310 relations: A Matter of Life and Death (film), Abram Rabinovich, Akiba Rubinstein, Albert Becker (chess player), Alcoholic drink, Alekhine's Defence, Alexander Evenson, Alexander Flamberg, Alexander Kotov, Alexei Alekhine, Alexey Selezniev, Almería, Amsterdam, Anatoly Karpov, Andor Lilienthal, André Muffang, Andrew Soltis, Antonio Medina García, Antonio Rico, Arnold Aurbach, Arnold Denker, Aron Nimzowitsch, Arpad Elo, Arturo Pomar, Asteroid, Augusto de Muro, AVRO 1938 chess tournament, Árpád Vajda, Örebro, Ķemeri, B. Hallegua (chess player), Bad Nauheim, Baden-Baden, Benito Villegas, Benjamin Blumenfeld, Berlin, Bern, Birmingham, Bjørn Nielsen, Bled, Bled 1931 chess tournament, Blindfold chess, Bobby Fischer, Bolsheviks, Boris Koyalovich, Boris Maliutin, Boris Spassky, Boris Verlinsky, Bradley Beach, New Jersey, Braslav Rabar, ..., British Film Institute, Budapest, Budapest Gambit, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Carl Schlechter, Carlos Guimard, Carlsbad 1929 chess tournament, Cascais, Catalan Opening, Cáceres, Spain, Charles Jaffe, Cheka, Chess endgame, Chess Life, Chess Olympiad, Chess opening, Chess theory, Chessmetrics, Chicago, Child prodigy, Cologne, Combination (chess), Communist International, Comparison of top chess players throughout history, Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander, Copyright, Correspondence chess, Cuba, Curt von Bardeleben, Czechoslovakia, Dawid Janowski, Düsseldorf, Dieppe, Doctor of Philosophy, Draw (chess), Dresden, DSB Congress, Duma, Dutch Defence, Dutch East Indies, Edgard Colle, Edmar Mednis, Edward Lasker, Edward Winter (chess historian), Efim Bogoljubov, Ehrhardt Post, Emanuel Lasker, Endgame study, Erich Eliskases, Erik Lundin, Ernst Grünfeld, Erwin Voellmy, Estado Novo (Portugal), Estonia, Estoril, Eugene Znosko-Borovsky, Euro, European Individual Chess Championship, Fedir Bohatyrchuk, FIDE, Folkestone, Francisco Lupi, Frank Marshall (chess player), Fred Reinfeld, Frederick Yates (chess player), French Chess Federation, French Defence, Friedrich Sämisch, Garry Kasparov, Géza Maróczy, Gösta Stoltz, Gedeon Barcza, General Government chess tournament, Gennadi Sosonko, Gerardo Budowski, Gideon Ståhlberg, Gijón, Gold medal, Google Books, Google Maps, Grace Alekhine, Grandmaster (chess), Great Depression, Grigory Levenfish, Gyula Breyer, Hamburg, Han Hollander, Hans Fahrni, Hans Johner, Hans Kmoch, Harry Golombek, Hastings International Chess Congress, Hawaii, Heidelberg, Hermanis Matisons, Hong Kong, Hypermodernism (chess), Ilya Rabinovich, Interregnum of World Chess Champions, Irving Chernev, Isaac Kashdan, Jan Foltys, Jeff Sonas, John Nunn, José Raúl Capablanca, Karel Opočenský, Karlovy Vary, Kecskemét, Ken Whyld, Kevin Spraggett, Kiev, Klaus Junge, Kraków, Lajos Steiner, Latvia, Law, Levon Aronian, Lionel Kieseritzky, Lisbon, Lublin, Luděk Pachman, Ludwig Engels, Madrid, Manila, Mannheim, Mannheim 1914 chess tournament, Manuel Golmayo Torriente, Margate, Mario Napolitano, Marseille, Max Euwe, Melilla, Mexico City, Mikhail Botvinnik, Mikhail Tal, Mikhail Yudovich, Milan Vidmar, Montevideo, Montevideo 1938 chess tournament, Montparnasse Cemetery, Moscow, Moscow City Chess Championship, Movsas Feigins, Munich, Munich 1941 chess tournament, N. Koppelman, New York 1924 chess tournament, New York City, Nice, Nicholas II of Russia, Nicolaas Cortlever, Nikolai Grigoriev, Nikolai Krylenko, Nikolay Pavlov-Pianov, Nordic Chess Championship, Nottingham, Occupation of the Baltic states, Odessa, Oldřich Duras, Oskar Naegeli, Ossip Bernstein, Pasadena, California, Paul Felix Schmidt, Paul Johner, Paul Keres, Paul Morphy, Peter Petrovich Saburov, Peter Romanovsky, PIDE, Piešťany, Plymouth, Poděbrady, Portsmouth, Powell and Pressburger, Prague, Promotion (chess), Public domain, Queen (chess), Queen's Gambit Accepted, Queen's Pawn Game, Ramón Rey Ardid, Reuben Fine, Richard Réti, Richard Teichmann, Robert Byrne (chess player), Rolando Illa, Rotterdam, Rudolf Spielmann, Russian Chess Championship, Russian Empire, Ruy Lopez, Sabadell, Sacrifice (chess), Saint Petersburg, Salo Flohr, Salo Landau, Salzburg, Salzburg 1942 chess tournament, Samuel Reshevsky, Samuil Vainshtein, San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Remo 1930 chess tournament, Sanremo, Savielly Tartakower, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, Scheveningen, Semmering, Austria, Shanghai, Sicilian Defence, Siegbert Tarrasch, Silver medal, Simultaneous exhibition, Singapore, Sir George Thomas, 7th Baronet, Slav Defense, Soviet Union, Sri Lanka, St. Petersburg 1914 chess tournament, Stepan Levitsky, Stockholm, Swiss Chess Championship, Table tennis, Teodor Regedziński, Ternopil, The Hague, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Oxford Companion to Chess, Tokyo, Tournament, Transcription (linguistics), Triberg im Schwarzwald, Tsar, Typesetting, Ukraine, University of Paris, USSR Chess Championship, Vasily Smyslov, Vasily Smyslov Sr., Vienna, Vienna Game, Vilnius, Vladimir Kramnik, Vladimir Nenarokov, Vladimirs Petrovs, Warsaw, White, Wiesbaden, Wilhelm Steinitz, World Chess Championship, World Chess Championship 1927, World Chess Championship 1984, Yakov Vilner, Yiddish, Zandvoort, Zaragoza, Zürich, 1909 Alekhin, 8th Chess Olympiad. 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A Matter of Life and Death is a 1946 British fantasy-romance film written, produced and directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, and set in England during the Second World War.
Abram Rabinovich (Rabinowitsch, Rabinovitch, Rabinovitz, Rabinowicz, Rabinovici) (born 1878, Vilna – died 1943, Moscow) was a Lithuanian–Russian chess master.
Akiba Kiwelowicz Rubinstein (1 December 1880 – 14 March 1961) was a Polish chess grandmaster who is considered to have been one of the strongest players never to have become World Chess Champion.
Albert Becker (5 September 1896 in Vienna – 7 May 1984 in Vicente López), also known as Alberto Becker, was an Austrian–Argentine chess master.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alekhine's Defence is a chess opening which begins with the moves: Black tempts White's pawns forward to form a broad pawn centre, with plans to undermine and attack the white structure later in the spirit of hypermodern defence.
Alexandr Moyseyevich Evensohn (Evenson, Evensson) (1892–1919) was a Russian chess master.
Alexander Flamberg (1880, Warsaw – 24 January 1926, Warsaw) was a Polish chess master.
Alexander Alexandrovich Kotov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Ко́тов; – 8 January 1981) was a Soviet chess grandmaster and author.
Alexei (Alexey) Alekhine (1888–1939) was a Russian chess master and the brother of World Chess Champion Alexander Alekhine.
Alexey (Alex) Sergeyevich Selezniev (Алексе́й Серге́евич Селезнёв, alternative transliterations: Selesniev, Selesniew, Selesnev, Selesnieff; pronounced "selezNYOFF") (1888, Tambov, Russia – June 1967, Bordeaux, France) was a Russian chess master and chess composer.
Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.
Andor (André, Andre, Andrei) Arnoldovich LilienthalReuben Fine, The World's Great Chess Games, Dover Publications, 1983, p. 216.
André Muffang (25 July 1897, St. Brieuc – March 1, 1989, Paris) was a French chess master.
Andrew Eden Soltis (born May 28, 1947 in Hazleton, Pennsylvania) is an American chess grandmaster, author and columnist.
Antonio Ángel Medina García (2 October 1919, Barcelona – 31 October 2003, Barcelona) was a Spanish chess master.
Antonio Rico González (26 February 1908 – 16 December 1988) was a Spanish chess master.
