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Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). [1]

429 relations: Aarau, Abba Eban, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Absent-minded professor, Absorption refrigerator, Action-angle coordinates, Adiabatic invariant, Adolf Hitler, Aether theories, African Americans, Afterlife, Agnosticism, Albert Einstein Archives, Albert Einstein House, Albert Einstein's brain, Alexis de Tocqueville, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alfred Einstein, Alfred Kleiner, Alfred Nobel, Allies of World War II, Alternating current, American Physical Society, Annalen der Physik, Annus mirabilis, Annus Mirabilis papers, Antwerp, Arnold Sommerfeld, Arthur Eddington, Ashkenazi Jews, Astrophysics, Atom, Atomic theory, Austen Chamberlain, Austria, Austria-Hungary, İsmet İnönü, Baer–Babinet law, Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science, BBC, BBC News, Bell test experiments, Bell's theorem, Bern, Bern Historical Museum, Bertrand Russell, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Black body, Black hole, Black-body radiation, ..., Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Branded Entertainment Network, Brandeis University, Brownian motion, Bruria Kaufman, Calculus, California Institute of Technology, Canton of Aargau, Capillary action, Carl Laemmle, Carl Wieman, Catholic school, Chaim Weizmann, Chain reaction, Chamber music, Charles University, Charlie Chaplin, Chinatown, Manhattan, Christ Church, Oxford, City Lights, Civil rights movement (1896–1954), Classical electromagnetism, Classical mechanics, Classical unified field theories, Columbia University, Compton scattering, Conscription in Germany, Conscription in Switzerland, Continuum mechanics, Copenhagen interpretation, Copley Medal, Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, Cosmological constant, Cremation, Critique of Pure Reason, Culture of Germany, Curvature, Daniel Q. 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Aarau

Aarau (locally) is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the northern Swiss canton of Aargau.

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Abba Eban

Abba Eban (אבא אבן; born Aubrey Solomon Meir Eban; later adopted Abba Solomon Meir Eban; 2 February 1915 – 17 November 2002) was an Israeli diplomat and politician, and a scholar of the Arabic and Hebrew languages.

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Abdominal aortic aneurysm

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA or triple A) is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta such that the diameter is greater than 3 cm or more than 50% larger than normal diameter.

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Absent-minded professor

The absent-minded professor is a stock character of popular fiction, usually portrayed as a talented academic whose academic brilliance is accompanied by below-par functioning in other areas, leading to forgetfulness and mistakes.

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Absorption refrigerator

An absorption refrigerator is a refrigerator that uses a heat source (e.g., solar energy, a fossil-fueled flame, waste heat from factories, or district heating systems) to provide the energy needed to drive the cooling process.

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Action-angle coordinates

In classical mechanics, action-angle coordinates are a set of canonical coordinates useful in solving many integrable systems.

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Adiabatic invariant

A property of a physical system, such as the entropy of a gas, that stays approximately constant when changes occur slowly is called an adiabatic invariant.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Aether theories

Aether theories (also known as ether theories) in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθήρ), meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air"" ", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Afterlife

Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Albert Einstein Archives

Albert Einstein Archives refers to an archive on the Givat Ram (Edmond J. Safra) campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Jerusalem, Israel housing the personal papers of 20th century physicist Albert Einstein.

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Albert Einstein House

The Albert Einstein House at 112 Mercer Street in Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States was the home of Albert Einstein from 1935 until his death in 1955.

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Albert Einstein's brain

The brain of physicist Albert Einstein has been a subject of much research and speculation.

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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.

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Alfonso XIII of Spain

Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.

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Alfred Einstein

Alfred Einstein (December 30, 1880February 13, 1952) was a German-American musicologist and music editor.

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Alfred Kleiner

Alfred Kleiner (April 24, 1849 – July 3, 1916) was a Swiss physicist and Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Zurich.

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Alfred Nobel

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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American Physical Society

The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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Annus mirabilis

Annus mirabilis (pl. anni mirabiles) is a Latin phrase that means "wonderful year", "miraculous year" or "amazing year".

