934), also known as Neço Muko Himarjoti, was an Albanian singer and composer.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
The net migration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) throughout the year.
Niš (Ниш) is the third-largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Kreshnik Xhelilaj (born 5 March 1983), better known by his stage name Nik Xhelilaj, is an Albanian film and stage actor.
Nikaj-Mërtur is a region of Northern Albania whose territory is synonymous with the historic Albanian tribe of the same name.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Northern Mountain Range (Krahina Malore Verore) is a geographical region in northern Albania.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Old World wine refers primarily to wine made in Europe but can also include other regions of the Mediterranean basin with long histories of winemaking such as North Africa and the Near East.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Olympique de Marseille, also known as l'OM or simply Marseille, is a French football club in Marseille.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
Onufri or Onouphrios of Neokastro (Ονούφριος) was an Orthodox icon painter and Archpriest of Elbasan, active in the 16th century in southern Albania and south-western Macedonia.
Operation Active Endeavour was a maritime operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Operation Alba ("Sunrise" or "Dawn" in Italian) was a multinational peacekeeping force sent to Albania in 1997.
Opinga (Gheg Albanian: Apânga) are traditional shoes worn by Albanians in Albania, Kosovo, Macedona, Montenegro, Greece (by the Arvanites) and the Arbëresh villages of Italy.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae).
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.
Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Albania: Republic of Albania – sovereign country located on the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe.
Pal Engjëlli (Paulus Angelus; 1416 – 1470) was an Albanian Roman Catholic cardinal, clergyman, scholar, and Archbishop of Durrës who in 1462 wrote the first known sentence retrieved so far in Albanian.
The Palace of Congresses is a venue in Tirana, Albania, where numerous festivals and events are held, including the annual Festivali i Këngës and Kënga Magjike and the Tirana Book Fair.
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification.
The Corridor X is one of the pan-European corridors.
The ten Pan-European transport corridors were defined at the second Pan-European transport Conference in Crete, March 1994, as routes in Central and Eastern Europe that required major investment over the next ten to fifteen years.
Papaver rhoeas (common names include common poppy, corn poppy, corn rose, field poppy, Flanders poppy or red poppy) is an annual herbaceous species of flowering plant in the poppy family, Papaveraceae.
Parashqevi Qiriazi, also known as Paraskevi D. Kirias (2 June 1880 – 1970) was an Albanian teacher who dedicated her life to the Albanian alphabet and to the instruction of written Albanian language.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Parliament of Albania (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Pars pro toto, Latin for "a part (taken) for the whole", is a figure of speech where the name of a portion of an object, place, or concept represents its entirety.
The Party of Labour of Albania (Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSH, sometimes referred to as the Albanian Workers' Party) was the vanguard party of Albania during the communist period (1945–1991) as well as the only legal political party.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
The Pashalik of Yanina or Janina (1788–1822) was a subdivision of the Ottoman Empire centred on the region of Epirus and had a high degree of autonomy in the early 19th century under Ali Pasha, although it was never recognized as such by the Ottoman Empire.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
Patos (Patosi) is a town and a municipality in the County of Fier, Albania.
Patos Marinza is an Albanian oil field that was discovered in 1928.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
The Peasant Revolt in Albania, or the Muslim Uprising in Albania, was the uprising of peasants from central Albania, mostly Muslims, against the regime of Prince Wilhelm of Wied during 1914, and was one of the reasons for the prince's withdrawal from the country, marking the fall of the Principality of Albania.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
The Periplus of the Euxine Sea (Περίπλους τοῦ Εὐξείνου Πόντου, Periplus Ponti Euxini) is a periplus or guidebook detailing the destinations visitors encounter when traveling about the shore of the Black Sea.
Peshkopi (Peshkopia) is a town in Dibër County, northeastern Albania.
Phoenice or Phoenike (Φοινίκη) was an ancient Greek city in Epirus and capital of the Chaonians.
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
The Pindus (also Pindos or Pindhos) (Πίνδος) mountain range is located in northern Greece and southern Albania.
The Pindus Mountains mixed forests constitute a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pjetër Bogdani (c. 1630 – December 1689), known in Italian as Pietro Bogdano, is the most original writer of early literature in Albania.
Pjetër Budi (1566 – December 1622), writer of early Albanian literature, known in Italian as Pietro Budi, was an Albanian bishop of Sapë and the author of four religious works in Albanian.
