314 relations: Adem Demaçi, Adnan Januzaj, Albania, Albania under the Ottoman Empire, Albanian Americans, Albanian Australians, Albanian Canadians, Albanian communities in Greece, Albanian Declaration of Independence, Albanian diaspora, Albanian language, Albanian mythology, Albanian National Awakening, Albanian Orthodox Church, Albanian principalities, Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace, Albanians in Bulgaria, Albanians in Egypt, Albanians in Germany, Albanians in Italy, Albanians in Montenegro, Albanians in Serbia, Albanians in Sweden, Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia, Albanians in the United Kingdom, Albanians in Turkey, Albanians in Ukraine, Albanians of Croatia, Albanians of Romania, Albanoi, Albanopolis, Algeria, Ali Pasha of Gusinje, Ali Pasha of Ioannina, Ali Sami Yen, Alipashiad, Alps, Anatolia, Andon Zako Çajupi, Arab nationalism, Arab world, Arbanasi people, Arbëresh language, Arbëreshë people, Argentina, Aristocracy, Arnaut, Aromanian language, Arvanites, Arvanitika, ..., Atheism, Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Axis occupation of Greece, Balkan Wars, Balkans, Barış Arduç, Bebe Rexha, Bejte, Bektashi Order, Berat, Berlin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Bucharest, Bulgaria, Bushati family, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Calabria, Capetian House of Anjou, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Kosovo, Cham Albanian collaboration with the Axis, Cham Albanian dialect, Cham Albanians, Chameria, Charles I of Anjou, Christian, Christianity, Civita, Calabria, Classical music, Cluj-Napoca, Congress of Berlin, Constantinople, Croatia, Crown of Aragon, Cultural heritage, Culture of Albania, Dalip Frashëri, Dalmatia, Demography of the Netherlands, Despotate of Epirus, Devoll (river), Dey, Dritëro Agolli, Dua Lipa, Dubrovnik, Dukagjini family, Durrës, Eastern Orthodox Church, Edhem Pasha, Egypt, Elbasan, Eliza Dushku, Emina Cunmulaj, Encyclopedia of Yugoslavia, English language, Epirus (region), Ernest Koliqi, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnonym, European Union, Eurostat, Evangelism, Exonym and endonym, Expulsion of Cham Albanians, Faik Konica, Fan S. 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Adem Demaçi (born 26 February 1936 in Podujevë) is a Kosovo Albanian marxist-leninist activist.
Adnan Januzaj (born 5 February 1995) is a Belgian professional footballer who plays as a winger for Spanish club Real Sociedad.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in different periods from 1480 to 1912.
American Albanians (singular: Shqiptar i Amerikes / plural: Shqiptaret e Amerikes) are Americans of full or partial Albanian ancestry.
Albanian Australians (Shqiptarë Australian) are residents of Australia who are of Albanian heritage or descent, often from Albania and Kosovo but also Montenegro and Macedonia.
Albanian Canadians (Shqiptarë Kanadezë) are Canadian citizens of Albanian descent or Albanian people who are citizens of Canada.
Albanians in Greece are divided into distinct communities as a result of different waves of migration.
The Albanian Declaration of Independence (Albanian: Shpallja e Pavarësisë, or Deklarata e Pavarësisë) is the declaration of independence of Albania from the Ottoman Empire.
The Albanian diaspora (Mërgata Shqiptare or Diaspora Shqiptare) refers to the Albanians and their descendants living outside of Albania, including Kosovo and the minorities in Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Albanian mythology comprises myths and legends of the Albanians.
The Albanian National Awakening (Rilindja Kombëtare) (also known as the National Renaissance or National Revival), refers to the period in the history of Albania from the 19th century until the declaration of independence in 1912.
The Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Albania (Kisha Ortodokse Autoqefale e Shqipërisë) is one of the newest autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches.
The term Albanian Principalities refers to a number of principalities created in the Middle Ages in Albania and Epirus that were ruled by Albanian nobility.
Albanian-speakers form a linguistic minority in Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace along the border with Turkey.
Albanians (албанци, albantsi) are a minority ethnic group in Bulgaria (Bullgaria).
The Albanian community in Egypt started by Ottoman rulers and military personnel appointed in the Egyptian province.
Approximately 350,000 to 500,000 ethnic Albanians live in Germany.
The Albani were an aristocratic Roman family, members of which attained the highest dignities in the Roman Catholic Church, one, Clement XI, having been Pope.