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Annus Mirabilis papers

The Annus mirabilis papers (from Latin annus mīrābilis, "extraordinary year") are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905.

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Arnold Sommerfeld

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.

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Arthur Eddington

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Astrophysics

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic theory

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

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Austen Chamberlain

Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Neville Chamberlain.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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İsmet İnönü

Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.

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Baer–Babinet law

The Baer–Babinet law (also known as the law of Baer) is a concept in geography which states that the process of formation of rivers is influenced by the rotation of the earth.

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Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science

The Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science was established in 1889 by the will of Columbia University president Frederick A. P. Barnard, and has been awarded by Columbia University, based on recommendations by the National Academy of Science, every 5 years since 1895.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bell test experiments

A Bell test experiment or Bell's inequality experiment, also simply a Bell test, is a real-world physics experiment designed to test the theory of quantum mechanics in relation to two other concepts: the principle of locality and Einstein's concept of "local realism".

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Bell's theorem

Bell's theorem is a "no-go theorem" that draws an important distinction between quantum mechanics and the world as described by classical mechanics.

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Bern

Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".

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Bern Historical Museum

The Bern Historical Museum (Bernisches Historisches Museum, Musée d’Histoire de Berne) is the second largest historical museum in Switzerland.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society

The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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Branded Entertainment Network

Branded Entertainment Network (BEN) is a Los Angeles-based advertising and licensing agency.

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Brandeis University

Brandeis University is an American private research university in Waltham, Massachusetts, 9 miles (14 km) west of Boston.

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Brownian motion

Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.

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Bruria Kaufman

Bruria Kaufman (August 21, 1918 – January 7, 2010) was an Israeli theoretical physicist.

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Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Canton of Aargau

The canton of Aargau (German: Kanton; sometimes anglicized Argovia; see also other names) is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland.

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Capillary action

Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

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Carl Laemmle

Carl Laemmle (born Karl Lämmle; January 17, 1867 – September 24, 1939) was an American filmmaker and a founder of Universal Studios.

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Carl Wieman

Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University.

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Catholic school

Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Chaim Weizmann

Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.

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Chain reaction

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.

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Chamber music

Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.

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Charles University

Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).

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Charlie Chaplin

Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.

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Chinatown, Manhattan

Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, and Tribeca to its west.

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Christ Church, Oxford

Christ Church (Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ædēs, of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.

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City Lights

City Lights is a 1931 American pre-Code silent romantic comedy film written, produced, directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin.

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Civil rights movement (1896–1954)

The African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954) was a long, primarily nonviolent series of events to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans.

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Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Classical unified field theories

Since the 19th century, some physicists, notably Albert Einstein, have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for all the fundamental forces of nature – a unified field theory.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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Conscription in Germany

Germany had conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens between 1956 and 2011.

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Conscription in Switzerland

Switzerland has mandatory military service (Militärdienst; service militaire; servizio militare) in the Swiss Army for all able-bodied male citizens, who are conscripted when they reach the age of majority, though women may volunteer for any position.

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Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.

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Copenhagen interpretation

The Copenhagen interpretation is an expression of the meaning of quantum mechanics that was largely devised in the years 1925 to 1927 by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.

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Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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Cormac O'Raifeartaigh

Cormac O’Raifeartaigh (Cormac O’Rafferty) is an Irish physicist based at Waterford Institute of Technology in Ireland.

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Cosmological constant

In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.

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Cremation

Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.

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Critique of Pure Reason

The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.

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Culture of Germany

German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world.

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Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

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Daniel Q. Posin

Daniel Q. Posin (1909–2003) was an American physicist.

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David Ben-Gurion

David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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Democracy in America

De La Démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville.

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Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft

The Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG, "German Physical Society") is the world's largest organization of physicists.

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Differential calculus

In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Edward Teller

Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.

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Edwin Hubble

Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer.

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Einstein family

Einstein (English /'ain-stain/, German /'ain-ʃtain/): 1.

