100 relations: Aerosol, Air mass, Angle of incidence (optics), Antarctic, Antarctica, Aqua (satellite), Arctic, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astronomical object, Astronomy, Bi-hemispherical reflectance, Bidirectional reflectance distribution function, Black body, Black carbon, Bond albedo, Carbon sequestration, Climate, Climatology, Cloud albedo, Cloud condensation nuclei, Cloud cover, Comet nucleus, Contrail, Cryoconite, Daisyworld, Deciduous, Deforestation, Diffuse reflection, Dimensionless quantity, Directional-hemispherical reflectance, Dust, Earth, Earth observation, Electrical energy, Emissivity, Enceladus, Eris (dwarf planet), Evapotranspiration, Feedback, Fresnel equations, Geometric albedo, Geophysical Research Letters, Global dimming, Global warming, Greenhouse effect, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Hapke parameters, Ice–albedo feedback, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ..., Irradiance, Johann Heinrich Lambert, Joint Polar Satellite System, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Minor planet, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Moon, NASA, National Geographic, Natural satellite, Opposition surge, Organic compound, Phase angle (astronomy), Photometria, Photometry (astronomy), Photosynthesis, Photovoltaic system, Pinophyta, Planet, Polar see-saw, Position of the Sun, Positive feedback, Radiant exitance, Radiation, Rainforest, Reflectance, Reflective surfaces (climate engineering), Refractive index, Regolith, Sahara, Season, Single-scattering albedo, Snow, Solar irradiance, Solar radiation management, Solar System, Solar zenith angle, Space weathering, Specular reflection, Subtropics, Sunlight, Suomi NPP, Temperate forest, Terminator (solar), Terra (satellite), Tropics, Visible spectrum, Waviness, Weather. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Aqua (EOS PM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the precipitation, evaporation, and cycling of water.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Bi-hemispherical reflectance is the reflectance of a surface under diffuse illumination (with no direct component).
The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF; f_(\omega_,\, \omega_)) is a function of four real variables that defines how light is reflected at an opaque surface.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter).
The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Cloud albedo is a measure of the albedo of a cloud.
Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.
'Cloud cover' (also known as 'cloudiness', 'cloudage', or 'cloud amount') refers to the fraction of the sky obscured by clouds when observed from a particular location.
The nucleus is the solid, central part of a comet, popularly termed a dirty snowball or an icy dirtball.
Contrails (short for "condensation trails") are line-shaped clouds produced by aircraft engine exhaust or changes in air pressure, typically at aircraft cruise altitudes several miles above the Earth's surface.
Cryoconite is powdery windblown dust made of a combination of small rock particles, soot and microbes which is deposited and builds up on snow, glaciers, or ice caps.
Daisyworld, a computer simulation, is a hypothetical world orbiting a star whose radiant energy is slowly increasing or decreasing.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
Directional-hemispherical reflectance is the reflectance of a surface under direct illumination (with no diffuse component).
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth observation (EO) is the gathering of information about the physical, chemical, and biological systems of the planet via remote-sensing technologies, supplemented by Earth-surveying techniques, which encompasses the collection, analysis, and presentation of data.
Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.
The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel coefficients) describe the reflection and transmission of light (or electromagnetic radiation in general) when incident on an interface between different optical media.
In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
The Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change — named in honour of George Hadley — is one of the United Kingdom's leading centres for the study of scientific issues associated with climate change.
The Hapke parameters are a set of parameters for an empirical model that is commonly used to describe the directional reflectance properties of the airless regolith surfaces of bodies in the solar system.
Ice–albedo feedback is a positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of ice caps, glaciers, and sea ice alters the albedo.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the latest generation of U.S. polar-orbiting, non-geosynchronous, environmental satellites.
In heat transfer, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation refers to wavelength-specific radiative emission and absorption by a material body in thermodynamic equilibrium, including radiative exchange equilibrium.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a payload scientific instrument built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
The opposition surge (sometimes known as the opposition effect, opposition spike or Seeliger effect) is the brightening of a rough surface, or an object with many particles, when illuminated from directly behind the observer.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Phase angle in astronomical observations is the angle between the light incident onto an observed object and the light reflected from the object.
Photometria is a book on the measurement of light by Johann Heinrich Lambert published in 1760.
Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
The polar see-saw (also: Bipolar seesaw) is the phenomenon that temperature changes in the northern and southern hemispheres may be out of phase.
The position of the Sun in the sky is a function of both the time and the geographic location of observation on Earth's surface.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
In radiometry, radiant exitance or radiant emittance is the radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area, whereas spectral exitance or spectral emittance is the radiant exitance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
Reflective surfaces are surfaces that can deliver high solar reflectance (the ability to reflect the visible, infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths of the sun, reducing heat transfer to the surface) and high thermal emittance (the ability to radiate absorbed, or non-reflected solar energy).
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
Single-scattering albedo is the ratio of scattering efficiency to total extinction efficiency (which is also termed "attenuance", a sum of scattering and absorption).
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
Solar radiation management (SRM) projects are a type of climate engineering which seek to reflect sunlight and thus reduce global warming.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar zenith angle is the angle between the zenith and the centre of the Sun's disc.
Space weathering is the type of weathering that occurs to any object exposed to the harsh environment of outer space.
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP, previously known as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) and NPP-Bridge, is a weather satellite operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Temperate forests correspond to forest concentration formed in the northern and southern hemisphere, or in temperate regions.
A terminator or twilight zone is a moving line that divides the daylit side and the dark night side of a planetary body.
Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in a Sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Waviness is the measurement of the more widely spaced component of surface texture.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.