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Index Alchemy

Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia. [1]

342 relations: A. E. Waite, Acupuncture, Adam McLean, Adelard of Bath, Aether (classical element), Africa, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Air (classical element), Al-Biruni, Al-Kindi, Al-Razi, Albedo (alchemy), Albertus Magnus, Alchemical symbol, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alchemy in art and entertainment, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Alkahest, Allen G. Debus, Aludel, Ambix, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian technology, Ancient Greek philosophy, Anima mundi, Anselm of Canterbury, Antoine Lavoisier, Aqua regia, Arabic, Arabic definite article, Aristotle, Arthashastra, Arthur Dee, Article (grammar), Asia, Astrology, Astronomy, Atom, Atomic theory, Augustine of Hippo, Augustus, Elector of Saxony, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Éliphas Lévi, Bain-marie, Base metal, Berkley Books, Bernard Trevisan, Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica, ..., Bolus of Mendes, Brazen head, Brazil, Buddhism, Byzantine science, Caduceus, Calid, Cambridge University Press, Cannon, Carl August Friedrich Mahn, Carl Jung, Carl Reichenbach, Charlatan, Charles I of England, Chemical element, Chemistry, China, Chinese alchemy, Chinese martial arts, Christianity, Chrysopoeia, Chymes, Cinnabar, Citrinitas, Classical antiquity, Classical element, Classical planet, Clement of Alexandria, Cleopatra the Alchemist, Comparative linguistics, Confidence trick, Coptic language, Corentin Louis Kervran, Cornelis Drebbel, Corpuscularianism, Cosmology, Crystal, Cupellation, Dante Alighieri, Deity, Demotic (Egyptian), Diocletian, Dominican Order, Dover Publications, E. A. Wallis Budge, Early modern period, Earth (classical element), Edward Kelley, Egypt, Egypt (Roman province), Egyptian language, Elias Ashmole, Elixir of life, Elizabeth I of England, Empedocles, Encyclopédie, Eric John Holmyard, Ethan A. Hitchcock (general), Europe, European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism, Exoteric, Experiment, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fasciculus Chemicus, Fire (classical element), Fireworks, Folk etymology, Franciscans, Frater Albertus, Freemasonry, Fullmetal Alchemist, Gandhara, Geoffrey Chaucer, George Ripley (alchemist), Gerard of Cremona, Gnosis, Gnosticism, Gold, Greek language, Gunpowder, Harvard University Press, Heavy metals, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, Heinrich Khunrath, Hellenistic period, Hellenistic philosophy, Henry V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hermes, Hermes Trismegistus, Hermetica, Hermeticism, Hieros gamos, Historicism, History of chemistry, History of cryptography, History of medicine, History of psychology, Hossein Nasr, Human body, Hydrochloric acid, I Ching, Iatrochemistry, Ibn Khaldun, Ilm (Arabic), Indian religions, Indian subcontinent, Indiana University, Indiana University Press, Individuation, Isaac Newton, Isaac Newton's occult studies, Isis, Isis (journal), Islam, J. K. Rowling, Jabir ibn Hayyan, James IV of Scotland, James Price (chemist), Jan Baptist van Helmont, Jargon, Jason, Jean de Roquetaillade, John Dalton, John Dee, Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn, Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Jungian archetypes, Kabbalah, Kaula, Laboratory, Lactantius, Late Greek, Late Middle Ages, Lawrence M. Principe, Lead, Leah DeVun, Leyden papyrus X, List of alchemists, List of topics characterized as pseudoscience, Magic (supernatural), Magnum opus (alchemy), Mahmud of Ghazni, Marie-Louise von Franz, Marsilio Ficino, Martin Luther, Mary Anne Atwood, Mary the Jewess, Matsyendranath, Matter, Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Medieval Latin, Medieval university, Mediterranean Basin, Melchior Cibinensis, Mercury (element), Mesopotamia, Metal, Metallurgy, Metals of antiquity, Michael Maier, Michael of Russia, Middle Ages, MIT Press, Molecule, Mongols, Moses of Alexandria, Moxibustion, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muslim world, Mysterium Coniunctionis, Mythology, Nagarjuna (metallurgist), Natural science, Neoplatonism, New Age, Nicolas Flamel, Nigredo, Nitric acid, Noble metal, Nuclear transmutation, Numerology, Observation, Odic force, Old French, Oliver Leaman, Optics, Opus Majus, Osiris, Ostanes, Outline of alchemy, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Panacea (medicine), Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis, Paracelsus, Paul of Taranto, Perenelle Flamel, Peter Abelard, Petrus Bonus, Philosopher's stone, Philosophy, Physics, Piers Plowman, Plato, Platonism, Platonism in the Renaissance, Poland, Pope Clement IV, Pope Innocent VIII, Pope John XXII, Porta Alchemica, Potion, Prima materia, Protoscience, Pseudepigrapha, Pseudo-Democritus, Pseudo-Geber, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Pythagoreanism, Qi, Rasayana, Recovery of Aristotle, Religion, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Renaissance of the 12th century, Richard Wilhelm (sinologist), Robert Boyle, Robert Briffault, Robert Grosseteste, Robert of Chester, Roger Bacon, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Rosicrucianism, Routledge, Royal Society, Rubedo, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf Steiner, Salt (chemistry), Samskara (ayurvedic), Sanskrit, Science, Science in the medieval Islamic world, Scientific method, Sendivogius, Shambhala Publications, Solvent, Song dynasty, Soteriology, Soul, Spagyric, Spirit, Spiritual philosophy, Spiritualism, Spirituality, Spondent Pariter, Stoicism, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, SUNY Press, Superseded scientific theories, Symbol, Synthesis of precious metals, Syriac language, Tai chi, Takwin, Taoism, The Forge and the Crucible, The Secret of the Golden Flower, Theory, Thomas Aquinas, Thoth, Toledo, Spain, Traditional Chinese medicine, Turba Philosophorum, Tycho Brahe, University of Amsterdam, University of Chicago Press, University of Exeter, University Press of Kentucky, Uraniborg, Vedas, Water (classical element), Western esotericism, Western religions, William R. Newman, William Shakespeare, Zosimos of Panopolis. Expand index (292 more) »

