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Index Alborz

The Alborz (البرز), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. [1]

90 relations: Aladagh Mountains, Alam-Kuh, Alamut, Almond, Alpine orogeny, Amol, Arabian Plate, Avesta, Azerbaijan, Beech, Bezoar ibex, Blanford's fox, Buzzard, Carboniferous, Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests, Caspian Sea, Caspian tiger, Caucasus Mountains, Cenozoic, Darband, Tehran, Devonian, Dizin, Eagle, Elburz Range forest steppe, Eocene, Eurasian Plate, Ferdowsi, Goose, Gorgan, Granite, Greater Khorasan, Griffon vulture, Hara Berezaiti, Ilm-e-Khshnoom, Indian wolf, Iran, Iranian Plate, Iranian Plateau, Jebal Barez, Juniper, Jurassic, Kerman, Late Cretaceous, Lava, Limestone, List of Iranian four-thousanders, List of mountains in Iran, Maple, Mazandaran Province, Mesozoic, ..., Milad Tower, Miocene, Mount Damavand, Mount Elbrus, Mountain range, Oak, Oligocene, Ovan Lake, Paleogene, Paleozoic, Permian, Persian fallow deer, Persian leopard, Peshotanu, Pistachio, Pliocene, Precambrian, Proto-Iranian language, Rüppell's fox, Red fox, Sandstone, Sefīd-Rūd, Shahnameh, Shale, Shemshak (ski resort), Ski resort, Strait of Hormuz, Syrian brown bear, Talysh Mountains, Tangeh Savashi, Tehran, Tertiary, Tethys Ocean, Tochal, Triassic, Tuff, Volcanism, Wild boar, Woodpecker, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (40 more) »

Aladagh Mountains

The Aladagh Mountains or the Aladagh Range refers to a mountain range situated in the southeastern section of North Khorasan Province in the northeastern part of Iran southeast of the Caspian Sea.

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ʿAlam-Kūh (علم کوه; also: Alam Kooh) – Mount Alam – is a mountain in Alborz mountain range in north of Iran, Mazandaran Province, forming a peak of Takht-e Suleyman Massif.

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The Alamut geographic region (الموت; Alamūt) is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north.

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The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.

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Alpine orogeny

The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.

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Amol (آمل –;; also Romanized as Āmol and Amul) is a city and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

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Arabian Plate

The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.

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The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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No description.

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Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.

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Bezoar ibex

The bezoar ibex (Capra aegagrus aegagrus), also known as the Anatolian bezoar ibex, Persian ibex or dağ keçisi by Anatolian locals, is a vulnerable subspecies of wild goat native to Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Iran, Russia and Turkey.

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Blanford's fox

Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana), is a small fox found in certain regions of the Middle East and Central Asia.

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Buzzard is the common name of several species of bird of prey.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests

The Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests ecoregion, in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, is an area of lush lowland and montane forests covering about near the southern shores of the Caspian Sea of Iran and Azerbaijan.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Caspian tiger

The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.

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Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.

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The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.

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Darband, Tehran

Darband (دربند), formerly a village close to Tajrish, Shemiran, is a neighborhood inside Tehran's metropolitan limits.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Dizin (دیزین) is the largest Iranian ski resorts.

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Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.

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Elburz Range forest steppe

The Elburz Range forest steppe ecoregion is an arid, mountainous 1,000-kilometer arc south of the Caspian Sea, stretching across northern Iran from the Azerbaijan border to near the Turkmenistan border.

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The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Eurasian Plate

The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.

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Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.

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Gorgan (گرگان; formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Griffon vulture

The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) is a large Old World vulture in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.

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Hara Berezaiti

Harā Bərəzaitī, literally meaning "High Watchpost", is the name given in the Avestan language to a legendary mountain around which the stars and planets revolve.

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Ilm-e-Khshnoom ('science of ecstasy', or 'science of bliss') is a school of Zoroastrian philosophy, practiced by a very small minority of the Indian Zoroastrians (Parsis/Iranis), based on a mystic and esoteric, rather than literal, interpretation of religious texts.

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Indian wolf

The Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) is a subspecies of grey wolf that ranges from Southwest Asia to the Indian Subcontinent.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Plate

The Iranian Plate is thought to underlie Iran and Afghanistan, and parts of Pakistan and Iraq.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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Jebal Barez

The Jebal Barez is a mountain chain in the Kerman Province of Iran.

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Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Kerman (كرمان, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania) is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran.

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Late Cretaceous

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.

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Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of Iranian four-thousanders

This list contains all of the summits and subsidiary tops of or more above sea level in Iran.

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List of mountains in Iran

This is a list of mountains in the country of Iran.

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Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.

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Mazandaran Province

Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Milad Tower

Milad Tower (برج میلاد), also known as the Tehran Tower (برج تهران), is a multi-purpose tower in Tehran, Iran.

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The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Mount Damavand

Mount Damavand (دماوند), a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia; the Kunlun Volcanic Group in Tibet is higher than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains.

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Mount Elbrus

Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Miñi taw,; Ӏуащхьэмахуэ, ’Wāśhamāxwa) is the highest mountain in Europe, and the tenth most prominent peak in the world.

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Mountain range

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.

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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Ovan Lake

Ovan lake (also known as Evan lake) (اوان) is a small alpine lake in Alamut region of Alburz range, in Qazvin province of Iran.

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The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Persian fallow deer

The Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) (gavazn-i zard in Persian) is a rare ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.

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Persian leopard

The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana syn. P. p. ciscaucasica and P. p. saxicolor) is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List; the population is estimated at fewer than 871–1,290 mature individuals and considered declining.

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Peshotanu (Avestan Pəšōtanu, Middle Persian Peshyotan, Peshotan) is an eschatological figure of the medieval texts of Zoroastrian tradition, in particular in the apocalyptic Zand-i Wahman yasn.

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The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.

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The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Proto-Iranian language

Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as Pashto, Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Ossetian, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others.

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Rüppell's fox

Rüppell's fox (Vulpes rueppellii), also spelled Rueppell's fox, is a species of fox living in North Africa, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia.

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Red fox

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.

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Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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The Sefīd-Rūd (Sefidrud, pronounced) is a river approximately long, rising in the Alborz mountain range of northwestern Iran and flowing generally northeast to enter the Caspian Sea at Rasht.

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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Shemshak (ski resort)

Shemshak is a ski resort situated to the north-east of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range.

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Ski resort

A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.

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Strait of Hormuz

The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

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Syrian brown bear

The Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus) is a relatively small subspecies of brown bear native to the Middle East.

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Talysh Mountains

Talysh Mountains (Talış dağları, Талыш дағлары, تالش داغلارى; کوههای تالش, Kuhhâye Tâleš) is a mountain range in far southeastern Azerbaijan and far northwestern Iran within Ardabil Province and Gilian Province.

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Tangeh Savashi

Tangeh Savashi (Persian: تنگ ساواشی) or Tangeh Vashi (Persian: تنگ واشی) is a gorge and mountain pass in the Alborz range of Iran (Persia).

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

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Tochal (توچال) is a mountain and ski resort located on the Alborz mountain range, adjacent to the metropolitan area of Tehran in northern Iran.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.

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Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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Woodpeckers are part of the family Picidae, a group of near-passerine birds that also consist of piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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Alborz Mountain range, Alborz Mountains, Alborz region, Alburz, Do Berar, Elborz, Elbourz, Elburs Mountains, Elburz, Elburz Mountains, Elburz Mts, Elburz Mts., Elburz Range, Elburz mountains, Ghal'eh Gardan, Mehr Chal, Mishineh Marg, Mount Gorg, Mount Naz.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alborz

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