Arnold Aurbach (ca. 1888, Warsaw – 31 December 1952, ?) was a Polish–French chess master.
Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player, Grandmaster, and chess author.
Aron Nimzowitsch (Ārons Nimcovičs, Аро́н Иса́евич Нимцо́вич, Aron Isayevich Nimtsovich; born Aron Niemzowitsch; 7 November 1886 – 16 March 1935) was a Russian-born, Danish leading chess grandmaster and influential chess writer.
Arpad Emmerich Elo (born Árpád Imre Élő; August 25, 1903 – November 5, 1992) was the creator of the Elo rating system for two-player games such as chess.
Arturo Pomar Salamanca (1 September 1931 – 26 May 2016) was a Spanish chess player.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Augusto de Muro (? – 1959) was an Argentine chess player and organizer.
The AVRO tournament was a famous chess tournament held in the Netherlands in 1938, sponsored by the Dutch broadcasting company AVRO.
Árpád Vajda (2 May 1896, Rimaszombat (Rimavská Sobota) – 25 October 1967, Budapest) was a Hungarian chess master.
Örebro is a city with 117,543 inhabitants, the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County in Sweden.
Ķemeri resort (originally Ķemeres, also known as Kemmern) is a part of Jūrmala in Latvia, 44 km from Riga.
Bad Nauheim is a town in the Wetteraukreis district of Hesse state of Germany.
Baden-Baden is a spa town located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany.
Benito Higinio Villegas (11 January 1877 – 27 April 1952) was an Argentine chess master.
Benjamin Blumenfeld (24 May 1884, Vilkaviškis – 5 March 1947, Moscow) was a Russian chess master.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Bjørn (Björn, Bjorn) Nielsen (4 October 1907 – 21 May 1949) was a Danish chess master.
Bled (Veldes,Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 146. in older sources also Feldes) is a town on Lake Bled in the Upper Carniolan region of northwestern Slovenia.
Bled 1931 chess tournament was a major chess tournament proposed by Milan Vidmar and held in 1931 in Bled and Ljubljana, Slovenia, then part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Blindfold chess (also known as sans voir) is a form of chess play wherein the players do not see the positions of the pieces or touch them.
Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Mikhailovich Koyalovich (Koyalovitch, Kojalovich, Kojalowitsch, Kojałowicz) (March 2, 1867 – December 29, 1941) was a Russian mathematician and chess master.
Boris Evgenievich Maliutin (Maljutin, Malyutin, Malutin) (1883–1920) was a Russian chess master.
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Boris Markovich Verlinsky (8 January 1888 in Bakhmut, Ukraine – 30 October 1950 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Ukrainian-Russian International Master of chess.
Bradley Beach is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.
Braslav Rabar (27 September 1919, Zagreb – 6 December 1973, Zagreb) was a Croatian chess International Master (1950) and chess writer.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The Budapest Gambit (or Budapest Defence) is a chess opening that begins with the moves: Despite an early debut in 1896, the Budapest Gambit received attention from leading players only after a win as Black by Grandmaster Milan Vidmar over Akiba Rubinstein in 1918.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
Carl Schlechter (2 March 1874 – 27 December 1918) was a leading Austrian chess master and theoretician at the turn of the 20th century.
Carlos Enrique Guimard (6 April 1913 – 11 September 1998) was an Argentine chess Grandmaster.
The Carlsbad 1929 chess tournament was one of four well-known international chess tournaments held in the spa city of Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia).
Cascais is a coastal town and a municipality in Portugal, west of Lisbon.
The Catalan is a chess opening where White adopts a combination of the Queen's Gambit and Réti Opening: White plays d4 and c4 and fianchettoes the white bishop on g2.
Cáceres is the capital of Cáceres province, in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
Charles Jaffé (Jaffe) (circa 1879, Dubroŭna, Belarus – 12 July 1941, Brooklyn, USA) was a Belarusian-American chess master.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
The monthly Chess Life and bi-monthly Chess Life Kids (formerly School Mates and Chess Life for Kids) are the official magazines published by the United States Chess Federation (US Chess).
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
A chess opening or simply an opening refers to the initial moves of a chess game.
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.
Chessmetrics is a system for rating chess players devised by Jeff Sonas.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
In chess, a combination is a sequence of moves, often initiated by a sacrifice, which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
This article presents a number of methodologies that have been suggested for the task of comparing the greatest chess players in history.
Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander (19 April 1909 – 15 February 1974), known as Hugh Alexander and C. H. O'D.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Correspondence chess is chess or variant chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, often through a correspondence chess server, a public internet chess forum, email, or the postal system.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Curt von Bardeleben (4 March 1861 in Berlin – in Berlin) was a German chess master, journalist, and member of the German nobility.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dawid Markelowicz Janowski (25 May 1868 – 15 January 1927; often spelled David) was a leading Polish chess master and subsequent French citizen.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
The Deutscher Schachbund (DSB) was founded in Leipzig on 18 July, 1877.
A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.
The Dutch Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Black's 1...f5 stakes a serious claim to the e4-square and envisions an attack in the middlegame on White's; however, it also weakens Black's kingside some (especially the e8–h5 diagonal) and contributes nothing to Black's development.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
Edgard Colle (18 May 1897, in Ghent, Belgium – 20 April 1932) was a Belgian chess master.
Edmar John Mednis (Edmārs Mednis) (March 22, 1937 – February 13, 2002) was an American International Grandmaster of chess (awarded in 1980) born in Riga, Latvia.
Edward Lasker (December 3, 1885 – March 25, 1981) was a German-American chess and Go player.
Edward Winter (born 1955) is an English chess journalist, archivist, historian, collector and author.
Efim Dmitriyevich Bogolyubov (also Romanized Bogoljubov, Bogoljubow; April 14, 1889 – June 18, 1952) was a Russian-born German chess grandmaster who won numerous events and played two matches against Alexander Alekhine for the world championship.
Alfred M. Ehrhardt Post (23 September 1881 in Cottbus – 1 August 1947 in Berlin) was a German chess master and functionary.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
In the game of chess, an endgame study, or just study, is a composed position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find the essentially unique way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
Erich Gottlieb Eliskases (15 February 1913 – 2 February 1997) was a chess grandmaster of the 1930s and 1940s, who represented Austria, Germany and Argentina in international competition.
Erik Ruben Lundin (Stockholm 2 July 1904, – Stockholm 5 December 1988) was a Swedish chess master.
---- Ernst Franz Grünfeld (November 21, 1893 – April 3, 1962) was a leading Austrian chess grandmaster and chess writer, mainly on opening theory.
Erwin Voellmy (9 September 1886, Herzogenbuchsee – 15 January 1951, Basel) was a Swiss chess master.
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estoril is a town and a former civil parish in the municipality of Cascais, Portugal, on the Portuguese Riviera.
Eugene Alexandrovich Znosko-Borovsky (Russian: Евгений Александрович Зноско-Боровский; Yevgeny Alexandrovich Znosko-Borovsky) (16 August 1884 – 31 December 1954) was a Russian chess master, music and drama critic, teacher and author.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Individual Chess Championship is a chess tournament organised by the European Chess Union.
Fedir Parfenovych Bohatyrchuk (also Bogatirchuk, Bohatirchuk, Bogatyrtschuk) (in Ukrainian: Федір Парфенович Богатирчук, Fedir Parfenovych Bohatyrchuk; in Russian: Фёдор Парфеньевич Богатырчук, Fyodor Parfenyevich Bogatyrchuk) (27 November 1892 – 4 September 1984) was a Russian-Soviet-Ukrainian-Canadian International Master of chess, and an International Master of correspondence chess.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
Folkestone is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England.
Francisco Lupi (died January 1954) was a Portuguese chess master.
Frank James Marshall (August 10, 1877 – November 9, 1944) was the U.S. Chess Champion from 1909 to 1936, and one of the world's strongest chess players in the early part of the 20th century.
Fred Reinfeld (January 27, 1910 – May 29, 1964) was an American writer on chess and many other subjects.
Frederick Dewhurst Yates (16 January 1884, Birstall – 11 November 1932, London) was an English chess master who won the British Chess Championship on six occasions.
The French Chess Federation (French: Fédération Française des Echecs – FFE) is the national organization for chess in France.
The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: This is most commonly followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending...c5 at a later stage, attacking White's and gaining on the.
Friedrich Sämisch (September 20, 1896, Charlottenburg – August 16, 1975, Berlin) was a German chess Grandmaster (1950).
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Géza Maróczy (3 March 1870 – 29 May 1951) was a Hungarian chess master, one of the leading players in the world in his time.
Gösta Stoltz (May 9, 1904 – July 25, 1963) was a Swedish chess grandmaster.
Gedeon (Gideon) Barcza (August 21, 1911 in Kisújszállás – February 27, 1986 in Budapest) was a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
General Government chess championships (Schachmeisterschaft des Generalgouvernements) were Nazi tournaments held during World War II in occupied central Poland.
