306 relations: Ablative case, Academy of Albanological Studies, Academy of Sciences of Albania, Accusative case, Affricate consonant, Agim Morina, Albania, Albania under the Ottoman Empire, Albanian alphabet, Albanian Americans, Albanian Braille, Albanian Canadians, Albanian dialects, Albanian diaspora, Albanian Literary Commission, Albanian morphology, Albanian Orthography Congress, Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace, Albanians, Albanians in Germany, Albanians in Montenegro, Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia, Albanians in Ukraine, Albanians of Romania, Alveolar consonant, Ancient Greek, Andrea Bogdani, Approximant consonant, Arabic script, Arbanasi dialect, Arbanasi people, Arbëresh language, Arbëreshë people, Archbishop, Argentina, Aristocracy, Armenian language, Arnold Ritter von Harff's lexicon, Arvanites, Arvanitika, Australia, Austria, Austrian Science Fund, Balkan Insight, Balkans, Balto-Slavic languages, Basque language, Bellifortis, Bible, Bilabial nasal, ..., Bitola, Book of Isaiah, Book of Jeremiah, Boston, Breton language, Buenos Aires, Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian language, Calabria, Calvert Watkins, Catechism, Catholic Church, Celtic languages, Cham Albanian dialect, Chile, Close back rounded vowel, Close front rounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Codex, Comparative linguistics, Congress of Dibra, Congress of Manastir, Connecticut, Consonant, Croatia, Culture of Albania, Cyrillic script, Dacian language, Dalmatian language, Dardania (Roman province), Dative case, Declension, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Detroit, Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Die Sprache, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Donald Ringe, Doric Greek, Douglas Q. Adams, Dubrovnik, Durrës, Egypt, Elbasan, Elbasan alphabet, English language, Epirus (region), Eqrem Çabej, Eric P. Hamp, European Commission, First Epistle to the Corinthians, Flap consonant, Florina (regional unit), Formula e pagëzimit, Franc Miklošič, Franciscans, Frang Bardhi, Franz Bopp, Fricative consonant, Genitive case, Germanic languages, Gheg Albanian, Gjon Buzuku, Gjon Nikollë Kazazi, Glottal consonant, Gothic language, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Greece, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Greek orthography, Gustav Meyer, Holiday, Illyrian languages, Immigration from the former Yugoslavia to Switzerland, Indo-European languages, Indogermanische Forschungen, Interdental consonant, Ioannina (regional unit), Irish language, Isogloss, Istanbul, Italian Americans, Italian language, Italy, J. P. Mallory, Janissaries, Jernej Kopitar, Jireček Line, Johann Georg von Hahn, Julije Balović, Khedive, Kosovo, Kosovo War, Kostandin Kristoforidhi, Lab Albanian dialect, Labial consonant, Language family, Language isolate, Language shift, Languages of the Balkans, Late Latin, Latin, Latin script, League of Prizren, Lithuanian language, Loanword, Luca Matranga, Luigj Gurakuqi, Luwian language, Macedonian language, Mahir Domi, Mat (river), Maximilian Lambertz, Meshari, Messapian language, Mirative, Montenegro, Muhammad Ali dynasty, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, National Library of Albania, New Jersey, New Orleans metropolitan area, New Testament, New York City, New Zealand, Nicolae Iorga, Nominative case, Norbert Jokl, Noun, Object–subject–verb, Object–verb–subject, Ohio, Old Church Slavonic, Open central unrounded vowel, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Open-mid front unrounded vowel, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Pal Engjëlli, Palatal approximant, Palatal consonant, Palatal nasal, Paleo-Balkan languages, Paul Kretschmer, Philadelphia, Pjetër Bogdani, Plough, Poland, Postalveolar consonant, Preveza (regional unit), Pristina, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Romanian language, Psalms, Quantitative comparative linguistics, Received Pronunciation, Republic of Macedonia, Rhotacism (sound change), Robert Elsie, Romance languages, Romania, Romanian language, Rome, Ruki sound law, Sanskrit, Schwa, Semantic change, Serbia, Shaban Demiraj, Shkumbin, Sibilant, Sicily, Skanderbeg, Skopje, Slavic languages, Slavs, Sonorant, South Slavic languages, South