241 relations: Acamprosate, Acetaldehyde, Addiction, Addictive personality, Alanine transaminase, Alcohol (drug), Alcohol abuse, Alcohol and breast cancer, Alcohol and Native Americans, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Alcohol dependence, Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire, Alcohol detoxification, Alcohol flush reaction, Alcohol intoxication, Alcohol law, Alcohol tolerance, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Alcohol-related traffic crashes in the United States, Alcoholic drink, Alcoholic liver disease, Alcoholics Anonymous, Alcoholism in family systems, Allele, American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Society of Addiction Medicine, Anovulation, Anterograde amnesia, Antipsychotic, Antisocial personality disorder, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Aspartate transaminase, Assault, Atrial fibrillation, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Baclofen, Barbiturate, Beer, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Bill W., Binge drinking, Bipolar disorder, Blood alcohol content, Blood test, Borderline personality disorder, ..., Brain damage, Bulimia nervosa, Burglary, CAGE questionnaire, Calcium carbimide, Cancer, Carbohydrate deficient transferrin, Cardiovascular disease, Cell surface receptor, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Child abuse, Child neglect, Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Cirrhosis, Clonazepam, Cognition, Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, Coma, Comorbidity, Confusion, CRAFFT Screening Test, Delirium tremens, Dementia, Depressant, Depression (mood), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diazepam, Dipsomania, Disease, Disease theory of alcoholism, Disulfiram, Disulfiram-like drug, Divorce, Domestic violence, Dopamine, Drinking water, Driving under the influence, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Drunk drivers, DSM-5, E. Morton Jellinek, Eastern Europe, Emergency department, Endorphins, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Estonia, Euphoria, European Union, Evidence-based medicine, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Fiction, GABAA receptor, GABAB receptor, Gabapentin, Gamma-glutamyltransferase, Gene expression, Gene–environment interaction, Genome-wide association study, Glutamic acid, Group psychotherapy, Hangover, Harm reduction, Head injury, Health, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Hepatotoxicity, High-functioning alcoholic, Hormone, Human genetic variation, Hypertension, Hypoventilation, ICD-10, Immune system, Impulse control disorder, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, International Review of Psychiatry, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Irish people, Journal of Women's Health, Ketoacidosis, Kindling (sedative–hypnotic withdrawal), Klotho (biology), Lethargy, Life expectancy, LifeRing Secular Recovery, List of countries by alcohol consumption per capita, List of Schedule I drugs (US), Macrocytosis, Major depressive disorder, Malabsorption, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Mean corpuscular volume, Medical Subject Headings, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Mental disorder, Mental health, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, Moderation Management, Monosaccharide, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, Nalmefene, Naltrexone, Narcissistic personality disorder, National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Natural history of disease, Nonbenzodiazepine, Ondansetron, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid antagonist, Organic brain syndrome, Paddington alcohol test, Pancreas, Pancreatitis, Panic disorder, Pejorative, Peptic ulcer disease, Peripheral nervous system, Peyote, Physical dependence, Polyneuropathy, Popular culture, Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prefrontal cortex, Pregnancy, Prohibition in the United States, Prosody (linguistics), Psychiatry, Psychological trauma, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Public health, Pulmonary aspiration, Racism, Rape, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Reinforcement, Relational disorder, Safe sex, Schizophrenia, Scientific American, Secular Organizations for Sobriety, Sedation, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Self-report study, Sequela, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Sexual assault, Sexual dysfunction, Slang, SMART Recovery, Social skills, Standard drink, Stereotype, Stock character, Stress (biology), Stroke, Stupor, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substance dependence, Suicide, Support group, Synapse, Tea, Termination of employment, The Big Book (Alcoholics Anonymous), Theory of mind, Topiramate, Tort, Town drunk, Toxicology, Traffic collision, Transmembrane protein, Tricyclic antidepressant, United Kingdom, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, William Duncan Silkworth, Women For Sobriety, World Health Organization, Xenophobia, Zero tolerance, Zolpidem, Zopiclone. Expand index (191 more) » « Shrink index
Acamprosate, sold under the brand name Campral, is a medication used along with counselling to treat alcohol dependence.
