185 relations: Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Al-Kindi, Alcohol (drug), Alcohol dehydrogenase, Alcoholic drink, Aldehyde, Alicyclic compound, Aliphatic compound, Alkane, Alkene, Alkoxide, Alkyl, Allyl alcohol, Amine, Amyl alcohol, Anaerobic respiration, Andreas Libavius, Antimony trisulfide, Antiseptic, Arabic definite article, Arabs, Aromaticity, Article (grammar), Auto-brewery syndrome, Barbier reaction, Bartholomew Traheron, Barton–McCombie deoxygenation, Base (chemistry), Brill Publishers, Carbon, Carbon disulfide, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Catalysis, Cellulose, Cetyl alcohol, Chemical nomenclature, Chemical polarity, Chemistry, Chlorine, Cholesterol, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Collins reagent, Cracking (chemistry), Dess–Martin periodinane, Detergent, Diazonium compound, Diethyl ether, Distillation, ..., Edinburgh University Press, Elimination reaction, Enol, Erythritol, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethanol fuel, Ether, Ethyl group, Ethylene, Ethylene glycol, Ethylene oxide, Fatty alcohol, Fermentation, Fermentation in food processing, Fischer–Speier esterification, Formaldehyde, Fructose, Functional group, Geraniol, Giovanni da Vigo, Glucose, Glycerol, Grignard reaction, Haloalkane, Halohydrin, Hexane, Hexanol, Hydration reaction, Hydroboration–oxidation reaction, Hydrobromic acid, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Hydroxy group, Index of alcohol-related articles, Inositol, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Invertase, Isopropyl alcohol, IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, Jones oxidation, Ketone, Kohl (cosmetics), Leaving group, Liquor, List of gasoline additives, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lone pair, Macmillan Publishers, Mannitol, Median lethal dose, Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reduction, Menthol, Metabolism, Metal, Methanol, Methyl group, Methyl iodide, Miscibility, Moors, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, N-Butanol, Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation, Nozaki–Hiyama–Kishi reaction, Nucleophilic substitution, Octanol, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organic compound, Organic reaction, Organoboron chemistry, Organosulfate, Organotin chemistry, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, Oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones, Oxygen, Oxymercuration reaction, Paracetamol, Periodic Videos, Persian people, Petroleum, Phenols, Phosphorus tribromide, Plasticizer, Polyol, Polyvinyl chloride, Potassium hydroxide, Potassium permanganate, Proceedings of the Chemical Society, Propane, Propanol, Propargyl alcohol, Properties of water, Propyl group, Propylene glycol, Radical substitution, Redox, Rubbing alcohol, Salt (chemistry), SN1 reaction, Sodium, Sodium borohydride, Sodium hydride, Sodium hydroxide, Solvation, Sorbitol, Starch, Stibnite, Sublimation (phase transition), Substituent, Sucrose, Sugar alcohol, Sulfuric acid, Tert-Butyl alcohol, The BMJ, The Coming Anarchy, Thionyl chloride, Threitol, Tosyl, Transesterification, Triethylaluminium, Volemitol, Xylitol, Zaitsev's rule, Ziegler process, Zinc chloride, Zymase, 1-Octanol, 1-Pentanol, 1-Propanol. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
An alicyclic compound is an organic compound that is both aliphatic and cyclic.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
Allyl alcohol (IUPAC name: prop-2-en-1-ol) is an organic compound with the structural formula CH2.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
An amyl alcohol is any of 8 alcohols with the formula C5H12OH.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
Andreas Libavius or Andrew Libavius (c. 1555 – 25 July 1616) was a German physician and chemist.
Antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) is found in nature as the crystalline mineral stibnite and the amorphous red mineral metastibnite.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
(ال), also transliterated as el- as pronounced in varieties of Arabic, is the definite article in the Arabic language: a particle (ḥarf) whose function is to render the noun on which it is prefixed definite.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Auto-brewery syndrome, also known as gut fermentation syndrome, is a rare medical condition in which intoxicating quantities of ethanol are produced through endogenous fermentation within the digestive system.
The Barbier reaction is an organic reaction between an alkyl halide and a carbonyl group as an electrophilic substrate in the presence of magnesium, aluminium, zinc, indium, tin or its salts.
Bartholomew Traheron (1510?–1558?) was an English Protestant writer and Marian exile.
The Barton–McCombie deoxygenation is an organic reaction in which an hydroxy functional group in an organic compound is replaced by a hydrogen to give an alkyl group.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cetyl alcohol, also known as hexadecan-1-ol and palmityl alcohol, is a fatty alcohol with the formula CH3(CH2)15OH.
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after Jewish-Russian-born Chaim Weizmann.
Collins reagent is the complex of chromium(VI) oxide with pyridine in dichloromethane.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
Dess–Martin periodinane (DMP) is a chemical reagent used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diazonium compounds or diazonium salts are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group where R can be any organic group, such as an alkyl or an aryl, and X is an inorganic or organic anion, such as a halogen.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that has been approved for use as a food additive in the United States and throughout much of the world.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
Fatty alcohols (or long-chain alcohols) are usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4–6 carbons to as many as 22–26, derived from natural fats and oils.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Fischer esterification or Fischer–Speier esterification is a special type of esterification by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Geraniol is a monoterpenoid and an alcohol.