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Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

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Einstein notation

In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity.

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Einstein refrigerator

The Einstein–Szilard or Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator which has no moving parts, operates at constant pressure, and requires only a heat source to operate.

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Einstein's static universe

Einstein's static universe, also known the Einstein universe or the Einstein world, is a relativistic model of the universe proposed by Albert Einstein in 1917.

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Einstein's thought experiments

A hallmark of Albert Einstein's career was his use of visualized thought experiments (Gedankenexperiment) as a fundamental tool for understanding physical issues and for elucidating his concepts to others.

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Einstein–de Sitter universe

The Einstein–de Sitter universe is a model of the universe proposed by Albert Einstein and Willem de Sitter in 1932.

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Einstein–Szilárd letter

The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.

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Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

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Electrolux

Electrolux AB (commonly known as Electrolux) is a Swedish multinational home appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Stockholm.

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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Elsa Einstein

Elsa Einstein (18 January 1876 – 20 December 1936) was the second wife and cousin of Albert Einstein.

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Ensemble interpretation

The ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics considers the quantum state description to apply only to an ensemble of similarly prepared systems, rather than supposing that it exhaustively represents an individual physical system.

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EPR paradox

The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox or the EPR paradox of 1935 is a thought experiment in quantum mechanics with which Albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) claimed to demonstrate that the wave function does not provide a complete description of physical reality, and hence that the Copenhagen interpretation is unsatisfactory; resolutions of the paradox have important implications for the interpretation of quantum mechanics.

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Equivalence principle

In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

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Eric Allin Cornell

Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.

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Eric Drummond, 7th Earl of Perth

James Eric Drummond, 7th Earl of Perth (17 August 1876 – 15 December 1951) was a British politician and diplomat as well as the first Secretary-General of the League of Nations (LN) (1920–1933).

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Ernst G. Straus

Ernst Gabor Straus (February 25, 1922 – July 12, 1983) was a German-American mathematician of Jewish origin who helped found the theories of Euclidean Ramsey theory and of the arithmetic properties of analytic functions.

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Ernst Mach

Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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ETH Zurich

ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.

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Ethical movement

The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement, Ethical Humanism or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical, educational, and religious movement that is usually traced back to Felix Adler (1851–1933).

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Eugene Wigner

Eugene Paul "E.

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Evgeny Lifshitz

Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz (Евге́ний Миха́йлович Ли́фшиц; February 21, 1915, Kharkov, Russian Empire – October 29, 1985, Moscow, Russian SFSR) was a leading Soviet physicist and the brother of physicist Ilya Mikhailovich Lifshitz.

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Ezriel Carlebach

Ezriel Carlebach (also Azriel; born Esriel Gotthelf Carlebach, עזריאל קרליבך, עזריאל קארלעבאך; November 7, 1909 – February 12, 1956) was a leading journalist and editorial writer during the period of Jewish settlement in Palestine and during the early days of the state of Israel.

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False attribution

False attribution can refer to.

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Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Farrar, Straus and Giroux (FSG) is an American book publishing company, founded in 1946 by Roger W. Straus, Jr. and John C. Farrar.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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First Humanist Society of New York

In 1929 Charles Francis Potter founded the First Humanist Society of New York whose advisory board included Julian Huxley, John Dewey, Albert Einstein, and Thomas Mann.

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First observation of gravitational waves

The first observation of gravitational waves was made on 14 September 2015 and was announced by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations on 11 February 2016.

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Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell

Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, (5 April 18863 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill.

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Free fall

In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it.

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Free State of Prussia

The Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) was a German state formed after the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of the First World War.

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Friedmann–Einstein universe

The Friedmann–Einstein universe is a model of the universe published by Albert Einstein in 1931.

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Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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General covariance

In theoretical physics, general covariance, also known as diffeomorphism covariance or general invariance, consists of the invariance of the form of physical laws under arbitrary differentiable coordinate transformations.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Geneva

Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Genius

A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge.