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An addictive personality refers to a particular set of personality traits that make an individual predisposed to developing addictions.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
The relationship between alcohol and breast cancer is clear: drinking alcoholic beverages, including wine, beer, or liquor, is a risk factor for breast cancer, as well as some other forms of cancer.
Native Americans in the United States have historically had extreme difficulty with the use of alcohol.
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).
Alcohol dependence is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).
The Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD) is a treatment evaluation instrument used to measure an individual's alcohol dependence.
Alcohol detoxification, or detox, for individuals with alcohol dependence, is the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake, a process often coupled with substitution of cross-tolerant drugs that have effects similar to the effects of alcohol in order to prevent alcohol withdrawal.
Alcohol flush reaction is a condition in which a person develops flushes or blotches associated with erythema on the face, neck, shoulders, and in some cases, the entire body after consuming alcoholic beverages.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Alcohol laws are laws in relation to the manufacture, use, influence and sale of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) or alcoholic beverages that contains ethanol.
Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages.
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a ten-question test developed by a World Health Organization-sponsored collaborative project to determine if a person may be at risk for alcohol abuse problems.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.
Alcohol-related traffic crashes are defined by the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) as alcohol-related if either a driver or a non-motorist had a measurable or estimated BAC of 0.01 g/dl or above.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an international mutual aid fellowship whose stated purpose is to enable its members to "stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety." It was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio.
Alcoholism in family systems refers to the conditions in families that enable alcoholism, and the effects of alcoholic behavior by one or more family members on the rest of the family.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) is an addiction medicine professional society representing over 5,000 physicians, clinicians and associated professionals with a focus on addiction and its treatment.
Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Aspartate transaminase (AST) or aspartate aminotransferase, also known as AspAT/ASAT/AAT or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaminase enzyme that was first described by Arthur Karmen and colleagues in 1954.
An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
William Griffith Wilson (November 26, 1895 – January 24, 1971), also known as Bill Wilson or Bill W., was the co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), an international mutual aid fellowship with over twenty million members worldwide belonging to approximately 10,000 groups, associations, organizations, cooperatives, and fellowships of alcoholics helping other alcoholics achieve and maintain sobriety.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level, is most commonly used as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Burglary (also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking) is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence.
The CAGE questionnaire, the name of which is an acronym of its four questions, is a widely used screening test for problem drinking and potential alcohol problems.
Calcium carbimide, sold as the citrate salt under the trade name Temposil, is a disulfiram-like drug.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a laboratory test used to help detect heavy ethanol consumption.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
Child neglect is a form of child abuse, and is a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, supervision, clothing, nutrition, housing as well as their physical, emotional, social, educational and safety needs.
Christoph Wilhelm Friedrich Hufeland (12 August 1762, Langensalza – 25 August 1836, Berlin) was a German physician.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
The Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) is an eleven-center research project in the United States designed to identify and understand the genetic basis of alcoholism.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
The CRAFFT Screening Test is a short clinical assessment tool designed to screen for substance-related risks and problems in adolescents.
Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Dipsomania is a historical term describing a medical condition involving an uncontrollable craving for alcohol.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
The modern disease theory of alcoholism states that problem drinking is sometimes caused by a disease of the brain, characterized by altered brain structure and function.
Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse and Antabus) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol).
A disulfiram-like drug is a drug that causes hypersensitivity to the unpleasant and toxic effects of alcohol.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
People driving under the influence of alcohol are commonly referred to as drunk drivers, or drink-drivers.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Elvin Morton "Bunky" Jellinek (15 August 1890 – 22 October 1963), E. Morton Jellinek, or most often, E. M. Jellinek, was a biostatistician, physiologist, and an alcoholism researcher, fluent in nine languages and able to communicate in four others.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
Fiction is any story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (also γ-glutamyltransferase, GGT, gamma-GT) is a transferase (a type of enzyme) that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-glutamyl functional groups from molecules such as glutathione to an acceptor that may be an amino acid, a peptide or water (forming glutamate).
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Group psychotherapy or group therapy is a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group.
A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits.
Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
A high-functioning alcoholic (HFA) is a person who maintains jobs and relationships while exhibiting alcoholism.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Impulse-control disorder (ICD) is a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, an urge, an impulse, or the inability to not speak on a thought.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The International Review of Psychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute of Psychiatry (King's College London).
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
The Journal of Women's Health is a monthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal focusing on women's health care, including advancements in diagnostic procedures, therapeutic protocols for the management of diseases, and research in gender-based biology that impacts patient care and treatment.
Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
Kindling due to substance withdrawal refers to the neurological condition which results from repeated withdrawal episodes from sedative–hypnotic drugs such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.
Klotho is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
LifeRing Secular Recovery (LifeRing or LSR) is a secular, non-profit organization providing peer-run addiction recovery groups.
This is a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in equivalent litres of pure alcohol (ethanol) consumed per capita per year.
This is the list of Schedule I drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
Macrocytosis is the enlargement of red blood cells with near-constant hemoglobin concentration, and is defined by a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of greater than 100 femtolitres (the precise criterion varies between laboratories).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a privately held independent publishing company founded by its president, Mary Ann Liebert, in 1980.
The mean corpuscular volume, or mean cell volume (MCV), is a measure of the average volume of a red blood corpuscle (or red blood cell).
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) screening tool was developed in 1971 and is one of the oldest alcoholism screening tests in identifying dependent drinkers.
Moderation Management (MM) is a secular non-profit organization providing peer-run non-coercive support groups for anyone who would like to reduce their alcohol consumption.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
Nalmefene (trade name Selincro), originally known as nalmetrene, is an opioid antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) is an American advocacy organization focused on alcoholism, drug addiction and the consequences of alcohol and other drug use.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems.
The natural history of disease is the course a disease takes in individual people from its pathological onset ("inception") until its eventual resolution through complete recovery or death.
Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on one or more of the opioid receptors.
An organic brain syndrome (OBS), also known as an organic brain disease/disorder (OBD), an organic mental syndrome (OMS), or an organic mental disorder (OMD), is a syndrome or disorder of mental function whose cause is alleged to be known as organic (physiologic) rather than purely of the mind.
The Paddington alcohol test (PAT) was first published in the Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine in 1996.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Polyneuropathy (poly- + neuro- + -pathy) is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy) in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, featuring weakness, numbness, and burning pain.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) describe a set of persistent impairments that occur after withdrawal from alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
According to Michael First of the DSM-5 working committee the focus of a relational disorder, in contrast to other DSM-IV disorders, "is on the relationship rather than on any one individual in the relationship".
Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS), also known as Save Our Selves, is a non-profit network of autonomous addiction recovery groups.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
A self-report study is a type of survey, questionnaire, or poll in which respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without researcher interference.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
The Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ or SAD-Q) is a 20 item clinical screening tool designed to measure the presence and level of alcohol dependence.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
SMART Recovery is an international non-profit organization that provides assistance to individuals seeking abstinence from addictions.
A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.
A standard drink is a measure of alcohol consumption representing a hypothetical beverage which contains a fixed amount of pure alcohol.
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or film, whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stupor (from Latin stupere, "be stunned or amazed") is the lack of critical mental function and a level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain.
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Termination of employment, is an employee's departure from a job and the end of an employee's duration with an employer.
Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How Many Thousands of Men and Women Have Recovered from Alcoholism (generally known as The Big Book because of the thickness of the paper used in the first edition) is a 1939 basic text, describing how to recover from alcoholism, primarily written by William G. "Bill W." Wilson, one of the founders of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).
Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
The town drunk (also called a tavern fool) is a stock character, almost always male, who is drunk more often than sober.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.
William Duncan Silkworth, M.D., (1873-1951) was an American medical doctor and specialist in the treatment of alcoholism.
Women For Sobriety (WFS) is a non-profit secular addiction recovery group for women with addiction problems.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
A zero-tolerance policy is one which imposes strict punishment for infractions of a stated rule, with the intention of eliminating undesirable conduct.
Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.
--> Zopiclone (brand names Imovane, Zimovane, Dopareel) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.
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