Giovanni da Vigo (1450–1525) was an Italian surgeon.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
In organic chemistry a halohydrin (also a haloalcohol or β-halo alcohol) is a functional group in which a halogen and a hydroxyl are bonded to adjacent carbon atoms, which otherwise bear only hydrogen or hydrocarbyl groups (e.g. 2-chloroethanol, 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol).
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
Hexanol may refer to any of the following isomeric organic compounds with the formula C6H13OH: |- ! Structure !! Type !! IUPAC name !! Boiling point (°C) |- | | Primary | Hexan-1-ol | 158 |- | | Secondary | Hexan-2-ol | 140 |- | | Secondary | Hexan-3-ol | 135 |- | | Primary | 2-Methylpentan-1-ol | 147 |- | | Primary | 3-Methylpentan-1-ol | 152 |- | | Primary | 4-Methylpentan-1-ol | 151 |- | | Tertiary | 2-Methylpentan-2-ol | 121 |- | | Secondary | 3-Methylpentan-2-ol | 134 |- | | Secondary | 4-Methylpentan-2-ol | 131 |- | | Secondary | 2-Methylpentan-3-ol | 126 |- | | Tertiary | 3-Methylpentan-3-ol | 122 |- | | Primary | 2,2-Dimethylbutan-1-ol | 137 |- | | Primary | 2,3-Dimethylbutan-1-ol | 145 |- | | Primary | 3,3-Dimethylbutan-1-ol | 143 |- | | Tertiary | 2,3-Dimethylbutan-2-ol | 119 |- | | Secondary | 3,3-Dimethylbutan-2-ol | 120 |- | | Primary | 2-Ethylbutan-1-ol | 146 |- |.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
In organic chemistry, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction is a two-step organic reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.
Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, usually connected to other carbon or hydrogen atoms.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar) into fructose and glucose.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
In chemical nomenclature, the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
The Jones oxidation is an organic reaction for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Kohl (كُحْل) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara.
In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
Gasoline additives increase gasoline's octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricants, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
The Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley (MPV) reduction in organic chemistry is the reduction of ketones and aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols utilizing aluminium alkoxide catalysis in the presence of a sacrificial alcohol.
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol or normal butanol is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the chemical formula C4H9OH.
In chemistry, the Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones is a chemical reaction for the enantioselective hydrogenation of ketones, aldehydes, and imines.
The Nozaki–Hiyama–Kishi reaction is a nickel/chromium coupling reaction forming an alcohol from the reaction of an aldehyde with an allyl or vinyl halide.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Octanols are alcohols with the formula C8H17OH.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds of boron and carbon that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes.
Organosulfates are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group commonly with the structure R-O-SO3−.
Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids is an important oxidation reaction in organic chemistry.
The oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones is an important oxidation reaction in organic chemistry.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The oxymercuration reaction is an electrophilic addition organic reaction that transforms an alkene into a neutral alcohol.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.
The Proceedings of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal published at various times in the life of the Chemical Society, a scientific society in the United Kingdom that combined with other societies to form the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1980.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
There are two isomers of propanol.
Propargyl alcohol, or 2-propyn-1-ol, is an organic compound with the formula C3H4O.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
In organic chemistry, propyl is a three-carbon alkyl substituent with chemical formula – for the linear form.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
In organic chemistry, a radical-substitution reaction is a substitution reaction involving free radicals as a reactive intermediate.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rubbing alcohol refers to either isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or ethanol based liquids, or the comparable British Pharmacopoeia defined surgical spirit, with isopropyl alcohol products being the most widely available.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4.
Sodium hydride is the chemical compound with the empirical formula NaH.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, that comprise a class of polyols.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), also called tert-butanol or t-butanol, is the simplest tertiary alcohol, with a formula of (CH3)3COH (sometimes represented as t-BuOH).
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Coming Anarchy: How scarcity, crime, overpopulation, tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet is an influential article written by journalist Robert D. Kaplan, which was first published in the February 1994 edition of The Atlantic Monthly.
Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2.
Threitol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with the molecular formula C4H10O4.
A toluenesulfonyl (shortened tosyl, abbreviated Ts or Tos) group is CH3C6H4SO2.
In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.
Triethylaluminium is an organoaluminium compound.
Volemitol is a naturally occurring seven-carbon sugar alcohol.
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener.
Saytzeff's rule (or Zaitsev's rule, Saytzev's rule) is an empirical rule for predicting the favored alkene product(s) in elimination reactions.
In organic chemistry, the Ziegler process (also called the Ziegler-Alfol synthesis) is a method for producing fatty alcohols from ethylene using a organoaluminium catalyst.
Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates.
Zymase is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
1-Octanol also known as octan-1-ol is the organic compound with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)7OH.
1-Pentanol, (or n-pentanol, pentan-1-ol), is an alcohol with five carbon atoms and the molecular formula C5H11OH.
1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH (sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH).
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