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Alcoholic drink

Index Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. [1]

183 relations: Abdominal obesity, Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Acetyl-CoA, Aging of wine, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Al-Kindi, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alcohol, Alcohol abuse, Alcohol and health, Alcohol by volume, Alcohol flush reaction, Alcohol industry, Alcohol intoxication, Alcohol law, Alcohol licensing laws of the United Kingdom, Alcohol monopoly, Alcohol proof, Alcoholic drinks in China, Alcoholic liver disease, Alcoholism, American Heart Association, Anterograde amnesia, Apéritif and digestif, Appetite, Apple juice, Applejack (drink), Astringent, Atrial fibrillation, Austria, Azeotrope, Baijiu, Barley, Beer, Beer and breweries by region, Binge drinking, Blood alcohol content, Blue law, Braising, Brandy, Cardiovascular disease, Cava (Spanish wine), Champagne, Chicha, China, Cider, Cinzano, Cirrhosis, Coma, ..., Combustion, Commandaria, Concentration, Congener (alcohol), Continental Europe, Cooking with alcohol, Cornell University, Crime, Daily Emerald, Death, Delhi Sultanate, Depressant, Diabetes mellitus, Diol, Distillation, Drambuie, Drink, Drinking culture, Driving under the influence, Drunk drivers, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Euphoria, Fatty liver, Fermentation in food processing, Fortified wine, Fractional freezing, Fruit wine, Fusel alcohol, Gin, Glucose, Grain, Grape, Gunpowder, Hangover, Hebei, Henan, Homebrewing, Hops, Hypertension, Hypoventilation, India, Insulin, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Irfan Habib, Isoamyl alcohol, Japan, Jiahu, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Juice, Last call (bar term), Legal drinking age, Lethargy, Liqueur, Liquor, List of alcoholic drinks, List of countries by alcohol consumption per capita, List of countries with alcohol prohibition, List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, List of liqueurs, Litre, Local option, Long-term effects of alcohol consumption, Madeira wine, Maguey, Marsala wine, Mashing, Mead, Medication, Mesoamerica, Methanol, Mezcal, Middle East, Mixed drink, Mixture, Morality, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Neolithic, Peach, Pear, Pearson Education, Phenolic content in wine, Physical dependence, Pint, Port wine, Pottery, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prohibition, Prohibition in the United States, Propanol, Prosecco, Pub, Public health, Pulmonary aspiration, Pulque, Recreational drug use, Rectified spirit, Religion, Religion and alcohol, Rice wine, Risk factors for breast cancer, Rum, Sake, Sedation, Sharia, Sherry, Short-term effects of alcohol consumption, Soft drink, Soju, Solvent, Song dynasty, Sparkling wine, Still, Stock (food), Stone Age, Stroke, Stupor, Sweetness, Tequila, Tincture, Unconsciousness, UNESCO, Unit of alcohol, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Vermouth, Vodka, Weights and Measures Acts (UK), Whisky, Wine, Wine sauce, Yeast. Expand index (133 more) »

Abdominal obesity

Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.

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Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Aging of wine

The aging of wine (American spelling) or ageing of wine (British spelling) is potentially able to improve the quality of wine.

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Ahmad Y. al-Hassan

Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.

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Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.

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Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.

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Alcohol and health

Alcohol (also known as ethanol) has a number of effects on health.

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Alcohol by volume

Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent).

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Alcohol flush reaction

Alcohol flush reaction is a condition in which a person develops flushes or blotches associated with erythema on the face, neck, shoulders, and in some cases, the entire body after consuming alcoholic beverages.

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Alcohol industry

The alcohol industry is the commercial industry involved in the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of alcoholic beverages.

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Alcohol intoxication

Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).

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Alcohol law

Alcohol laws are laws in relation to the manufacture, use, influence and sale of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) or alcoholic beverages that contains ethanol.