Albanians in Montenegro (Shqiptarët e Malit të Zi; Albanci u Crnoj Gori) are an ethnic group in Montenegro of Albanian descent, which constitute 4.91% of Montenegro's total population.
Albanians in Serbia (Shqiptarët në Serbi; Албанци у Србији / Albanci u Srbiji) are an officially recognized ethnic minority living in the present-day country of Serbia.
Albanians number up to 50,000 people in Sweden.
Albanians are the largest ethnic minority in the Republic of Macedonia.
Albanians in the United Kingdom include immigrants from Albania and ethnic Albanians from Kosovo.
Albanians in Turkey (Shqiptarët në Turqi, Türkiye'deki Arnavutlar) are ethnic Albanian citizens and denizens of Turkey.
The Albanians in Ukraine (Албанці, Albantsi) are an ethnic minority group located mainly in Zaporizhia Oblast and Budjak.
Albanians of Croatia are an autochthonous national minority recognized by the Constitution of Croatia.
The Albanians (Shqiptarë in Albanian, Albanezi in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania.
The Albanoi (Ἀλβανοί, Albanoi; Albanët) or Albani were an Illyrian tribe whose first historical account appears in a work of Ptolemy in addition to a town called Albanopolis (Ἀλβανόπολις) located east of the Ionian sea, in modern-day Albania.
Albanopolis (Ancient Greek: Ἀλβανόπολις, tr. Alvanópolis) was a city in ancient Roman Macedon specifically in Epirus Nova, the city of the Albanoi, an Illyrian tribe.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali Pasha Shabanagaj (1828–1888) (Serbian: Али-паша Шабанагић, Ali-paša Šabanagić), was an Albanian military commander and one of the leaders of the League of Prizren.
Ali Pasha (1740 – 24 January 1822), variously referred to as of Tepelena or of Janina/Yannina/Ioannina, or the Lion of Yannina, was an Ottoman Albanian ruler who served as pasha of a large part of western Rumelia, the Ottoman Empire's European territories, which was referred to as the Pashalik of Yanina.
Ali Sami Yen, born Ali Sami Frashëri (20 May 1886 – 29 July 1951) was an Albanian-Turkish sports official best known as the founder of the Galatasaray Sports Club.
The Alipashiad or Alipashias (Αληπασιάδα or Αληπασιάς) is a Greek epic poem, written in the early 19th century by the Muslim Albanian Haxhi Shehreti.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Andon Zako Çajupi (27 March 1866 – 11 July 1930) was a leading Albanian rilindas, poet, and playwright writer that actively participated in the Albanian National Awakening.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arbanasi (Arbanasi language: Arbëneshë) is a community in the Zadar region, Croatia, of Albanian origin, who traditionally speak the Arbanasi dialect of Gheg Albanian.
Arbëresh (also known as Arbërisht, Arbërishtja or T'arbrisht) is the variety of Albanian spoken by the Arbëreshë people in Italy.
The Arbëreshë (Arbëreshët e Italisë or Shqiptrarët e Italisë), also known as Albanians of Italy or Italo-Albanians, are an Albanian ethnic and linguistic group in Southern Italy, mostly concentrated in scattered villages in the region of Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Molise and Sicily.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Arnaut (ارناود) is a Turkish ethnonym used to denote Albanians.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
Arvanites (Αρβανίτες, Arvanítes; Arvanitika: Arbëreshë / Αρbε̰ρεσ̈ε̰ or Arbërorë) are a bilingual population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a dialect of the Albanian language, along with Greek.
Arvanitika (Arvanitika: αρbε̰ρίσ̈τ, arbërisht; αρβανίτικα, arvanítika), also known as Arvanitic, is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece since October 1940.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Barış Arduç (born 1987) is a Turkish television and film actor.
Bleta "Bebe" Rexha (born August 30, 1989) is an American singer, songwriter, and record producer.
File:Old books.jpg|Old Albanian Diwans of the Bejtexhi writers.
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.
Berat (Berati), historically known as Poulcheriopólis and Antipatreia, is the ninth most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The House of Bushati was a prominent Ottoman Albanian family that ruled the Pashalik of Scutari from 1757 to 1831.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church has a population in Kosovo of approximately 65,000 in a region of roughly 2 million people.
During the Axis occupation of Greece between 1941 and 1944, large parts of the Albanian minority in the Thesprotia prefecture in Epirus, northwestern Greece, known as Chams (Çamë, Τσάμηδες, Tsamides) collaborated with the occupation forces.