A. E. Waite

Arthur Edward Waite (2 October 1857 – 19 May 1942), commonly known as A. E. Waite, was an American-born British poet and scholarly mystic who wrote extensively on occult and esoteric matters, and was the co-creator of the Rider-Waite Tarot deck.

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Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.

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Adam McLean

Adam McLean (born 1948, in Glasgow) is a Scottish writer on alchemical texts and symbolism.

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Adelard of Bath

Adelard of Bath (Adelardus Bathensis; 1080 1152 AD) was a 12th-century English natural philosopher.

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Aether (classical element)

According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Ahmad Y. al-Hassan

Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.

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Air (classical element)

Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.

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Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.

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Razi or Al-Razi is the title of several Iranian scholars who were born in the town of Rey, Iran.

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Albedo (alchemy)

In alchemy, albedo is one of the four major stages of the magnum opus; along with nigredo, citrinitas and rubedo.

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Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.

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Alchemical symbol

Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.

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Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.

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Alchemy in art and entertainment

Alchemy has had a long-standing relationship with art, seen both in alchemical texts and in mainstream entertainment.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Alkahest is a hypothetical universal solvent, having the power to dissolve every other substance, including gold.

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Allen G. Debus

Allen George Debus (August 16, 1926 – March 6, 2009) was an American historian of science, known primarily for his work on the history of chemistry and alchemy.

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An aludel (Arabic ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻞ (al-uthāl) from Greek αἰθάλίον (aithalion), "smoky, sooty, burnt-colored") is a subliming pot used in alchemy.

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Ambix is a peer-reviewed academic journal on the history of chemistry and alchemy that was established in 1937.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Egyptian technology

Ancient Egyptian technology describes devices and technologies invented or used in Ancient Egypt.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Anima mundi

The world soul (Greek: ψυχὴ κόσμου psuchè kósmou, Latin: anima mundi) is, according to several systems of thought, an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet, which relates to our world in much the same way as the soul is connected to the human body.

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Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Aqua regia

Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic definite article

(ال), also transliterated as el- as pronounced in varieties of Arabic, is the definite article in the Arabic language: a particle (ḥarf) whose function is to render the noun on which it is prefixed definite.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.