Peter Malota (born Pjetër Malota Lulgjuraj; 4 July 1959 in Lofka, Malësia, Albania) is best known for his appearances in films starring Jean-Claude Van Damme.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plav Municipality (Montenegrin and Општина Плав, Komuna e Plavës) is one of the municipalities of Montenegro.
Plav (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Плав, Plavë) is a town in north-eastern Montenegro.
Pleuratus II (Ancient Greek: Πλευρᾶτος; ruled c. 260 – 250 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Ardiaean Kingdom.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Plus Communication SH.A. (also known as PLUS) was an Albanian-owned and operated telecommunications company.
Pogradec (Pogradeci) is a city and municipality in central Albania, situated on the shores the Ohrid lake.
A Ponzi scheme (also a Ponzi game) is a form of fraud in which a purported businessman lures investors and pays profits to earlier investors using funds obtained from newer investors.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of Durrës (Porti i Durrësit) is the largest seaport of Albania.
The Port of Sarandë or Sarandë Harbor (Porti i Sarandës, Greek: Λιμάνι των Αγίων Σαράντα) is a port of Albania in the city of Sarandë, Albania.
The Port of Shëngjin or Shëngjin Harbor (Porti i Shëngjinit) is a port of Albania in the city of Shëngjin, Albania.
The Port of Vlorë or Vlorë Harbor (Porti i Vlorës) is a port of Albania in the city of Vlorë, Albania.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
Powdered sugar, also called confectioners' sugar, icing sugar, and icing cake, is a finely ground sugar produced by milling granulated sugar into a powdered state.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Prek Cali (1872–1945) was the bajraktar ("flag-bearer") of Vermosh, part of the Kelmendi tribe of northern Albania.
Prenk Bib Doda, also known as Prênk Pasha (Prenk Bibë Doda; 1860–1919), was an Albanian member of the Young Turks, leader of the Montenegrin resistance against the Ottoman Empire, prince of Mirdita, and politician in the Principality of Albania.
The President of Albania (Presidenti i Shqipërisë), officially styled the President of the Republic of Albania (Presidenti i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the military and the representative of the unity of the Albanian people.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
The Prime Minister of Albania (Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially styled the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and as well the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics.
The Principality of Albania (Albanian: Principata e Shqipërisë or Shteti Shqiptar) refers to the short-lived monarchy in Albania, headed by William, Prince of Albania, that lasted from the Treaty of London of 1913 which ended the First Balkan War, through the invasions of Albania during World War I and the subsequent disputes over Albanian independence during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, until 1925, when the monarchy was abolished and the Albanian Republic declared.
Principality of Albania (1368–1392) was an Albanian principality formed after the disestablishment of Kingdom of Albania, by Karl Thopia.
Arbanon (Arbër or Arbëria; Ἄρβανον, Árbanon; Arbanum) or Albanon (Ἄλβανον, Álbanon), was an autonomous principality, the first Albanian entity during the Middle Ages, initially part of the Byzantine Empire and later of the Despotate of Epirus.
Principality of Kastrioti (1389–1444) was one of the most important principalities in Medieval Albania.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
Prizren (Prizreni; Призрен) is a city and municipality located in the Prizren District of Kosovo.
The Progon family (Progoni) established the first Albanian state, the Principality of Arbër, which fell under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, the Despotate of Epirus and the Kingdom of Serbia.
Progon was the first Albanian ruler known by name, an archon of the Kruja fortress (modern Krujë) and its surroundings (retrospectively known as "Arbanon").
Prokletije (Проклетије,; Bjeshkët e Nemuna; both translated as "cursed mountains"), also known as the Albanian Alps (Alpet Shqiptare) and the Accursed Mountains, is a mountain range on the western Balkan peninsula, extending from northern Albania to Kosovo and eastern Montenegro.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
The protected areas of Albania comprise a number of various current designations across the territory of the country.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
The Provisional Government of Albania (Qeveria e Përkohshme e Shqipërisë) was the first government of Albania, created by the Assembly of Vlorë on 4 December 1912.
Prunus cerasus (sour cherry, tart cherry, or dwarf cherry) is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
The pygmy cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus) is a member of the Phalacrocoracidae (cormorant) family of seabirds.