The Cham Albanian dialect (Çamërisht, Dialekti çam) is the dialect of the Albanian language spoken by the Cham Albanians, an ethnic Albanian minority in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece.
Cham Albanians, or Chams (Çamë, Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes), are a sub-group of Albanians who originally resided in the western part of the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece, an area known among Albanians as Chameria.
Chameria (Çamëria; Τσαμουριά Tsamouriá; Çamlık) is a term used today mostly by Albanians for parts of the coastal region of Epirus in southern Albania and the historical Greek region of Epirus, traditionally associated with an Albanian speaking population called Chams.
Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Civita (Arbërisht: Çifti) is a hilltown and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
The Culture of Albania is a term that embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Albania and Albanians.
Dalip Frashëri, also known with the pen-name Hyxhretiu (the exiled), was an Albanian Bektashi poet and religious leader of the 19th century.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Netherlands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the population, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The Despotate of Epirus (Δεσποτάτο της Ηπείρου) was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty.
Devoll (Devoll, Devolli; Eordaïcus; Eordaikos) is a river in southern Albania.
Dey (Arabic: داي, from Turkish dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli,Bertarelli (1929), p. 203.
Dritëro Agolli (13 October 1931 – 3 February 2017) was an Albanian poet, writer, politician, and former president of the Albanian League of Writers and Artists.
Dua Lipa (born 22 August 1995) is an English singer, songwriter, and model.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
The Dukagjini family (Ducagini or Ducaginus) was one of the most important feudal families in medieval Albania.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Edhem Pasha (1851–1909) was an Ottoman field marshal and leading figure in the propagation of the Ottoman military doctrine.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city and a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania.
Eliza Patricia Dushku (born December 30, 1980) is an American actress and model known for her television roles, including starring as Faith on Buffy the Vampire Slayer and its spinoff series Angel.
Emina Cunmulaj (Emina Çunmulaj;, born September 12, 1984) is an American model of Albanian ancestry.
The Encyclopedia of Yugoslavia (Enciklopedija Jugoslavije) was the national encyclopedia of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
Ernest Koliqi (1903–1975) was an Albanian writer, literary scholar, journalist, translator, teacher and politician.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The expulsion of Cham Albanians from Greece was the forced migration of thousands of Cham Albanians from parts of the Greek region of western Epirus after the Second World War to Albania, at the hands of elements of the Greek Resistance; the National Republican Greek League (EDES) (1944) and EDES veteran resistance fighters (1945).
Faïk Bey Konitza (Faik bej Konica, March 15, 1875 – December 15, 1942), born in Konitsa, was one of the greatest figures of Albanian culture in the early decades of the twentieth century.
Theofan Stilian Noli, known as Fan Noli (6 January 1882 – 13 March 1965) was an Albanian writer, scholar, diplomat, politician, historian, orator and founder of the Orthodox Church of Albania, who served as Prime Minister and regent of Albania in 1924 during the June Revolution.
Ferid Murad (born September 14, 1936) is a physician and pharmacologist, and a co-winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
The flag of Albania is a red flag with a silhouetted black double-headed eagle in the center.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
The formula e pagëzimit (baptismal formula) is the first written document in Albanian retrieved.
Frang Bardhi (Latin: Franciscus Blancus, Italian: Francesco Bianchi, 1606–1643) was an Albanian Catholic bishop and writer.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The geography of Albania is defined by its location.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gheg (or Geg; Gheg Albanian: gegnisht, Standard Albanian: gegë or gegërisht) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
The Ghegs or Gegs (Gegët) are one of two major ethnic subgroups of Albanians (the other being the Tosks) differentiated by their cultural, linguistic, social and religious characteristics.
Girolamo de Rada (Arbërisht: Jeronim de Rada; 1814–1903) was an Albanian writer of Italo-Albanian literature.
Giulio Variboba (Arbërisht: Jul Variboba; 1725 – 1788) was an Arbëresh poet that gave an important contribution to the literature in the Albanian language.
Giuseppe Schirò (Arbërisht: Zef Skiroi; Piana dei Greci, 10 August 1865 – Naples, 17 February 1927)Elsie, Albanian literature, was an Arbëreshë neo-classical poet, linguist, publicist and folklorist from Sicily.
Giuseppe Serembe (Arbërisht: Zef Serembe; 6 March 1844 – 1901) was an Arbëresh lyric poet.