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Arthur Dee

Arthur Dee (13 July 1579 – September or October 1651) was a physician and alchemist.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic theory

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Augustus, Elector of Saxony

Augustus (31 July 152611 February 1586) was Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Éliphas Lévi

Éliphas Lévi Zahed, born Alphonse Louis Constant (February 8, 1810 – May 31, 1875), was a French occult author and ceremonial magician.

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A bain-marie (also known as a water bath or double boiler), a type of heated bath, is a piece of equipment used in science, industry, and cooking to heat materials gently and gradually to fixed temperatures, or to keep materials warm over a period of time.

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Base metal

A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.

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Berkley Books

Berkley Books is an imprint of Penguin Group (USA) that began as an independent company in 1955.

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Bernard Trevisan

Bernard Trevisan (Bernard of Treviso, Bernardus Trevisanus) was an Italian alchemist who lived from 1406-1490.

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Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica

Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica or The Ritman Library is a private Dutch library founded by Joost Ritman.

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Bolus of Mendes

Bolus of Mendes (Βῶλος ὁ Μενδήσιος, Bōlos ho Mendēsios; fl. 3rd century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a neo-Pythagorean writer of works of esoterica and medical works, who worked in Ptolemaic Egypt.

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Brazen head

A brazen head, brass, or bronze head was a legendary automaton in the early modern period whose ownership was ascribed to late medieval scholars who had developed a reputation as wizards, such as Roger Bacon.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Byzantine science

Byzantine science played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy, and also in the transmission of Islamic science to Renaissance Italy.

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The caduceus (☤;; Latin cādūceus, from Greek κηρύκειον kērū́keion "herald's wand, or staff") is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology and consequently by Hermes Trismegistus in Greco-Egyptian mythology.

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Calid, Kalid, or King Calid is a legendary figure in alchemy, latterly associated with the historical Khalid ibn Yazid (d. 704), an Umayyad prince.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

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Carl August Friedrich Mahn

Carl August Friedrich Mahn (September 9, 1802 – January 27, 1887) was a German philologist and language teacher and researcher.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Carl Reichenbach

Baron Dr.

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A charlatan (also called a swindler or mountebank) is a person practicing quackery or some similar confidence trick or deception in order to obtain money, fame or other advantages via some form of pretense or deception.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese alchemy

Chinese alchemy is an ancient Chinese scientific and technological approach to alchemy, a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body.

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Chinese martial arts

Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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In alchemy, the term chrysopoeia (χρυσοποιία, khrusopoiia) means transmutation into gold (from the Greek χρυσός, khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν, poiein, "to make").

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Chymes (Χύμης.) was a Greco Roman alchemist who lived before the third century.

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Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.

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Citrinitas, sometimes referred to as xanthosis, is a term given by alchemists to "yellowness." It is one of the four major stages of the alchemical magnum opus, and literally referred to "transmutation of silver into gold" or "yellowing of the lunar consciousness." In alchemical philosophy, citrinitas stood for the dawning of the "solar light" inherent in one's being, and that the reflective "lunar or soul light" was no longer necessary.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical element

Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.

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Classical planet

In classical antiquity, the seven classical planets are the seven non-fixed astronomical objects in the sky visible to the naked eye: Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mercury, the Sun, and the Moon.

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Clement of Alexandria

Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.

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Cleopatra the Alchemist

Cleopatra the Alchemist who likely lived during the 3rd century, was a Greek Egyptian alchemist, author, and philosopher.

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Comparative linguistics

Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.

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Confidence trick

A confidence trick (synonyms include con, confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam and stratagem) is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust.

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Coptic language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.

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Corentin Louis Kervran

Corentin Louis Kervran (3 March 1901 – 2 February 1983) was a French scientist.

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Cornelis Drebbel

Cornelis Jacobszoon Drebbel (1572 – 7 November 1633) was a Dutch engineer and inventor.

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Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposes all matter to be composed of minute particles.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cupellation is a refining process in metallurgy, where ores or alloyed metals are treated under very high temperatures and have controlled operations to separate noble metals, like gold and silver, from base metals like lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony or bismuth, present in the ore.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Demotic (Egyptian)

Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.