The Pyramid of Tirana is a structure and former museum located in Tirana, Albania, Europe.
The qeleshe or plis, also qylaf is a white brimless felt cap traditionally worn by Albanians.
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.
Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (English: Albanian Radio and Television – RTSH) is the public broadcaster of Albania, founded in 1938 in Tirana.
Ragusa (Sicilian: Rausa; Latin: Ragusia) is a city and comune in southern Italy.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Ramiz Tafë Alia (18 October 1924 – 7 October 2011) was the second and last Communist leader of Albania from 1985 to 1991 and the country's head of state from 1982 to 1992.
A Ramsar Site is a wetland site designated of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Remorse is a distressing emotion experienced by a person who regrets actions which they deem to be shameful, hurtful, or violent.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rita Sahatçiu Ora (born Rita Sahatçiu; 26 November 1990) is a British singer and actress.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tiranë-Durrës (Archidioecesis Tiranensis-Dyrracena) is a Latin Metropolitan archdiocese in Albania.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The Romani people in Albania are part of the larger Roma diaspora.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romania national football team (Echipa națională de fotbal a României) represents Romania in international football and is controlled by the Romanian Football Federation.
Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Illyrian Tombs of Selca e Poshtme are located near the town of Pogradec in Albania near the village of Selcë e Poshtme.
Rozafa castle (Kalaja e Rozafës) is a castle near the city of Shkodër, in northwestern Albania.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples.
Saim Kokona (born 26 February 1934 in Gjirokastër, Albania) is the most prolific Albanian cinematographer in the cinema of Albania.
Saimir Kumbaro (born May 5, 1945 in Tirana) is a retired Albanian film director of the 1980s.
Saimir Pirgu (born 23 September 1981 in Elbasan) is an Albanian international opera singer (tenor).
, (born 15 October 1944) is an Albanian cardiologist and politician who served as the second President of Albania from 1992 to 1997 and Prime Minister from 2005 to 2013.
Salvia is the largest genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, with nearly 1000 species of shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals.
Samir Mane is the richest Albanian entrepreneur.
Sandër Prosi (6 January 1920 – 24 March 1985), born Aleksandër Prosi, was an Albanian actor of Aromanian origin.
Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.
The Sanjak of Prizren (Prizren Sancağı, Sanxhaku i Prizrenit, Призренски санџак) was one of the sanjaks in the Ottoman Empire with Prizren as its administrative centre.
Sanjak-bey, sanjaq-bey or -beg (meaning "Lord of the Standard") was the title given in the Ottoman Empire to a Bey (a high-ranking officer, but usually not a Pasha) appointed to the military and administrative command of a district (sanjak, in Arabic liwa'), answerable to a superior wāli or other provincial governor.
Sarandë or Saranda (from Agioi Saranda; Santiquaranta) is a coastal town in Vlorë County, southern of Albania.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Sazan (Sazani; Saseno; Saso; Σάσων) is an island inside the Mediterranean Sea in southern Albania.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
School life expectancy is a measure of how many years of education a child of school-entering age would receive during his or her lifetime if the school enrollment rates stay the same as of today.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The Vilayet of Scutari, Shkodër or Shkodra (İşkodra Vilayeti or Vilayet-i İşkodra; Vilajeti i Shkodrës; was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire that existed from 1867 to 1913, located in parts of what today is Montenegro and Albania. In the late 19th century it reportedly had an area of. by Éliseé Reclus, p. 152.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The Senate of Albania (Pleqësi) was a senate of Albania which independence was declared on 28 November 1912 in Vlorë (then Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Albania).
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Empire (Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serb-Montenegrin community in Albania is estimated to number ca.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shkodër or Shkodra, historically known as Scutari (in Italian, English and most Western European landuages) or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania.
Shkodër County (Qarku i Shkodrës) is a county in northwestern Albania, with the capital in Shkodër.
The Shkumbin (Genessus), also commonly Shkembi, is a river in Southern and Southeastern Europe.
The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is a species of common dolphin.
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sideritis (Gr: σιδηρίτις), also known as ironwort, mountain tea and shepherd's tea, is a genus of flowering plants well known for their use as herbal medicine, commonly as an herbal tea.