Gjergj Fishta (October 23, 1871 – December 30, 1940) was an Albanian Franciscan, poet, rilindas, nationalist and a translator.
Gjon Buzuku (16th century) was an Albanian Catholic priest who wrote the first known printed book in Albanian.
Golem (Γουλάμος/Goulamos, 1250s) was an Albanian nobleman, specifically a local magnate from Arbanon, who married the daughter of sebastos Gregorios Kamonas and Komnena Nemanjić, and was thus entitled the rule of his father-in-law, as lord of Krujë and Elbasan.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greek People's Liberation Army or ELAS (Ελληνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός (ΕΛΑΣ), Ellinikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), often mistakenly called the National People's Liberation Army (Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός, Ethnikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), was the military arm of the left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance until February 1945, then during the Greek Civil War.
Gregorios Kamonas (1215) was a Greek-Albanian Lord or Prince (archon) of Krujë (Arbanon) in ca.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hamza Kastrioti (Ameses Castriota; fl.) was a 15th-century Albanian nobleman.
Hans-Peter Bartels (born 7 May 1961 in Düsseldorf) is a German politician of the SPD who served as member of the Bundestag for Kiel.
Hasan Zyko Kamberi was a distinguished bejtexhi (bard) writer of Albanian literature.
The Hellenic Statistical Authority (Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή), known by its acronym ELSTAT (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ), is the national statistical service of Greece.
The history of Albania forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of the Jews in Albania dates back about 2,000 years.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
There was substantial immigration to Switzerland from the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s and 2000s.
Imrahor Ilyas Bey (İmrahor İlyas Bey, Iljaz Bej Mirahori) was an Ottoman military commander and governor, who served sultan Bayezid II.
Independent Albania (Shqipëria e Pavarur) was a parliamentary state declared in Vlorë (then Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Albania) on 28 November 1912.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
The Islamization of Albania occurred as a result of the Ottoman conquest of Albania during the late 14th century.
Ismail Kadare (also spelled Kadaré; born 28 January 1936) is an Albanian novelist, poet, essayist and playwright.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church (Chiesa cattolica Italo-Albanese; Kisha Bizantine Arbëreshe), Italo-Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church or Italo-Albanian Church, is one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches which, together with the Latin Church, compose the Catholic Church.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
James Adam Belushi (born June 15, 1954) is an American actor, voice actor, comedian, singer and musician.
John Zenevisi or Sarbissa (Gjin Zenebishi; Giovanni Sarbissa, died 1418) was an Albanian magnate that held the estates in Epirus, such as Argyrokastro (Gjirokastër) and Vagenetia.
Jusuf Buxhovi (born 4 August 1946 in Peć, Democratic Federal Yugoslavia) is a Kosovar-Albanian author, journalist, intellectual, and political activist.
Karl Topia was an Albanian feudal prince and warlord who ruled Albania from the middle of the 14th century until the first Ottoman conquest of Albania.
Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (كپرولی محمد پاشا, Köprülü Mehmet Paşa; or Qyprilliu, also called Mehmed Pashá Rojniku; 1575, Roshnik,– 31 October 1661, Edirne) was the founder of the Köprülü political dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, a family of viziers, warriors, and statesmen who dominated the administration of the Ottoman Empire during the last half of the 17th century, an era known as the Köprülü era.
The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.
The Kingdom of Albania (Regnum Albaniae) was established by Charles of Anjou in the Albanian territories he conquered from the Byzantine Empire in 1271.
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
Davud Pasha (died 20 October 1498), also known with the epithet "Koca", was an Albanian general and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1482 to 1497 during the reign of Bayezid II.
Korçë ((Korça), other names see below) is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, and the seat of Korçë County.
Kosovare Asllani (born 29 July 1989) is a Swedish professional footballer who plays for Damallsvenskan club Linköpings FC and the Sweden national team.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo, commonly called Kosovar Albanians, Kosovan Albanians or Kosovo Albanians and simply Kosovars.
Krujë (Kruja, see also the etymology section) is a town and a municipality in north central Albania.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Llazar Sotir Gusho (27 December 1899 – 12 November 1987) was an Albanian poet and writer known by the pseudonym Lasgush Poradeci.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The League of Lezhë (Besëlidhja e Lezhës) was a military alliance of Albanian feudal lords forged in Lezhë on 2 March 1444, with Skanderbeg as leader of the regional Albanian and Serbian chieftains united against the Ottoman Empire.