Slavs, Southern Europe, Southern Italy, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Studia Albanica, Studime Filologjike, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Sudan, Syncretism (linguistics), Tandy Warnow, Taylor & Francis, Thesprotia, Thracian language, Thraco-Illyrian, Tosk Albanian, Trill consonant, Trinitarian formula, Turkey, Turkish language, Ulcinj, Upper Reka dialect, Uruguay, Vali (governor), Vatican Library, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Velarization, Verb, Verb–subject–object, Via Egnatia, Vienna, Vithkuqi alphabet, Vladimir Orel, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), Voiced alveolar affricate, Voiced alveolar fricative, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced dental and alveolar stops, Voiced dental fricative, Voiced labiodental fricative, Voiced palatal affricate, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless labiodental fricative, Voiceless palatal affricate, Voiceless postalveolar affricate, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Vulgar Latin, Wacław Cimochowski, Welsh language, Western Macedonia, Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke, World War II. 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The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The Academy of Albanological Studies (Akademia e Studimeve Albanologjike) is the main institution of albanology in Albania.
The Academy of Sciences of Albania (Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë), founded in 1972, is the most important scientific institution in Albania.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Agim Morina is a Kosovar Albanian linguist, artist, and poet.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in different periods from 1480 to 1912.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
American Albanians (singular: Shqiptar i Amerikes / plural: Shqiptaret e Amerikes) are Americans of full or partial Albanian ancestry.
Albanian Braille is the braille alphabet for writing the Albanian language.
Albanian Canadians (Shqiptarë Kanadezë) are Canadian citizens of Albanian descent or Albanian people who are citizens of Canada.
The Albanian language is composed of many dialects, divided into two major groups: Gheg and Tosk.
The Albanian diaspora (Mërgata Shqiptare or Diaspora Shqiptare) refers to the Albanians and their descendants living outside of Albania, including Kosovo and the minorities in Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
Albanian Literary Commission (Komisia letrare shqype), also known as Literary Commission of Shkodër, was a scholarly committee established in Shkodër, north Albania in 1916.
This article concerns the morphology of the Albanian language, including the declension of nouns and adjectives, and the conjugation of verbs.
Albanian Orthography Congress (Kongresi i Drejtshkrimit) was a linguistics event held in Tirana, People's Republic of Albania in 1972.
Albanian-speakers form a linguistic minority in Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace along the border with Turkey.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Approximately 350,000 to 500,000 ethnic Albanians live in Germany.
Albanians in Montenegro (Shqiptarët e Malit të Zi; Albanci u Crnoj Gori) are an ethnic group in Montenegro of Albanian descent, which constitute 4.91% of Montenegro's total population.
Albanians are the largest ethnic minority in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Albanians in Ukraine (Албанці, Albantsi) are an ethnic minority group located mainly in Zaporizhia Oblast and Budjak.
The Albanians (Shqiptarë in Albanian, Albanezi in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andrea Bogdani (Ndre Bogdani; ca. 1600–1683) was an Ottoman scholar of Albanian origin and prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The Arbanasi dialect is a dialect of Gheg Albanian that is spoken in long-standing diaspora communities of Albanians in Croatia.
Arbanasi (Arbanasi language: Arbëneshë) is a community in the Zadar region, Croatia, of Albanian origin, who traditionally speak the Arbanasi dialect of Gheg Albanian.
Arbëresh (also known as Arbërisht, Arbërishtja or T'arbrisht) is the variety of Albanian spoken by the Arbëreshë people in Italy.