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Genius (U.S. TV series)

Genius is an American anthology period drama television series developed by Noah Pink and Kenneth Biller that premiered on April 25, 2017 on National Geographic.

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Geodesic

In differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".

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George Mason University

George Mason University (GMU, Mason, or George Mason) is a public research university in Fairfax County, Virginia.

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Gerald Holton

Gerald Holton is an American physicist, historian of science, and educator, whose professional interests also include philosophy of science and the fostering of careers of young men and women.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German nationality law

German nationality law is the law governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of German citizenship.

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German nuclear weapon project

The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.

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German Student Union

The German Student Union (Deutsche Studentenschaft, abbreviated DSt) from 1919 until 1945, was the merger of the general student committees of all German universities, including Danzig, Austria and the former German universities in Czechoslovakia.

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Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

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Giuseppe Motta

Giuseppe Motta (29 December 1871 – 23 January 1940) was a Swiss politician.

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Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society

The Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is the highest award given by the RAS.

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Gonzague de Reynold

Gonzague de Reynold (1880–1970) was a Swiss writer, historian, and right-wing political activist.

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Gravitational lens

A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.

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Gravitational redshift

In astrophysics, gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential.

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Gravitational time dilation

Gravitational time dilation is a form of time dilation, an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers situated at varying distances from a gravitating mass.

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Gravitational wave

Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Hamilton–Jacobi equation

In mathematics, the Hamilton–Jacobi equation (HJE) is a necessary condition describing extremal geometry in generalizations of problems from the calculus of variations, and is a special case of the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation.

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Hans Albert Einstein

Hans Albert Einstein (May 14, 1904 – July 26, 1973) was a Swiss-American engineer and educator, the second child and first son of Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić.

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Hanukkah

Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.

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Harry Emerson Fosdick

Harry Emerson Fosdick (May 24, 1878 – October 5, 1969) was an American pastor.

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Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.

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Heinrich Burkhardt

Heinrich Friedrich Karl Ludwig Burkhardt (15 October 1861 – 2 November 1914) was a German mathematician.

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Heinrich Friedrich Weber

Heinrich Friedrich Weber (7 November 1843 – 24 May 1912) was a physicist born in the town of Magdala, near Weimar.

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Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.

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Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

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Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel

Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel, (6 November 1870 – 5 February 1963) was a British Liberal politician who was the party leader from 1931 to 1935.

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Hermann Minkowski

Hermann Minkowski (22 June 1864 – 12 January 1909) was a German mathematician and professor at Königsberg, Zürich and Göttingen.

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Historically black colleges and universities

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community.

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History News Network

History News Network (HNN) at George Washington University is a platform for historians writing about current events.

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History of gravitational theory

In physics, theories of gravitation postulate mechanisms of interaction governing the movements of bodies with mass.

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Hitler Youth

The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.

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Hole argument

In general relativity, the hole argument is an apparent paradox that much troubled Albert Einstein while developing his famous field equation.

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Hulse–Taylor binary

PSR B1913+16 (also known as PSR J1915+1606, PSR 1913+16, and the Hulse–Taylor binary after its discoverers) is a pulsar (a radiating neutron star) which together with another neutron star is in orbit around a common center of mass, thus forming a binary star system.

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Human intelligence

Human intelligence is the intellectual prowess of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness.

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Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.

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Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Institute for Advanced Study

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.

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Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

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Internal bleeding

Internal bleeding (also called internal hemorrhage) is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space.

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International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation

The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (sometimes League of Nations Committee on Intellectual Cooperation) was an advisory organization for the League of Nations which aimed to promote international exchange between scientists, researchers, teachers, artists and intellectuals.

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Interpretations of quantum mechanics

An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how concepts in quantum mechanics correspond to reality.

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Introduction to quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small.

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Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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János Plesch

János Plesch (1878 - 1957) was a Jewish-Hungarian academic pathologist, physiologist, and physician who lived in Berlin for much of his early working life.