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Alcohol licensing laws of the United Kingdom

The alcohol licensing laws of the United Kingdom regulate the sale and consumption of alcohol, with separate legislation for England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland being passed, as necessary, by the UK parliament, the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the Scottish Parliament respectively.

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Alcohol monopoly

An alcohol monopoly is a government monopoly on manufacturing and/or retailing of some or all alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine and spirits.

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Alcohol proof

Alcohol proof is a measure of the content of ethanol (alcohol) in an alcoholic beverage.

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Alcoholic drinks in China

Alcoholic drinks in China seem to precede the earliest stages of Chinese civilization.

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Alcoholic liver disease

Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Apéritif and digestif

Apéritifs and digestifs are drinks, typically alcoholic, that are normally served before (apéritif) or after (digestif) a meal.

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Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.

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Apple juice

Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple.

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Applejack (drink)

Applejack is a strong apple-flavored alcoholic drink produced from apples, popular in the American colonial period.

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An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.

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Baijiu, also known as shaojiu, is a category of at least a dozen Chinese liquors made from grain.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Beer and breweries by region

This is a list of articles and categories dealing with beer and breweries by region: the breweries and beers in various regions.

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Binge drinking

Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.

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Blood alcohol content

Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level, is most commonly used as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes.

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Blue law

Blue laws, also known as Sunday laws, are laws designed to restrict or ban some or all Sunday activities for religious reasons, particularly to promote the observance of a day of worship or rest.

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Braising (from the French word braiser) is a combination-cooking method that uses both lit wet and dry heats: typically, the food is first seared at a high temperature, then finished in a covered pot at a lower temperature while sitting in some (variable) amount of liquid (which may also add flavor).

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Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cava (Spanish wine)

Cava (plural caves) is a sparkling wine of Denominación de Origen (DO) status from Spain.

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Champagne is sparkling wine or, in EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France.

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In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Cinzano is an Italian brand of vermouth, a brand owned since 1999 by Gruppo Campari.

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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.

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Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Commandaria (also called Commanderia and Coumadarka; κουμανδαρία, κουμανταρία and Cypriot Greek κουμανταρκά) is an amber-coloured sweet dessert wine made in the Commandaria region of Cyprus on the foothills of the Troödos mountains.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Congener (alcohol)

In the alcoholic beverages industry, congeners are substances, other than the desired type of alcohol, ethanol, produced during fermentation.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Cooking with alcohol

Cooking with alcohol can mean cooking with alcohol as an ingredient, combusting alcohol for heat or effect, or both at the same time.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Daily Emerald

The Daily Emerald is an online student news site produced at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon, United States.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).

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A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).

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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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Drambuie is a golden coloured, 40% ABV liqueur made from scotch whisky, honey, herbs and spices.

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A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.

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Drinking culture

Drinking culture refers to the customs and practices associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

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Driving under the influence

Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.

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Drunk drivers

People driving under the influence of alcohol are commonly referred to as drunk drivers, or drink-drivers.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fermentation

Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.

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Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

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Fatty liver

Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).

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Fermentation in food processing

Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.

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Fortified wine

Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, is added.

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Fractional freezing

Fractional freezing is a process used in process engineering and chemistry to separate substances with different melting points.

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Fruit wine

Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients (other than grapes); they may also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs.

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Fusel alcohol

Fusel alcohols or fuselol, also sometimes called fusel oils in Europe, are mixtures of several alcohols (chiefly amyl alcohol) produced as a by-product of alcoholic fermentation.

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Gin is liquor which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.

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A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits.

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Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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Homebrewing is the brewing of beer on a small scale for personal, non-commercial purposes.

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Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

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Irfan Habib

Irfan Habib (born 1931) is an Indian historian of ancient and medieval India, following the approach of Marxist historiography.

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Isoamyl alcohol

Isoamyl alcohol (also known as isopentyl alcohol) is a clear, colorless alcohol with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.

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Last call (bar term)

In a bar, a last call (last orders) is an announcement made shortly before the bar closes for the night, informing patrons of their last chance to buy alcoholic beverages.