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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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E. A. Wallis Budge

Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (27 July 185723 November 1934) was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Earth (classical element)

Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air, fire, and water.

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Edward Kelley

Sir Edward Kelley or Kelly, also known as Edward Talbot (1 August 1555 – 1 November 1597), was an English Renaissance occultist and self-declared spirit medium.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egypt (Roman province)

The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.

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Egyptian language

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Elias Ashmole

Elias Ashmole (23 May 1617 – 18 May 1692) was an English antiquary, politician, officer of arms, astrologer and student of alchemy.

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Elixir of life

The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.

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Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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Eric John Holmyard

Eric John Holmyard (1891–1959) was an English science teacher at Clifton College, and historian of science and technology.

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Ethan A. Hitchcock (general)

Ethan Allen Hitchcock (May 18, 1798 – August 5, 1870) was a career United States Army officer and author who had War Department assignments in Washington, D.C., during the American Civil War, in which he served as a major general.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism

The European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE) is Europe's only scholarly society for the study of Western esotericism.

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Exoteric refers to knowledge that is outside, and independent from, a person's experience and can be ascertained by anyone (related to common sense).

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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Fasciculus Chemicus

Fasciculus Chemicus or Chymical Collections.

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Fire (classical element)

Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.

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Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.

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Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

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The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.

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Frater Albertus

Frater Albertus Spagyricus (Dr. Albert Richard Riedel) born May 5,(1911–1984); founder of the Paracelsus Research Society in Salt Lake City, which later evolved into the Paracelsus College.

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Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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Fullmetal Alchemist

is a Japanese shōnen manga series written and illustrated by Hiromu Arakawa.

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Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

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George Ripley (alchemist)

Sir George Ripley (c. 1415–1490) was an English Augustinian canon, author, and alchemist.

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Gerard of Cremona

Gerard of Cremona (Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c. 1114 – 1187) was an Italian translator of scientific books from Arabic into Latin.

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Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (γνῶσις, gnôsis, f.). The term is used in various Hellenistic religions and philosophies.

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Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa

Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (14 September 1486 – 18 February 1535) was a German polymath, physician, legal scholar, soldier, theologian, and occult writer.

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Heinrich Khunrath

Heinrich Khunrath (c. 1560 – 9 September 1605), or Dr.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

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Henry V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Henricus; 10 November 1489 – 11 June 1568), called the Younger, (Heinrich der Jüngere), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1514 until his death.

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Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).

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Hermes Trismegistus

Hermes Trismegistus (Ἑρμῆς ὁ Τρισμέγιστος, "thrice-greatest Hermes"; Mercurius ter Maximus; חרם תלת מחזות) is the purported author of the ''Hermetic Corpus'', a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism.

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The Hermetica are Egyptian-Greek wisdom texts from the 2nd century AD and later, which are mostly presented as dialogues in which a teacher, generally identified as Hermes Trismegistus ("thrice-greatest Hermes"), enlightens a disciple.

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Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").

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Hieros gamos

Hieros gamos or Hierogamy (Greek ἱερὸς γάμος, ἱερογαμία "holy marriage") is a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities.

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Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.

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History of chemistry

The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.

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History of cryptography

Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago.

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History of medicine

The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.

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History of psychology

Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India.

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Hossein Nasr

Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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I Ching

The I Ching,.

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Iatrochemistry (or chemical medicine) is a branch of both chemistry and medicine (ἰατρός (iatrós) was the Greek word for "physician" or "medicine").

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

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Ilm (Arabic)

‘Ilm (علم "knowledge") is the Islamic term for knowledge.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indiana University

Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.

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Indiana University Press

Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isaac Newton's occult studies

English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton produced many works that would now be classified as occult studies.

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Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.

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Isis (journal)

Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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J. K. Rowling

Joanne Rowling, ("rolling";Rowling, J.K. (16 February 2007).. Accio Quote (accio-quote.org). Retrieved 28 April 2008. born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, philanthropist, film and television producer and screenwriter best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series.

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Jabir ibn Hayyan

Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.

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James IV of Scotland

James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death.

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James Price (chemist)

James Price (1752–1783) was an English chemist and alchemist who claimed to be able to turn mercury into silver or gold.

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Jan Baptist van Helmont

Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.

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Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.

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Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.