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Jewish quota

A Jewish quota was a racial quota limiting the number of Jews in various establishments to a certain percentage.

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JILA

JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.

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Jimmy Walker

James John Walker (June 19, 1881November 18, 1946), often known as Jimmy Walker and colloquially as Beau James, was mayor of New York City from 1926 to 1932.

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John Francis Hylan

John Francis Hylan (April 20, 1868January 12, 1936), was the 96th Mayor of New York City (the seventh since the consolidation of the five boroughs), from 1918 to 1925.

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John Stewart Bell

John Stewart Bell FRS (28 June 1928 – 1 October 1990) was a Northern Irish physicist, and the originator of Bell's theorem, an important theorem in quantum physics regarding hidden variable theories.

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John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Joseph Goebbels

Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.

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Juilliard String Quartet

The Juilliard String Quartet is a classical music string quartet founded in 1946 at the Juilliard School in New York by William Schuman.

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Kaiser Wilhelm Society

The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.

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Köchel catalogue

The Köchel-Verzeichnis or Köchelverzeichnis is a chronological catalogue of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, originally created by Ludwig von Köchel, in which the entries are abbreviated K. and KV.

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King's College London

King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Kingdom of Württemberg

The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg.

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Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

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Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

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Langston Hughes

James Mercer Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist from Joplin, Missouri.

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Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Leiden University

Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.

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Length contraction

Length contraction is the phenomenon that a moving object's length is measured to be shorter than its proper length, which is the length as measured in the object's own rest frame.

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Leo Szilard

Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.

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Leon Botstein

Leon Botstein (born December 14, 1946 in Zürich, Switzerland) is a Jewish-American conductor and scholar, and the President of Bard College.

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Leopold Infeld

Leopold Infeld (20 August 1898 – 15 January 1968) was a Polish physicist who worked mainly in Poland and Canada (1938–1950).

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Lev Landau

Lev Davidovich Landau (22 January 1908 - April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.

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LIGO

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool.

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Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)

Lincoln University (LU) is the United States' first degree-granting historically black university.

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Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.

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List of coupled cousins

This is a list of prominent individuals who have been romantically or maritally coupled with a cousin.

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1921

This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1921.

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List of German inventors and discoverers

---- This is a list of German inventors and discoverers.

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List of Jewish Nobel laureates

As of 2017, Nobel PrizesThe Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.

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List of peace activists

This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.

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List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (1879–1955) was a renowned theoretical physicist of the 20th century, best known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity.

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List of things named after Albert Einstein

This is a list of things named after Albert Einstein.

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Lorentz covariance

In relativistic physics, Lorentz symmetry, named for Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame.

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Louis de Broglie

Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duke de Broglie (or; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Luitpold Gymnasium

The Luitpold-Gymnasium is a secondary school in Munich, Germany.

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Luminiferous aether

In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.

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Mach's principle

In theoretical physics, particularly in discussions of gravitation theories, Mach's principle (or Mach's conjecture) is the name given by Einstein to an imprecise hypothesis often credited to the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach.

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Mad scientist

Mad scientist (also mad doctor or mad professor) is a caricature of a scientist who is described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, taboo or hubristic nature of their experiments.

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Madison Square Garden

Madison Square Garden, often called "MSG" or simply "The Garden", is a multi-purpose indoor arena in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Mandatory Palestine

Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Marcel Grossmann

Marcel Grossmann (Grossmann Marcell, April 9, 1878 – September 7, 1936) was a mathematician and a friend and classmate of Albert Einstein.

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Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.

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Mario Livio

Mario Livio (born 1945 in Bucharest) is an Israeli-American astrophysicist and an author of works that popularize science and mathematics.

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Martin Gilbert

Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, University of Oxford.

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Marxists Internet Archive

Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).

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Maser

A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Mass–energy equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Matter wave

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.

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Matteucci Medal

The Matteucci Medal is an Italian award for physicists, named after Carlo Matteucci.

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Matura

Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.

