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Aldosterone

Index Aldosterone

Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. [1]

87 relations: Acidosis, ACTH stimulation test, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal ferredoxin, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aldosterone synthase, Aldosterone-to-renin ratio, Angiotensin, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Antimineralocorticoid, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Atrium (heart), Baroreceptor, Biological half-life, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood volume, Calcium, Calcium channel, Calcium channel blocker, Cardiovascular disease, Cell membrane, Channel-inducing factor 4, Cholesterol, Collecting duct system, Corticosteroid, Corticosterone, Cortisol, CYP17A1, Cytochrome, Day, Dentate gyrus, Deoxycorticosterone, Distal convoluted tubule, Enoxolone, Epithelial sodium channel, Heart, Homeostasis, Hormone response element, Hyperaldosteronism, Hypertension, Hypoaldosteronism, Intracellular, James Francis Tait, Juxtaglomerular apparatus, Kidney, Kidney disease, Lipid, ..., Liquorice, Lisinopril, Mechanoreceptor, Mineralocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Mitochondrion, Na+/K+-ATPase, Nephron, Pharmacological Reviews, Plasma renin activity, Potassium, Potassium-sparing diuretic, Primary aldosteronism, Protein subunit, Redox, Renal function, Renin, Renin–angiotensin system, SGK, Sodium, Sodium-chloride symporter, Spirolactone, Spironolactone, Steroid, Steroid 11β-hydroxylase, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, Surgical stress, Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait, Sympathetic nervous system, Transcription (biology), Voltage-gated calcium channel, Water retention (medicine), Zona fasciculata, Zona glomerulosa, 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 21-Hydroxylase. Expand index (37 more) »

Acidosis

Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).

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ACTH stimulation test

The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin, tetracosactide, or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin) or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide (cosyntropin, tetracosactrin; Synacthen) or alsactide (Synchrodyn).

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Adrenal cortex

Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.

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Adrenal ferredoxin

Adrenal ferredoxin (also adrenodoxin (ADX), adrenodoxin, mitochondrial, hepatoredoxin, ferredoxin-1 (FDX1)) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FDX1 gene.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

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Aldosterone synthase

Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.

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Aldosterone-to-renin ratio

Aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is the mass concentration of aldosterone divided by the plasma renin activity in blood plasma.

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Angiotensin

Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.

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Antimineralocorticoid

An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.

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Atrial natriuretic peptide

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Baroreceptor

Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood volume

Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium channel

A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Channel-inducing factor 4

Channel-inducing factor is a regulatory protein for aldosterone receptors.

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Cholesterol

Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Collecting duct system

The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.

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Corticosteroid

Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Corticosterone

Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.

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Cortisol

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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CYP17A1

Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.

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Cytochrome

Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.

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Day

A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).

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Dentate gyrus

The dentate gyrus is part of a brain region known as the hippocampus (part of the hippocampal formation).

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Deoxycorticosterone

Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or desoxycorticosterone, may refer to.

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Distal convoluted tubule

The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.

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Enoxolone

Enoxolone (INN, BAN; also known as glycyrrhetinic acid or glycyrrhetic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative of the beta-amyrin type obtained from the hydrolysis of glycyrrhizic acid, which was obtained from the herb liquorice.

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Epithelial sodium channel

The epithelial sodium channel (short: eNaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions and that is assembled as a heterotrimer composed of three homologous subunits α or δ, β, and γ, These subunits are encoded by four genes: SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D.

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Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Hormone response element

A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.

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Hyperaldosteronism

Hyperaldosteronism, also aldosteronism, is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).

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Hypertension

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypoaldosteronism

Hypoaldosteronism is an endocrinological disorder characterized decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone.

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Intracellular

In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

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James Francis Tait

James Francis Tait was an English physicist and endocrinologist.

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Juxtaglomerular apparatus

The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney.

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Kidney

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Liquorice

Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted.

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Lisinopril

Lisinopril is a drug of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class used primarily in treatment of high blood pressure, heart failure, and after heart attacks.

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Mechanoreceptor

A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.

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Mineralocorticoid

Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.

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Mineralocorticoid receptor

The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Na+/K+-ATPase

-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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Nephron

The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.

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Pharmacological Reviews

Pharmacological Reviews is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing review articles on all aspects of pharmacology and related topics.

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Plasma renin activity

Plasma renin activity (PRA), also known as the renin (active) assay or random plasma renin, is a measure of the activity of the plasma enzyme renin, which plays a major role in the body's regulation of blood pressure, thirst, and urine output.

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium-sparing diuretic

Potassium-sparing diuretics are diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine.

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Primary aldosteronism

Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn's syndrome, refers to the excess production of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands, resulting in low renin levels.

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Protein subunit

In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.

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Renin

Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.

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Renin–angiotensin system

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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SGK

Serine/threonine-protein kinases SGK represent a kinase subfamily with orthologs found across animal clades and in yeast (compare). In most vertebrates, including humans, there are three isoforms encoded by the genes SGK1, SGK2, and SGK3.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium-chloride symporter

The sodium-chloride symporter (also known as Na+-Cl− cotransporter, NCC or NCCT, or as the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl− cotransporter or TSC) is a cotransporter in the kidney which has the function of reabsorbing sodium and chloride ions from the tubular fluid into the cells of the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron.

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Spirolactone

Spirolactones are a class of functional group in organic chemistry featuring a cyclic ester attatched spiro to another ring system.

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Spironolactone

Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.

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Steroid

A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Steroid 11β-hydroxylase

Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.

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Steroid hormone

A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.

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Steroid hormone receptor

Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.

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Surgical stress

Surgical stress is the systemic response to surgical injury and is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endocrine responses as well as immunological and haematological changes.

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Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait

Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait (8 January 1917 – 28 February 2003) (née Wardropper, known as Sylvia Simpson from 1941 to 1956) was an English biochemist and endocrinologist.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Voltage-gated calcium channel

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.

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Water retention (medicine)

The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.

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Zona fasciculata

The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa.

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Zona glomerulosa

The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.

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11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+.

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21-Hydroxylase

Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.

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Redirects here:

ATC code H02AA01, ATCvet code QH02AA01, Adrenoglomerulotropin, Aldosteron, Receptors, aldosterone.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldosterone

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