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Jean de Roquetaillade

Jean de Roquetaillade (ca. 1310 – between 1366 and 1370) was a French Franciscan alchemist.

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John Dalton

John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.

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John Dee

John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.

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Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn

Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (18 March 1545 – 9 September 1617) was Prince-Bishop of Würzburg from 1573.

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Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also known as Julius of Braunschweig; 29 June 1528 – 3 May 1589), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1568 until his death.

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Jungian archetypes

In Jungian psychology, archetypes are highly developed elements of the collective unconscious.

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Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.

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Kaula, also known as Kula, ("the Kula practice") and ("the Kaula conduct"), is a religious tradition in Shaktism and tantric Shaivism characterised by distinctive rituals and symbolism connected with the worship of Shakti.

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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.

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Late Greek

Late Greek means writings in the Greek language in Late Antiquity and the Early Byzantine period; and in other words, from about the late 2nd century AD until about the late 7th century AD.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Lawrence M. Principe

Lawrence M. Principe is the Drew Professor of the Humanities at Johns Hopkins University in the Department of History of Science and Technology and the Department of Chemistry.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Leah DeVun

Leah DeVun is a contemporary artist and historian who lives in Brooklyn, NY.

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Leyden papyrus X

The Leyden papyrus X (P. Leyden X) is a papyrus codex written in Greek at about the end of the 3rd century A.D.E.R.Caley, The Leyden Paprus X: An English Translation with Brief Notes,: "These two papyri have, however, upon the basis of unquestioned philological and paleographic evidence, been ascertained to have been written at about the end of the third century A.D. so that they are by far the earliest original historical evidence that we have in our possession concerning the nature and the extent of ancient chemical knowledge." or perhaps around 250 A.D. and buried with its owner, and today preserved at Leiden University in the Netherlands.

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List of alchemists

An alchemist is a person versed in the art of alchemy.

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List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

This is a list of topics that have, at one point or another in their history, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers.

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Magic (supernatural)

Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.

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Magnum opus (alchemy)

The Great Work (Latin: Magnum opus) is an alchemical term for the process of working with the prima materia to create the philosopher's stone.

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Mahmud of Ghazni

Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.

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Marie-Louise von Franz

Marie-Louise von Franz (4 January 1915 – 17 February 1998) was a Swiss Jungian psychologist and scholar, renowned for her psychological interpretations of fairy tales and of alchemical manuscripts.

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Marsilio Ficino

Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Mary Anne Atwood

Mary Anne Atwood (née South), (1817–1910), was an English writer on hermeticism and spiritual alchemy.

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Mary the Jewess

Mary or Maria the Jewess (Maria Prophetissima), also known as Mary the Prophetess, is an early alchemist who is known from the works of the Gnostic Christian writer Zosimos of Panopolis.

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Matsyendranātha, Macchindranāth or Mīnanātha (c. early 10th century) was a saint and yogi in a number of Buddhist and Hindu traditions.

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In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

Maurice of Hesse-Kassel (Moritz) (25 May 1572 – 15 March 1632), also called Maurice the Learned, was the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1592 to 1627.

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Medicinal chemistry

Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Medieval university

A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Melchior Cibinensis

Melchior Cibinensis was a Hungarian alchemical writer active in the first part of the 16th century.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Metals of antiquity

The metals of antiquity are the seven metals which humans had identified and found use for in prehistoric times: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, and mercury.

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Michael Maier

Michael Maier (Michael Maierus; 1568–1622) was a German physician and counsellor to Rudolf II Habsburg.

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Michael of Russia

Michael I of Russia (Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов, Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov) became the first Russian Tsar of the House of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Moses of Alexandria

Moses of Alexandria, often known simply as Moses or Moses the Alchemist, was an early alchemist who wrote Greek alchemical texts around the first or second century.

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Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy which consists of burning dried mugwort (wikt:moxa) on particular points on the body.

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Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Mysterium Coniunctionis

Mysterium Coniunctionis, subtitled An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy, is Volume 14 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, published in 1970 by Princeton University Press in the United States and by Routledge and Kegan Paul in the United Kingdom.

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Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Nagarjuna (metallurgist)

Nāgārjuna (नागार्जुन) was an Indian metallurgist and alchemist.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.