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Maurice Solovine

Maurice Solovine (21 May 1875 in Iași – 13 February 1958 in Paris) was a Romanian philosopher and mathematician.

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Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Max Planck Medal

The Max Planck medal is the highest award of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, the world's largest organization of physicists, for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics.

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Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Meander

A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.

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Meritocracy

Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.

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Metropolitan Opera

The Metropolitan Opera is an opera company based in New York City, resident at the Metropolitan Opera House at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.

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Michele Besso

Michele Angelo Besso (Riesbach, 25 May 1873 – Geneva, 15 March 1955) was a Swiss/Italian engineer.

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Mileva Marić

Mileva Marić (Serbian Cyrillic: Милева Марић; December 19, 1875 – August 4, 1948), sometimes called Mileva Marić-Einstein or Mileva Marić-Ajnštajn, was a Serbian mathematician.

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Mittelschule

Mittelschule is a German term literally translating to "Middle School" (i.e. a level "intermediate" between elementary and higher education).

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Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Monarchy of Belgium

The monarchy of Belgium is a constitutional, hereditary, and popular monarchy whose incumbent is titled the King or Queen of the Belgians (Koning(in) der Belgen, Roi / Reine des Belges, König(in) der Belgier) and serves as the country's head of state.

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Munich

Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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NAACP

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.

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Nathan Rosen

Nathan Rosen (Hebrew: נתן רוזן; March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was an American-Israeli physicist noted for his study on the structure of the hydrogen atom and his work with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Nazi book burnings

The Nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the German Student Union (the "DSt") to ceremonially burn books in Nazi Germany and Austria in the 1930s.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neuroscience

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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New Humanist

New Humanist is a quarterly magazine, published by the Rationalist Association in the UK, that focuses on culture, news, philosophy, and science from a sceptical perspective.

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Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Noether's theorem

Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.

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Novi Sad

Novi Sad (Нови Сад,; Újvidék; Nový Sad; see below for other names) is the second largest city of Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative center of the South Bačka District.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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Office of Scientific and Technical Information

The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is a component of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

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Oliver Locker-Lampson

Commander Oliver Stillingfleet Locker-Lampson, CMG, DSO (25 September 1880 (Belgravia, London) – 8 October 1954 (Kensington, London)) was a British politician and naval officer.

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Olsberg, Aargau

Olsberg (Swiss German: Olschprg) is a municipality in the district of Rheinfelden in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.

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Olympia Academy

The Olympia Academy (German: Akademie Olympia) was a group of friends in Bern, Switzerland, who met—usually at Albert Einstein's apartment—in order to discuss philosophy and physics.

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Oskar Halecki

Oskar Halecki (26 May 1891, Vienna – 17 September 1973, White Plains, New York) was a Polish historian, social and Catholic activist.

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Otto Stern

Otto Stern (17 February 1888 – 17 August 1969) was a German American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.

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Pacifism

Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.

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Pantheism

Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.

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Patent application

A patent application is a request pending at a patent office for the grant of a patent for the invention described and claimed by that application.

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Patent examiner

A patent examiner (or, historically, a patent clerk) is an employee, usually a civil servant with a scientific or engineering background, working at a patent office.

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Paul Ehrenfest

Paul Ehrenfest (18 January 1880 – 25 September 1933) was an Austrian and Dutch theoretical physicist, who made major contributions to the field of statistical mechanics and its relations with quantum mechanics, including the theory of phase transition and the Ehrenfest theorem.

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Pavia

Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Personal god

A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".

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Peter Bergmann

Peter Gabriel Bergmann (Berlin, 24 March 1915 – Seattle, 19 October 2002) was a German-American physicist of Jewish origins best known for his work with Albert Einstein on a unified field theory encompassing all physical interactions.

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Peter Debye

Peter Joseph William Debye (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physics World

Physics World is the membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Planck–Einstein relation

The Planck–Einstein relationFrench & Taylor (1978), pp.

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Plumbing

Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.

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Point particle

A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.