This is a list of historical and living Albanians (ethnic Albanian people or people of full or partial Albanian ancestry) who are famous or notable, sorted by occupation and name.
Luca Matranga (Albanian: Lekë Matrënga; 1567–1619) was an Arbëresh writer and Catholic priest of Byzantine rite in the Albanian community of Sicily.
Luigj Gurakuqi (February 19, 1879 – March 2, 1925) (also called: Louis Gurakuchi) was an Albanian writer and politician.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Martin Camaj (1925–1992) was an Albanian linguist, writer and folklorist.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Mehmet Akif Ersoy (20 December 1873 – 27 December 1936) was an Ottoman-born Turkish poet, writer, academic, politician, and the author of the Turkish National Anthem.
Meshari (Albanian for "Missal") is the oldest published book in Albanian.
Michael Attaleiates or Attaliates (Μιχαήλ Ἀτταλειάτης) (c. 1022-1080) was a Byzantine public servant and historian active in Constantinople and around the empire's provinces in the second half of the eleventh century.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža or LZMK) is Croatia's national lexicographical institution.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moravac (Serbian: Моравац) is a locality in Serbia situated in the municipality of Aleksinac, in the Nišava District.
Muhamet Kyçyku (Çami) (9 July 1784 – 1844), born in Konispol, Ottoman Empire, is one of the most known Albanian bejtexhinjs.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.
The Music of Albania (Muzika Shqiptare) is associated with the country of Albania and Albanian communities.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Naim Frashëri (25 May 1846 – 20 October 1900) was an Albanian poet, writer and one of the most prominent patriots of the Albanian national movement for independence from the Ottoman Empire.
The National Republican Greek League or EDES (Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος (ΕΔΕΣ), Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos) was one of the major resistance groups formed during the Axis Occupation of Greece during World War II.
The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu, MGK) comprises the Chief of Staff, select members of the Council of Ministers, and the President of the Republic (who is also the Commander-in-chief).
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
Ndre Mjeda (20 November 1866 – 1 August 1937) was an Albanian priest, philologist, poet and an activist of Albanian national awakening.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nezim Frakulla (ca. 1680-1760), alternatively known as Nezim Berati or Ibrahim Nezimi, was the first major poet among the Bejtexhinj, popular poets in the Muslim tradition who wrote in Albanian but used Arabic script.
Nicola Chetta, (Arbërisht: Nikollë Keta; 1740? – 1803) was an Arbëresh writer and priest.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pal Engjëlli (Paulus Angelus; 1416 – 1470) was an Albanian Roman Catholic cardinal, clergyman, scholar, and Archbishop of Durrës who in 1462 wrote the first known sentence retrieved so far in Albanian.
Paleo-Balkan mythology includes the religious practices of the Dacians, Thracians, and Illyrians.
The Pashalik of Yanina or Janina (1788–1822) was a subdivision of the Ottoman Empire centred on the region of Epirus and had a high degree of autonomy in the early 19th century under Ali Pasha, although it was never recognized as such by the Ottoman Empire.
Pashko Vasa (1825, Shkodër, Albania, Ottoman Empire – June 29, 1892, Beirut, Lebanon, Ottoman Empire) also known as Vaso Pasha, Wasa Pasha or Vaso Pashë Shkodrani, was an Albanian writer, poet and publicist of the Albanian National Awakening, and Governor of Lebanon from 1882 until his death.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Pjetër Bogdani (c. 1630 – December 1689), known in Italian as Pietro Bogdano, is the most original writer of early literature in Albania.
Pjetër Budi (1566 – December 1622), writer of early Albanian literature, known in Italian as Pietro Budi, was an Albanian bishop of Sapë and the author of four religious works in Albanian.
The Principality of Albania (Albanian: Principata e Shqipërisë or Shteti Shqiptar) refers to the short-lived monarchy in Albania, headed by William, Prince of Albania, that lasted from the Treaty of London of 1913 which ended the First Balkan War, through the invasions of Albania during World War I and the subsequent disputes over Albanian independence during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, until 1925, when the monarchy was abolished and the Albanian Republic declared.
Principality of Albania (1368–1392) was an Albanian principality formed after the disestablishment of Kingdom of Albania, by Karl Thopia.
