87 relations: Acidosis, ACTH stimulation test, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal ferredoxin, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aldosterone synthase, Aldosterone-to-renin ratio, Angiotensin, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Antimineralocorticoid, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Atrium (heart), Baroreceptor, Biological half-life, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood volume, Calcium, Calcium channel, Calcium channel blocker, Cardiovascular disease, Cell membrane, Channel-inducing factor 4, Cholesterol, Collecting duct system, Corticosteroid, Corticosterone, Cortisol, CYP17A1, Cytochrome, Day, Dentate gyrus, Deoxycorticosterone, Distal convoluted tubule, Enoxolone, Epithelial sodium channel, Heart, Homeostasis, Hormone response element, Hyperaldosteronism, Hypertension, Hypoaldosteronism, Intracellular, James Francis Tait, Juxtaglomerular apparatus, Kidney, Kidney disease, Lipid, ..., Liquorice, Lisinopril, Mechanoreceptor, Mineralocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Mitochondrion, Na+/K+-ATPase, Nephron, Pharmacological Reviews, Plasma renin activity, Potassium, Potassium-sparing diuretic, Primary aldosteronism, Protein subunit, Redox, Renal function, Renin, Renin–angiotensin system, SGK, Sodium, Sodium-chloride symporter, Spirolactone, Spironolactone, Steroid, Steroid 11β-hydroxylase, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, Surgical stress, Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait, Sympathetic nervous system, Transcription (biology), Voltage-gated calcium channel, Water retention (medicine), Zona fasciculata, Zona glomerulosa, 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 21-Hydroxylase. Expand index (37 more) » « Shrink index
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin, tetracosactide, or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin) or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide (cosyntropin, tetracosactrin; Synacthen) or alsactide (Synchrodyn).
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Adrenal ferredoxin (also adrenodoxin (ADX), adrenodoxin, mitochondrial, hepatoredoxin, ferredoxin-1 (FDX1)) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FDX1 gene.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the mass concentration of aldosterone divided by the plasma renin activity in blood plasma.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Channel-inducing factor is a regulatory protein for aldosterone receptors.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.
A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).
The dentate gyrus is part of a brain region known as the hippocampus (part of the hippocampal formation).
Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or desoxycorticosterone, may refer to.
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.
Enoxolone (INN, BAN; also known as glycyrrhetinic acid or glycyrrhetic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative of the beta-amyrin type obtained from the hydrolysis of glycyrrhizic acid, which was obtained from the herb liquorice.
The epithelial sodium channel (short: eNaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions and that is assembled as a heterotrimer composed of three homologous subunits α or δ, β, and γ, These subunits are encoded by four genes: SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
Hyperaldosteronism, also aldosteronism, is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypoaldosteronism is an endocrinological disorder characterized decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
James Francis Tait was an English physicist and endocrinologist.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted.
Lisinopril is a drug of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class used primarily in treatment of high blood pressure, heart failure, and after heart attacks.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Pharmacological Reviews is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing review articles on all aspects of pharmacology and related topics.
Plasma renin activity (PRA), also known as the renin (active) assay or random plasma renin, is a measure of the activity of the plasma enzyme renin, which plays a major role in the body's regulation of blood pressure, thirst, and urine output.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium-sparing diuretics are diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine.
Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn's syndrome, refers to the excess production of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands, resulting in low renin levels.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.
Serine/threonine-protein kinases SGK represent a kinase subfamily with orthologs found across animal clades and in yeast (compare). In most vertebrates, including humans, there are three isoforms encoded by the genes SGK1, SGK2, and SGK3.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The sodium-chloride symporter (also known as Na+-Cl− cotransporter, NCC or NCCT, or as the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl− cotransporter or TSC) is a cotransporter in the kidney which has the function of reabsorbing sodium and chloride ions from the tubular fluid into the cells of the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron.
Spirolactones are a class of functional group in organic chemistry featuring a cyclic ester attatched spiro to another ring system.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
Surgical stress is the systemic response to surgical injury and is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endocrine responses as well as immunological and haematological changes.
Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait (8 January 1917 – 28 February 2003) (née Wardropper, known as Sylvia Simpson from 1941 to 1956) was an English biochemist and endocrinologist.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.
The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.