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Political views of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was widely known during his lifetime for his work with the theory of relativity and physics in general.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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President of Israel

The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.

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Principle of locality

In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings.

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Principle of relativity

In physics, the principle of relativity is the requirement that the equations describing the laws of physics have the same form in all admissible frames of reference.

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Privatdozent

Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi) a designated subject at university level.

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Pro forma

The term pro forma (Latin for "as a matter of form" or "for the sake of form") is most often used to describe a practice or document that is provided as a courtesy or satisfies minimum requirements, conforms to a norm or doctrine, tends to be performed perfunctorily or is considered a formality.

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Prussian Academy of Sciences

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.

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Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

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Quantization (physics)

In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.

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Quantum

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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Quantum chaos

Quantum chaos is a branch of physics which studies how chaotic classical dynamical systems can be described in terms of quantum theory.

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Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

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Quantum information

In physics and computer science, quantum information is information that is held in the state of a quantum system.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quotation

A quotation is the repetition of one expression as part of another one, particularly when the quoted expression is well-known or explicitly attributed by citation to its original source, and it is indicated by (punctuated with) quotation marks.

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Rationalist Association

The Rationalist Association, originally the Rationalist Press Association, is an organisation in the United Kingdom, founded in 1885 by a group of free thinkers who were unhappy with the increasingly political and decreasingly intellectual tenor of the British secularist movement.

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Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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Relativity priority dispute

Albert Einstein presented the theories of special relativity and general relativity in publications that either contained no formal references to previous literature, or referred only to a small number of his predecessors for fundamental results on which he based his theories, most notably to the work of Hendrik Lorentz for special relativity, and to the work of Carl F. Gauss, Bernhard Riemann, and Ernst Mach for general relativity.

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Religious and philosophical views of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein's religious views have been widely studied and often misunderstood.

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Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane

Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, (30 July 1856 – 19 August 1928) was an influential Scottish Liberal and later Labour imperialist politician, lawyer and philosopher.

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Riverside Church

Riverside Church is a Christian church in Morningside Heights, Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Robert Andrews Millikan

Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

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Rote learning

Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.

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Roy Kerr

Roy Patrick Kerr (born 16 May 1934) is a New Zealand mathematician who discovered the Kerr geometry, an exact solution to the Einstein field equation of general relativity.

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Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rudolph Nissen

Rudolph Nissen (sometimes spelled Rudolf Nissen) (September 5, 1896 – January 22, 1981) was a surgeon who chaired surgery departments in Turkey, the United States and Switzerland.

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Russell–Einstein Manifesto

The Russell–Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on 9 July 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War.

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Russi Mody

Rustomji Homusji Mody, known to most as Russi Mody (17 January 1918 – 16 May 2014) was a chairman and managing director of Tata Steel and a leading member of the Tata Group.

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Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.

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Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.

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Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Schwarzschild metric

In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric (also known as the Schwarzschild vacuum or Schwarzschild solution) is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Second quantization

Second quantization, also referred to as occupation number representation, is a formalism used to describe and analyze quantum many-body systems.

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Secular humanism

Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.

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Serbs

The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Socialism

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919

A total solar eclipse occurred on May 29, 1919.

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Space

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

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Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spinozism

Spinozism (also spelled Spinoza-ism or Spinozaism) is the monist philosophical system of Baruch Spinoza which defines "God" as a singular self-subsistent substance, with both matter and thought being attributes of such.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Statelessness

In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".

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Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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Statistical physics

Statistical physics is a branch of physics that uses methods of probability theory and statistics, and particularly the mathematical tools for dealing with large populations and approximations, in solving physical problems.

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Steady State theory

In cosmology, the Steady State theory is an alternative to the Big Bang model of the evolution of our universe.

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Stephen Samuel Wise

Stephen Samuel Wise (1874–1949) was an early 20th-century American, Progressive Era, Reform rabbi, and Zionist leader.

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Sticky bead argument

In general relativity, the sticky bead argument is a simple thought experiment designed to show that gravitational radiation is indeed predicted by general relativity, and can have physical effects.