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New Age

New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.

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Nicolas Flamel

Nicolas Flamel (probably Pontoise, ca 1340 - Paris, March 22, 1418) was a successful French scribe and manuscript-seller.

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In alchemy, nigredo, or blackness, means putrefaction or decomposition.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Noble metal

In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).

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Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.

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Numerology is any belief in the divine or mystical relationship between a number and one or more coinciding events.

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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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Odic force

The Odic force (also called Od, Odyle, Önd, Odes, Odylic, Odyllic, or Odems) is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Oliver Leaman

Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies.

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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Opus Majus

The Opus Majus (Latin for "Greater Work") is the most important work of Roger Bacon.

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Osiris (from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth.

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Ostanes (from Greek Ὀστάνης), also spelled Hostanes and Osthanes, was the pen-name used by several pseudo-anonymous authors of Greek and Latin works from Hellenistic period onwards.

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Outline of alchemy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to alchemy: Alchemy – A philosophical tradition recognized as protoscience, that includes the application of Hermetic principles, and practices related to mythology, religion, and spirituality.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Panacea (medicine)

The panacea, named after the Greek goddess of universal remedy Panacea, is any supposed remedy that is claimed to cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely.

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Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis

The Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis (also known as the Stockholm papyrus) is a collection of craft recipes compiled in Egypt.

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Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.

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Paul of Taranto

Paul of Taranto was a 13th-century Franciscan alchemist and author from southern Italy.

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Perenelle Flamel

Perenelle Flamel (died 1397) was the wife of the famous 14th-century scribe Nicolas Flamel.

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Peter Abelard

Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.

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Petrus Bonus

Petrus Bonus (Latin for "Peter the Good"; Pietro Antonio Boni) was a late medieval alchemist.

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Philosopher's stone

The philosopher's stone, or stone of the philosophers (lapis philosophorum) is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold (from the Greek χρυσός khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν poiēin, "to make") or silver.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Piers Plowman

Piers Plowman (written 1370–90) or Visio Willelmi de Petro Ploughman (William's Vision of Piers Plowman) is a Middle English allegorical narrative poem by William Langland.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.

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Platonism in the Renaissance

Platonism, especially in its Neoplatonist form, underwent a revival in the Renaissance, as part of a general revival of interest in Classical antiquity.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Pope Clement IV

Pope Clement IV (Clemens IV; 23 November 1190 – 29 November 1268), born Gui Foucois (Guido Falcodius; Guy de Foulques or Guy Foulques) and also known as Guy le Gros (French for "Guy the Fat"; Guido il Grosso), was bishop of Le Puy (1257–1260), archbishop of Narbonne (1259–1261), cardinal of Sabina (1261–1265), and Pope from 5 February 1265 until his death.

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Pope Innocent VIII

Pope Innocent VIII (Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492.

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Pope John XXII

Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.

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Porta Alchemica

The Alchemical Door, also known as the Alchemy Gate or Magic Portal (Porta Alchemica or Porta Magica), is a monument built between 1678 and 1680 by Massimiliano Palombara, marquis of Pietraforte, in his residence, the villa Palombara, which was located on the Esquiline hill, near Piazza Vittorio, in Rome.

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A potion (from Latin potio "drink") is a magical medicine, drug in liquid form.

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Prima materia

In alchemy, Prima materia, materia prima or first matter, is the ubiquitous starting material required for the alchemical magnum opus and the creation of the philosopher's stone.

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In the philosophy of science, there are several definitions of protoscience.

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Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.

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Pseudo-Democritus was an unidentified Greek philosopher writing on chemical and alchemical subjects under the pen name "Democritus," probably around 60 AD.

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Pseudo-Geber (or "Latin Pseudo-Geber") refers to a corpus of Latin alchemist writing dated to the late 13th and early 14th centuries, attributed to Geber (Jābir ibn Hayyān), an early alchemist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.

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In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.

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Rasāyana, रसायन is a Sanskrit word, with the literal meaning: Path (āyana) of essence (rasa).

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Recovery of Aristotle

The "Recovery of Aristotle" (or Rediscovery) refers to the copying or re-translating of most of Aristotle's books (of ancient Greece), from Greek or Arabic text into Latin, during the Middle Ages, of the Latin West.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Renaissance of the 12th century

The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages.