Arbanon (Arbër or Arbëria; Ἄρβανον, Árbanon; Arbanum) or Albanon (Ἄλβανον, Álbanon), was an autonomous principality, the first Albanian entity during the Middle Ages, initially part of the Byzantine Empire and later of the Despotate of Epirus.
Principality of Kastrioti (1389–1444) was one of the most important principalities in Medieval Albania.
The Principality of Serbia (Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817.
The Progon family (Progoni) established the first Albanian state, the Principality of Arbër, which fell under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, the Despotate of Epirus and the Kingdom of Serbia.
Progon was the first Albanian ruler known by name, an archon of the Kruja fortress (modern Krujë) and its surroundings (retrospectively known as "Arbanon").
Evangelical Protestantism is one of five officially recognized faiths in Albania.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Regis Francis Xavier Philbin (born August 25, 1931) is an American media personality, actor, and singer, known for hosting talk and game shows since the 1960s.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rexhep Qosja (born 1936 in Vusanje, Zeta Banovina, Yugoslavia) is a prominent Albanian politician and literary critic from a part of Malësia in modern Montenegro (where locally the region is known as Malesija).
Rita Sahatçiu Ora (born Rita Sahatçiu; 26 November 1990) is a British singer and actress.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sami Frashëri (Şemseddin Sami Bey; June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim.
Samuel (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian Самуил, pronounced, Old Church Slavonic) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Sejfulla Malëshova (March 2, 1900, Këlcyrë – June 9, 1971, Fier) was an Albanian politician and writer.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Empire (Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom.
Shahin Frashëri was an Albanian poet of the 19th century.
Shkodër or Shkodra, historically known as Scutari (in Italian, English and most Western European landuages) or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania.
Shkodran Mustafi (born 17 April 1992) is a German professional footballer who plays as a centre back for English club Arsenal and the German national team.
The Shkumbin (Genessus), also commonly Shkembi, is a river in Southern and Southeastern Europe.
The Sicilian Vespers (Vespri siciliani; Vespiri siciliani) is the name given to the successful rebellion on the island of Sicily that broke out at Easter, 1282 against the rule of the French-born king Charles I, who had ruled the Kingdom of Sicily since 1266.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Berat in Albania by the forces of the Angevin Kingdom of Sicily against the Byzantine garrison of the city took place in 1280–1281.
The Siege of Shkodra of 1478–79 was a confrontation between the Ottoman Empire and the Albanians and Venetians at Shkodra (Scutari in Italian) and its Rozafa Castle during the First Ottoman-Venetian War (1463–79).
George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.
Skrapar (Skrapari) is a municipality in Berat County, southern Albania.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The Slavic ethnonym (and autonym), Slavs, is reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural Slověně.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Southern Albania is one of the three NUTS-2 Regions of Albania.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spring Day is a holiday marking the coming of the spring season, which takes place in different countries, on varying dates.
State atheism, according to Oxford University Press's A Dictionary of Atheism, "is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems." In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The Stratioti or stradioti (stradioti, stradiotti, Στρατιώτες/stratiotes, Stratiotët) were mercenary units from the Balkans recruited mainly by states of southern and central Europe from the 15th century until the middle of the 18th century.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sulejman Pashë Bargjini (also known as Sulejman Pasha) was a general of the Ottoman Empire.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Highland Lute (Lahuta e Malsisë, original and Gheg Albanian: Lahuta e Malcís) is the Albanian national epic poem, complete and published by the Albanian friar and poet Gjergj Fishta in 1937.
Thesprotia (Θεσπρωτία) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
A timar was land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
The Toplica District (Toplički okrug, Топлички округ) is one of nine administrative districts of Southern and Eastern Serbia.
Tosk is the southern dialect group of the Albanian language, spoken by the ethnographic group known as Tosks.
The Tosks are one of two major ethnic subgroups of Albanians (the other being the Ghegs) differentiated by their cultural, linguistic, social and religious characteristics.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ulcinj (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Улцињ,; Albanian: Ulqin or Ulqini) is a town on the southern coast of Montenegro and the capital of Ulcinj Municipality.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an American non-partisan, independent, federal institution that provides analysis of and is involved in conflicts around the world.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xherdan Shaqiri (born 10 October 1991) is a Swiss professional footballer who plays as a winger for club Stoke City and the Swiss national team.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zaganos Pasha (Zağanos Paşa; fl. 1446 – 1462 or 1469) was an Ottoman military commander, with the titles and ranks of kapudan pasha and the highest military rank, grand vizier, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror".
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.