The Arbëreshë (Arbëreshët e Italisë or Shqiptrarët e Italisë), also known as Albanians of Italy or Italo-Albanians, are an Albanian ethnic and linguistic group in Southern Italy, mostly concentrated in scattered villages in the region of Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Molise and Sicily.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Arnold Ritter von Harff's lexicon is the second most ancient Albanian-language document ever retrieved, after the Formula e Pagëzimit.
Arvanites (Αρβανίτες, Arvanítes; Arvanitika: Arbëreshë / Αρbε̰ρεσ̈ε̰ or Arbërorë) are a bilingual population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a dialect of the Albanian language, along with Greek.
Arvanitika (Arvanitika: αρbε̰ρίσ̈τ, arbërisht; αρβανίτικα, arvanítika), also known as Arvanitic, is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Science Fund (Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, FWF) is the most important Austrian funding organization for basic research.
Balkan Insight is a publication of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN), that focuses on news, analysis, commentary and investigative reporting from southeast Europe.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Bellifortis ("Strong in War", "War Fortifications") is the first fully illustrated manual of military technology, dating from the start of the 15th century.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Calvert Watkins (March 13, 1933 – March 20, 2013) was an American linguist and philologist.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Cham Albanian dialect (Çamërisht, Dialekti çam) is the dialect of the Albanian language spoken by the Cham Albanians, an ethnic Albanian minority in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
The Congress of Dibra (original name promoted by the Ottoman authorities: Ottoman-Albanian Joint Constitutional Congress) was a congress held by members of Albanian committee in Debar (than part of Ottoman Empire, now part of the Republic of Macedonia) from July 23 to July 29, 1909.
The Congress of Manastir (Kongresi i Manastirit) was an academic conference held in the city of Manastir (Bitola) from November 14 to November 22, 1908, with the goal of standardizing the Albanian alphabet.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Culture of Albania is a term that embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Albania and Albanians.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The extinct Dacian language was spoken in the Carpathian region in antiquity.
Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
Dardania (Δαρδανία; Dardania) was a Roman province in the Central Balkans, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337).
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften (DVW) was a scientific publishing house in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR/DDR).
Die Sprache is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1949.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Donald "Don" Ringe is an American linguist and Indo-Europeanist.
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
Douglas Quentin Adams is a professor of English at the University of Idaho and an Indo-European comparativist.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city and a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania.
The Elbasan script is a mid 18th-century alphabetic script used for the Albanian language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
Eqrem Çabej (6 August 1908 – 13 August 1980) was an Albanian historical linguist and scholar who, through the publication of numerous studies gained a reputation as a key expert in the research into Albanian-language, literature, ethnology and linguistics.
Eric Pratt Hamp (born November 16, 1920) is an American linguist widely respected as a leading authority on Indo-European linguistics, with particular interests in Celtic languages and Albanian.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Florina (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Φλώρινας) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The formula e pagëzimit (baptismal formula) is the first written document in Albanian retrieved.
Franc Miklošič (also known in German as Franz Xaver Ritter von Miklosich) (20 November 1813 – 7 March 1891) was a Slovene philologist.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frang Bardhi (Latin: Franciscus Blancus, Italian: Francesco Bianchi, 1606–1643) was an Albanian Catholic bishop and writer.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Gheg (or Geg; Gheg Albanian: gegnisht, Standard Albanian: gegë or gegërisht) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
Gjon Buzuku (16th century) was an Albanian Catholic priest who wrote the first known printed book in Albanian.
Gjon Nikollë Kazazi (in Latin: Giovanni Battista Nicolovich Casasi) was an Albanian Catholic cleric, who served as Archbishop of the Diocese of Skopje, known for discovering Meshari of Gjon Buzuku.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The orthography of the Greek language ultimately has its roots in the adoption of the Greek alphabet in the 9th century BC.
Gustav Meyer (25 November 1850 – 28 August 1900) was a German linguist and Indo-European scholar, considered to be one of the most important Albanologists of his time, most importantly by proving that the Albanian language belongs to the Indo-European family.
A holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
There was substantial immigration to Switzerland from the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s and 2000s.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indogermanische Forschungen (English: Indo-European Researches; subtitled Zeitschrift für Indogermanistik und historische Sprachwissenschaft/Journal of Indo-European Studies and Historical Linguistics) is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal of linguistics.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
Ioannina (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Ιωαννίνων) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James Patrick Mallory (born 1945) is an Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jernej Bartol Kopitar (21 August 1780 – 11 August 1844) was a Slovene linguist and philologist working in Vienna.
The Jireček Line is a conceptual boundary through the ancient Balkans that divides the influence of the Latin (in the north) and Greek (in the south) languages in the Roman Empire from Antiquity until the 4th century.
Johann Georg von Hahn (11 July 1811 – 23 September 1869) was an Austrian diplomat, philologist and specialist in Albanian history, language and culture.
Julije Balović (Giulio Ballovich; March 24, 1672 – September 10, 1727) was an entrepreneur, polyglot, judge, sea captain Venetian military officer and collector of epic poetry from Venetian held Perast (modern-day Montenegro).
The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kostandin Nelko, known as Kostandin Kristoforidhi, 1826–1895) was an Albanian translator and scholar. He is mostly known for having translated into Albanian the New Testament for the first time in the Gheg Albanian dialect in 1872. He also provided a translation in Tosk Albanian in 1879 thereby improving the 1823 tosk version of Vangjel Meksi. By providing translation in both dialects, he has the merit of founding the basis of the unification of both dialects into a national language.
The Lab Albanian dialect (Labërishtja or Dialekti lab) is a Tosk Albanian dialect associated with the wider definition of the ethnographic region of Labëria, spoken by Lab Albanians.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The League of Prizren (Besëlidhja e Prizrenit), officially the League for the Defense of the Rights of the Albanian Nation (Lidhja për mbrojtjen e të drejtave te kombit Shqiptar), was an Albanian political organization officially founded on June 10, 1878 in the old town of Prizren, in the Kosova Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Luca Matranga (Albanian: Lekë Matrënga; 1567–1619) was an Arbëresh writer and Catholic priest of Byzantine rite in the Albanian community of Sicily.
Luigj Gurakuqi (February 19, 1879 – March 2, 1925) (also called: Louis Gurakuchi) was an Albanian writer and politician.
Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Mahir Domi (1915-2000) was an Albanian linguist, professor, and academic.
The Mat (Mati) is a river in north-central Albania.
Maximilian Lambertz (27 July 1882 in Vienna – 26 August 1963 in Markkleeberg near Leipzig) was an Austrian linguist, folklorist, and a major personality of Albanology.
Meshari (Albanian for "Missal") is the oldest published book in Albanian.
Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia.
Mirativity, initially proposed by Scott DeLancey, is a grammatical category in a language, independent of evidentiality, that encodes the speaker's surprise or the unpreparedness of their mind.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
The National Library of Albania (Biblioteka Kombëtare e Shqipërisë) is an Albanian national library headquartered in the capital, Tirana.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Orleans–Metairie Metropolitan Statistical Area, or the Greater New Orleans Region (as it is often called by the Louisiana Tourism Commission) is a metropolitan area designated by the United States Census encompassing eight parishes (the Louisiana equivalent of other states' counties) in the state of Louisiana, centering on the city of New Orleans.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nicolae Iorga (sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga;Iova, p. xxvii. January 17, 1871 – November 27, 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Norbert Jokl (February 25, 1877 – probably May 1942) was an Austrian Albanologist of Jewish descent who has been called the father of Albanology.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In linguistic typology, object–subject–verb (OSV) or object–agent–verb (OAV) is a classification of languages, based on whether the structure predominates in pragmatically-neutral expressions.
In linguistic typology, object–verb–subject (OVS) or object–verb–agent (OVA) is a rare permutation of word order.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages.
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Pal Engjëlli (Paulus Angelus; 1416 – 1470) was an Albanian Roman Catholic cardinal, clergyman, scholar, and Archbishop of Durrës who in 1462 wrote the first known sentence retrieved so far in Albanian.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
The Paleo-Balkan languages are the various extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times.