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Legal drinking age

The legal drinking age is the age at which a person can legally consume alcoholic beverages.

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Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.

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A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners (such as high-fructose corn syrup).

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Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.

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List of alcoholic drinks

This is a list of alcoholic drinks.

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List of countries by alcohol consumption per capita

This is a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in equivalent litres of pure alcohol (ethanol) consumed per capita per year.

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List of countries with alcohol prohibition

The following countries have or had comprehensive prohibitions against alcohol.

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List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.

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List of liqueurs

Liqueurs are alcoholic beverages that are bottled with added sugar and have added flavors that are usually derived from fruits, herbs, or nuts.

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The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

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Local option

A local option is the ability of local political jurisdictions, typically counties or municipalities, to allow decisions on certain controversial issues based on popular vote within their borders.

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Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

The long-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular diseaseAssociation of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Madeira wine

Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Portuguese Madeira Islands, off the coast of Africa.

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Maguey may refer to various American plants.

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Marsala wine

Marsala is a wine, dry or sweet, produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily.

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In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of grain (typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, sorghum, rye, or wheat), known as the "grain bill", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture.

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Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Mezcal (or mescal) is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from any type of agave.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mixed drink

A mixed drink is a beverage in which two or more ingredients are mixed.

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In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.

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The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.

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Pearson Education

Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.

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Phenolic content in wine

The phenolic content in wine refers to the phenolic compounds—natural phenol and polyphenols—in wine, which include a large group of several hundred chemical compounds that affect the taste, color and mouthfeel of wine.

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Physical dependence

Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.

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The pint (symbol pt, sometimes abbreviated as "p") is a unit of volume or capacity in both the imperial and United States customary measurement systems.

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Port wine

Port wine (also known as vinho do Porto,, Porto, and usually simply port) is a Portuguese fortified wine produced exclusively in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal.

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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.

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Prohibition in the United States

Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.

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There are two isomers of propanol.

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Prosecco is an Italian white wine.

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A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer (such as ale) and cider.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Pulmonary aspiration

Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).

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Pulque (occasionally referred to as agave wine) is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented sap of the maguey (agave) plant.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Rectified spirit

Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion and alcohol

The world's religions have had differing relationships with alcohol.

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Rice wine

Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.

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Risk factors for breast cancer

Risk factors for breast cancer may be divided into preventable and non-preventable.

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Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.

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, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.

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Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.

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Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Sherry (Jerez or) is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.

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Short-term effects of alcohol consumption

The short-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption – due to drinking beer, wine, distilled spirits or other alcoholic beverages – range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills and euphoria at lower doses to intoxication (drunkenness), stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia (memory "blackouts"), and central nervous system depression at higher doses.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Soju (from Korean) is a clear, colorless distilled beverage of Korean origin.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Sparkling wine

Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.

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A still is an apparatus used to distill liquid mixtures by heating to selectively boil and then cooling to condense the vapor.

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Stock (food)

Stock is a flavored liquid preparation.

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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Stupor (from Latin stupere, "be stunned or amazed") is the lack of critical mental function and a level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain.

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Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.

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Tequila is a regional distilled beverage and type of alcoholic drink made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the central western Mexican state of Jalisco.

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A tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome).

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Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Unit of alcohol

Units of alcohol are used in the United Kingdom (UK) as a measure to quantify the actual alcoholic content within a given volume of an alcoholic beverage, in order to provide guidance on total alcohol consumption.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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Vermouth is an aromatized, fortified wine flavored with various botanicals (roots, barks, flowers, seeds, herbs, and spices).

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Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.

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Weights and Measures Acts (UK)

Weights and measures acts are acts of the British Parliament determining the regulation of weights and measures.

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Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Wine sauce

Wine sauce is a culinary sauce prepared with wine as a primary ingredient, heated and mixed with stock, butter, herbs, spices, onions, garlic and other ingredients.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholic_drink

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