Sislej Xhafa (Sislej Xhafa, Сислеј Џафа, Sislej Džafa) (born 1970 in Peja, SFR Yugoslavia (now Kosovo) is a Kosovar Albanian contemporary artist, based in New York. He is represented by Galleria Continua, San Gimignano / Beijing / Le Moulin and BlainSouthern in the United Kingdom.
George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.
The Skanderbeg Square is the main plaza in the centre of Tirana, Albania.
Skavica Hydro Power Plant is a proposed large power plant on the Drin River situated in Albania.
The Socialist Party of Albania (Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë, PS or PSSh), is a social-democratic political party in Albania; it gained power following the 2013 parliamentary election.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
The Southern Mountain Range (Krahina Malore Jugore) is a physiogeographical region in southern Albania.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Sparidae are a family of fish in the order Perciformes, commonly called sea breams and porgies.
Spearmint (binomial Mentha spicata, synonym Mentha viridis), also known as garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint, is a species of mint native to much of Europe and Asia (Middle East, Himalayas, China etc.), and naturalized in parts of northern and western Africa, North America, and South America, as well as various oceanic islands.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
State atheism, according to Oxford University Press's A Dictionary of Atheism, "is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems." In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of that country's head of state, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit.
The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea (the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete (the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus.
The Strait of Otranto (Kanali i Otrantos; Canale d'Otranto; Otranska Vrata) connects the Adriatic Sea with the Ionian Sea and separates Italy from Albania.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
The Supreme Court of the Republic of Albania (Gjykata e Lartë e Republikës së Shqipërisë) is the highest court of Albania and is the final court of appeal in the judicial system of Albania.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Taçi Oil is an Albanian petroleum company and oil distributor in Albania headquartered in Tirana.
Tavë kosi ("soured milk casserole") is a national dish in Albania.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Tefta Tashko-Koço (1910–1947) was a well-known Albanian singer of the 1930s.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telecommunications in Albania include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
The Telegraph Media Group (TMG, previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph.
Telekom Albania SH.A. (Also known as T-Mobile Albania) is a telecommunications company that operates in Albania, previously as AMC and now as Telekom Albania.
For domestic calls (within the country), 0 must be dialed before the user number of another administrative unit.
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A term of office is the length of time a person serves in a particular elected office.
Teuta (Τεύτα) was the queen regent of the Ardiaei tribe in Illyria, who reigned approximately from 231 BC to 227 BC.
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Great Warrior Skanderbeg (Luftëtari i math i Shqipërisë Skënderbeu; Velikiy voin Albanii Skanderbeg) is a 1953 Soviet-Albanian biopic directed by Sergei Yutkevich.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Voice of Albania is an Albanian reality singing competition, based on the original Dutch talent show The Voice of Holland, created by John de Mol.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Thekna mine is a large mine located in central Albania in Dibër County, east of the capital, Tirana.
Thopia family was one of the most powerful Albanian feudal families in the Late Middle Ages.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
Ti Shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin Shqipëtar (English for You Albania, give me honour, give me the name Albanian) is the national motto of Albania.
A timar was land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes.
Tinka Kurti (born 17 December 1932) is one of the best known Albanian actresses.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Tirana County (Qarku i Tiranës) is one of the 12 counties of the Republic of Albania, with the capital in Tirana.
Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza (Aeroporti Ndërkombëtar i Tiranës Nënë Tereza), commonly Rinas International Airport, is Albania's main international airport.
The Tirana International Film Festival (TIFF) is one of the major annual events taking place in Tirana each year.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Tosk is the southern dialect group of the Albanian language, spoken by the ethnographic group known as Tosks.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP;, Trans Adriatik Boru Xətti Διαδριατικός Αγωγός Φυσικού Αερίου, Gasdotto Trans-Adriatico) is a pipeline project to transport natural gas, starting from Greece via Albania and the Adriatic Sea to Italy and further to Western Europe.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1839 – 18 February 1927) was an Albanian politician who served as the 3rd Prime Minister of Albania.
Tutin (Тутин) is a town and municipality located in the Raška District of the southwestern Serbia.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 858 in August 1993 to verify compliance with a 27 July 1993 ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi, Georgia.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The University of Colorado system is a system of public universities in Colorado consisting of four campuses: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, University of Colorado Denver in downtown Denver and at the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora.
The University of Gothenburg (Göteborgs universitet) is a university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Vau i Dejës Hydroelectric Power Station is a hydroelectric dam on the Drin River, in Albania, near Vau i Dejës.
Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vermosh (definite form Vermoshi) is the northernmost village of Albania, located in the former Kelmend municipality.
Vernik (Връбник, Врбник, Vrbnik) is a village in the former Qendër Bilisht Municipality of the Korçë County in Albania, on the border with Krystallopigi in Greece.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
The Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire were the first-order administrative division, or provinces, of the later empire, introduced with the promulgation of the Vilayet Law (Teşkil-i Vilayet Nizamnamesi) of 21 January 1867.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
Vlorë County (Qarku i Vlorës) is one of the 12 counties of the Republic of Albania, with the capital in Vlorë.
Vodafone Albania Sh.A. is a mobile telephone company, operating in Albania.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
The Western Lowlands (Ultësira Bregdetare or Ultësira Perëndimore) is the geographical region of western Albania defined by plains and lowlands.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wikimedia Commons (or simply Commons) is an online repository of free-use images, sounds, and other media files.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wildcat is a small cat species complex comprising ''Felis silvestris'' and the ''Felis lybica''.
Prince William of Wied, Prince of Albania German: Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich, Albanian: Princ Vidi or Princ Vilhelm Vidi, 26 March 1876 – 18 April 1945), reigned briefly as sovereign of the Principality of Albania as Vidi I from 7 March 1914 to 3 September 1914, when he left for exile. His reign officially came to an end on 31 January 1925, when the country was declared an Albanian Republic. Outside the country and in diplomatic correspondence, he was styled "sovereign prince", but in Albania, he was referred to as mbret, or king. He was also styled Skanderbeg II, in homage to Skanderbeg, the national hero.
The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) was an international cooperation of independent market research and polling firms.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A worker cooperative, is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Health Organization (WHO) ranked the health systems of its 191 member states in its World Health Report 2000.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) is a forum for the travel and tourism industry.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
In Albania, World War II began with the Italian invasion in 1939.
The World Weightlifting Championships is an event organised by International Weightlifting Federation (IWF).
X Factor Albania is the Albanian version of The X Factor, adapted from the original UK series to find new singing talent.
Xhanfize Keko (27 January 1928 – 22 December 2007), born in Gjirokastër, Albania, was an Albanian film director.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zog I, King of the Albanians (Nalt Madhnija e Tij Zogu I, Mbreti i Shqiptareve,; 8 October 18959 April 1961), born Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli, taking the surname Zogu in 1922, was the leader of Albania from 1922 to 1939.
.al is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Albania.
The 1946 Balkan Cup was the 8th edition of this tournament.
The 7th Cannes Film Festival was held from 25 March to 9 April 1954.
The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.
The 1972 Men's World Weightlifting Championships were held in Munich, West Germany from August 27 to September 6, 1972.
The X Mediterranean Games – Latakia 1987 (ألعاب البحر الأبيض المتوسط 1987), commonly known as the 1987 Mediterranean Games, were the 10th Mediterranean Games.
The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games (Les XVIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France.
The meridian 19° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 2000 Rothmans International Tournament was the 10th edition of the Malta (Rothmans) International Tournament.
The 2002 World Weightlifting Championships were held in Warsaw, Poland from November 18 to November 26, 2002.
The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games (Les XXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and commonly known as Turin 2006 or italic, was a winter multi-sport event which was held in Turin, Piedmont, Italy from February 10 to 26, 2006.
The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit was a NATO summit organized in the Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania on 2 – 4 April 2008.
The 2011 World Weightlifting Championships were held at Disneyland Paris in Paris, France.
The 2013 Mediterranean Games (2013 Akdeniz Oyunları), officially known as the XVII Mediterranean Games (XVII Akdeniz Oyunları), was an international multi-sport event held in the tradition of the Mediterranean Games, as governed by the International Committee of Mediterranean Games (ICMG) (Comité international des Jeux méditerranéens).
The meridian 21° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 39th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
The 42nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 42 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G.
AlbaniA, Albania (Balkans), Albania demographics, Albanie, Albanija, Albenia, Arbania, Arnaoot, Etymology of Albania, ISO 3166-1:AL, Republic of Albania, Republika e Shqipërisë, Shqiperi, Shqiperia, Shqipni, Shqipnia, Shqipëri, Shqipëria, Shquiperia, Αλβανία.