Paul Kretschmer (2 May 1866 – 9 March 1956) was a German linguist who studied the earliest history and interrelations of the Indo-European languages and showed how they were influenced by non-Indo-European languages, such as Etruscan.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Pjetër Bogdani (c. 1630 – December 1689), known in Italian as Pietro Bogdano, is the most original writer of early literature in Albania.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Preveza (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Πρέβεζας) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Romanian (also known as "Common Romanian", româna comună or "Ancient Romanian", străromâna, Balkan Latin) is a hypothetical and unattested Romance language evolved from Vulgar Latin and considered to have been spoken by the ancestors of today's Romanians and related Balkan Latin peoples (Vlachs) before 900 (7th–11th century AD).
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Statistical methods have been used in comparative linguistics since at least the 1950s (see Swadesh list).
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Rhotacism or rhotacization is a sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant:,,, or) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment.
Robert Elsie (June 29, 1950 – October 2, 2017) was a Canadian-born German scholar who specialized in Albanian literature and folklore.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The ruki sound law, also known as the ruki rule or iurk rule, is a historical sound change that took place in the satem branches of the Indo-European language family, namely in Balto-Slavic, Albanian, Armenian, and Indo-Iranian.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shaban Demiraj (1920–2014) was an Albanian albanologist, linguist, professor at the University of Tirana from 1972-1990, and chairman of the Academy of Sciences of Albania during the period of 1993-1997.
The Shkumbin (Genessus), also commonly Shkembi, is a river in Southern and Southeastern Europe.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Studia Albanica is a biannual scientific journal published by the Social and Albanological Studies Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania.
Studime Filologjike ("Philological Studies") is a scientific magazine on Albanian language and literature, published by the Centre of Albanological Studies.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
In linguistics, syncretism exists when functionally distinct occurrences of a single lexeme are identical in form.
Tandy Warnow is an American computer scientist, the Founder Professor of Engineering (and Professor of Computer Science) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Thesprotia (Θεσπρωτία) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European.
Tosk is the southern dialect group of the Albanian language, spoken by the ethnographic group known as Tosks.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
The trinitarian formula is the phrase "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (original Greek εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος,, or in Latin in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti), or words to that form and effect referring to the three persons of the Christian Trinity.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ulcinj (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Улцињ,; Albanian: Ulqin or Ulqini) is a town on the southern coast of Montenegro and the capital of Ulcinj Municipality.
The Upper Reka Albanian dialect is a member of the wider northern Albanian Gheg dialect subgroup of the Albanian language spoken by northern Albanians.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
The Via Egnatia (Greek: Ἐγνατία Ὁδός) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vithkuqi script, also called Büthakukye or Beitha Kukju after the appellation applied to it by German Albanologist Johann Georg von Hahn, was an alphabet invented for writing the Albanian language between 1825 and 1845 by Albanian scholar Naum Veqilharxhi.
Vladimir Orël (Владимир Эммануилович Орëл; February 9, 1952 – August 5, 2007) was a Russian linguist.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds.
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Wacław Cimochowski (December 22, 1912 in Kursk - July 4, 1982 in Gdynia, Poland) - was a Polish philologist, specialized in Indo-European linguistics, especially in Albanology.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Western Macedonia (Δυτική Μακεδονία, Dytiki Makedonía) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia.
Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (30 January 1861 – 4 October 1936) was a Swiss philologist of the Neogrammarian school of linguistics.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Albanian (language), Albanian Language, Albanian grammar, Albanian langage, Albanian languages, Albanian phonology, Albanian-language, Albaniana language, Gjuha shqipe, History of the Albanian language, ISO 639:alb, ISO 639:sq, ISO 639:sqi, ISO 639:sqj, List of Albanian languages, List of Tosk languages, Old Albanian, SQI, Shqip, Standard Albanian.