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Stimulated emission

Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property

The Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property (French: Institut fédéral de la propriété intellectuelle, IPI; German: Eidgenössisches Institut für Geistiges Eigentum, IGE; Italian: Istituto federale della proprietà intellettuale), based in Bern, is an agency of the federal administration of Switzerland responsible for patents, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs and copyright.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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The Einstein Theory of Relativity

The Einstein Theory of Relativity (1923) is a silent short film directed by Dave Fleischer and released by Fleischer Studios.

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The Evolution of Physics

The Evolution of Physics: The Growth of Ideas from Early Concepts to Relativity and Quanta is a science book for the lay reader, by Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld, tracing the development of ideas in physics.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Journal of Ecclesiastical History

The Journal of Ecclesiastical History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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TheGuardian.com

TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.

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Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Thomas Stoltz Harvey

Thomas Stoltz Harvey (October 10, 1912 – April 5, 2007) was a pathologist who conducted the autopsy on Albert Einstein in 1955.

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Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century

Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.

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Time dilation

According to the theory of relativity, time dilation is a difference in the elapsed time measured by two observers, either due to a velocity difference relative to each other, or by being differently situated relative to a gravitational field.

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Tokyo Imperial Palace

The is the primary residence of the Emperor of Japan.

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Torsion spring

A torsion spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting; that is, a flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted.

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Torsion tensor

In differential geometry, the notion of torsion is a manner of characterizing a twist or screw of a moving frame around a curve.

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Translational symmetry

In geometry, a translation "slides" a thing by a: Ta(p).

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Ulm

Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.

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Ultracold atom

Ultracold atoms are atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 kelvin (absolute zero), typically below temperatures of some tenths of microkelvins (µK).

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Unified field theory

In physics, a unified field theory (UFT) is a type of field theory that allows all that is usually thought of as fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a pair of physical and virtual fields.

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Universal Pictures

Universal Pictures (also known as Universal Studios) is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal.

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University Medical Center of Princeton at Plainsboro

Penn Medicine Princeton Medical Center, formerly known as the University Medical Center of Princeton at Plainsboro, is a hospital located in Plainsboro, Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, having previously been located in Princeton on Witherspoon Street, until May 22, 2012.

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University of Bern

The University of Bern (Universität Bern, Université de Berne, Universitas Bernensis) is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834.

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University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Zurich

The University of Zurich (UZH, Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students.

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Upton Sinclair

Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an American writer who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in several genres.

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Violin

The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.

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Violin sonata

A violin sonata is a musical composition for violin accompanied by a keyboard instrument and in earlier periods with a bass instrument doubling the keyboard bass line.

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W. E. B. Du Bois

William Edward Burghardt "W.

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Walter Isaacson

Walter Isaacson (born May 20, 1952)Millie Ball, The Times-Picayune, December 11, 2011.

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Walther Nernst

Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Wave

In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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Why Socialism?

"Why Socialism?" HTML version available at the Monthly Review website: is an article written by Albert Einstein in May 1949 that appeared in the first issue of the socialist journal Monthly Review.

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Wien's displacement law

Wien's displacement law states that the black body radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature.

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Wilhelm Wien

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (13 January 1864 – 30 August 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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World Digital Library

The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.

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World government

World government or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World Zionist Organization

The World Zionist Organization (הַהִסְתַּדְּרוּת הַצִּיּוֹנִית הָעוֹלָמִית; HaHistadrut HaTzionit Ha'Olamit), or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization (ZO; 1897–1960) at the initiative of Theodor Herzl at the First World Zionist Congress, which took place in August 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.

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Wormhole

A wormhole is a concept that represents a solution of the Einstein field equations: a non-trivial resolution of the Ehrenfest paradox structure linking separate points in spacetime.

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Zürich

Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.

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Zeitschrift für Physik

Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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Zoellner Quartet

The Zoellner Quartet was a string quartet active during the first quarter of the 20th century.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein

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