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Richard Wilhelm (sinologist)

Richard Wilhelm (10 May 18732 March 1930) was a German sinologist, theologian, and missionary.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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Robert Briffault

Robert Stephen Briffault (1874 – 11 December 1948) was a French surgeon who found fame as a social anthropologist and later in life as a novelist.

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Robert Grosseteste

Robert Grosseteste (Robertus Grosseteste; – 9 October 1253) was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.

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Robert of Chester

Robert of Chester (Latin: Robertus Castrensis) was an English Arabist of the 12th century.

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Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rosicrucianism is a spiritual and cultural movement which arose in Europe in the early 17th century after the publication of several texts which purported to announce the existence of a hitherto unknown esoteric order to the world and made seeking its knowledge attractive to many.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rubedo is a Latin word meaning "redness" that was adopted by alchemists to define the fourth and final major stage in their magnum opus.

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Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor

Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).

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Rudolf Steiner

Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (or 25) February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Samskara (ayurvedic)

A samskara is a process in ayurvedic medicine said to detoxify heavy metals and toxic herbs.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Science in the medieval Islamic world

Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Michael Sendivogius (Michał Sędziwój; 1566–1636) was a Polish alchemist, philosopher, and medical doctor.

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Shambhala Publications

Shambhala Publications is an independent publishing company based in Boulder, Colorado.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Soteriology (σωτηρία "salvation" from σωτήρ "savior, preserver" and λόγος "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.

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In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.

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A spagyric is a word in English that means "alchemy." Some people have coined the use of the word to mean an herbal medicine produced by alchemical procedures.

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A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.

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Spiritual philosophy

Spiritual philosophy is a generic term for any philosophy or teaching that pertains to spirituality.

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Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Spondent Pariter

Spondent Pariter (sometimes referred to as Spondent quas non exhibent) was a papal decretal promulgated in 1317 by Pope John XXII forbidding the practice of alchemy.

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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SUNY Press

The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.

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Superseded scientific theories

A superseded, or obsolete, scientific theory is a scientific theory that the mainstream scientific community once widely accepted, but now considers an inadequate or incomplete description of reality, or simply false.

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A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.

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Synthesis of precious metals

The synthesis of precious metals involves the use of either nuclear reactors or particle accelerators to produce these elements.

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Syriac language

Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.

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Tai chi

Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.

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Takwin (تكوين) was a goal of certain Muslim alchemists, notably Jabir ibn Hayyan.

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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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The Forge and the Crucible

The Forge and the Crucible is a 1956 book by the Romanian historian of religion Mircea Eliade.

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The Secret of the Golden Flower

The Secret of the Golden Flower is a Chinese Taoist classic about neidan (inner alchemy) meditation.

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A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thoth (from Greek Θώθ; derived from Egyptian ḏḥw.ty) is one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.

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Toledo, Spain

Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.

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Turba Philosophorum

The Turba Philosophorum, also known as Assembly of the Philosophers, is one of the oldest European alchemy texts, translated from the Arabic, like the Picatrix.

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Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

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University of Amsterdam

The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Exeter

The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.

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University Press of Kentucky

The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.

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Uraniborg (Uranienborg, Uraniborg) was a Danish astronomical observatory and alchemical laboratory established and operated by Tycho Brahe.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Water (classical element)

Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.

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Western esotericism

Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.

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Western religions

Western religions refer to religions that originated within Western culture, and are thus historically, culturally, and theologically distinct from the Eastern religions.

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William R. Newman

William R. Newman (born March 13, 1955) is Distinguished Professor and Ruth N. Halls Professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana University.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Zosimos of Panopolis

Zosimos of Panopolis (Ζώσιμος ὁ Πανοπολίτης; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Alchemista, i.e. "Zosimus the Alchemist") was an Egyptian alchemist and Gnostic mystic who lived at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century AD.

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AlchemY, Alchemi, Alchemic, Alchemical, Alchemist, Alchemistry, Alchemists, Alchemy in history, Alchemy magic, Decline of Western alchemy, Genesis of alchemy, History of Alchemy, History of alchemy, Operative Alchemy, Renaissance alchemy.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alchemy

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