Gennadi (Gennady, Genna) Borisovich Sosonko (Геннадий Борисович Сосонко; born 18 May 1943, Troitsk, Russia) is a Dutch chess Grandmaster (GM).
Gerardo Budowski (10 June 1925 – 8 October 2014) was a German–Venezuelan chess master.
Anders Gideon Tom Ståhlberg (or Stahlberg) (26 January 1908, Surte near Gothenburg – 26 May 1967, Leningrad) was a Swedish chess grandmaster.
Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google.
Grace Norton Eisler Peeke Freeman Bromley Alekhine (born Grace Norton Wishaar; 26 October 1876 – 21 February 1956) was an American-British-French artist, chess master, and the fourth and last wife of World Chess Champion Alexander Alekhine, who was her fifth husband.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Grigory Yakovlevich Levenfish (Григо́рий Я́ковлевич Левенфи́ш; in Piotrków – 9 February 1961 in Moscow) was a Russian chess grandmaster who scored his peak competitive results in the 1920s and 1930s.
Gyula "Julius" Breyer (30 April 1893 Budapest – 9 November 1921) was a Hungarian chess player and 1912 Hungarian national champion.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hartog "Han" Hollander (5 October 1886 – 9 July 1943) was the first Dutch radio sports journalist.
Hans Fahrni (1 October 1874 in Prague – 28 May 1939 in Ostermundigen) was a Swiss chess master.
Hans Johner (7 January 1889 in Basle, Switzerland – 2 December 1975 in Thalwil, Switzerland) was a Swiss chess player.
Johann "Hans" Joseph Kmoch (July 25, 1894 in Vienna – February 13, 1973 in New York City) was an Austrian-Dutch-American chess International Master (1950), International Arbiter (1951), and a chess journalist and author, for which he is best known.
Harry Golombek OBE (1 March 1911 – 7 January 1995), was a British chess grandmaster, chess arbiter, chess author, and wartime codebreaker.
The Hastings International Chess Congress is an annual chess tournament which takes place in Hastings, England, around the turn of the year.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Hermanis Matisons (also known as Herman Mattison; 1894, Riga – 1932) was a Latvian chess player and one of world's most highly regarded chess masters in the early 1930s.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hypermodernism is a school of chess that emerged after World War I. It featured challenges to the chess ideas of central European masters, including Wilhelm Steinitz's approach to the centre and the rules established by Siegbert Tarrasch.
Ilya (Elias) Leontievich Rabinovich (Rabinowitsch, Rabinovitch, Rabinovitz, Rabinowicz, Rabinovici) (Илья Рабинович; 11 May 1891, Saint Petersburg – 23 April 1942, Perm) was a Russian / Soviet chess master, among the best Russian and Soviet players for three decades, from 1910 to 1940.
The Interregnum of World Chess Champions was the period between March 24, 1946 (the date of Alexander Alekhine's death) and May 17, 1948 (when Mikhail Botvinnik won a special championship tournament).
Irving Chernev (January 29, 1900 – September 29, 1981) was a chess player and prolific Russian-American chess author.
Isaac Kashdan (19 November 1905 in New York City – 20 February 1985 in Los Angeles) was an American chess grandmaster and chess writer.
Jan Foltys (13 October 1908, Svinov – 11 March 1952, Ostrava, Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic) was a Czech chess International Master.
Jeff Sonas is a statistical chess analyst who invented the Chessmetrics system for rating chess players, which is intended as an improvement on the Elo rating system.
John Denis Martin Nunn (born 25 April 1955 in London) is an English chess grandmaster, a three-time world champion in chess problem solving, a chess writer and publisher, and a mathematician.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.
Karel Opočenský (7 February 1892, Most, Bohemia – 16 November 1975, Prague) was a Czech chess master.
Karlovy Vary or Carlsbad (Karlsbad) is a spa town situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately west of Prague (Praha).
Kecskemét is a city in the central part of Hungary.
Kenneth Whyld (6 March 1926 – 11 July 2003) was a British chess author and researcher, best known as the co-author (with David Hooper) of The Oxford Companion to Chess, a single-volume chess reference work in English.
Kevin Spraggett (born 10 November 1954) is a Canadian chess grandmaster.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Klaus Junge (1 January 1924 at Concepción, Chile – 17 April 1945, at Welle, Germany) was one of the youngest German chess masters.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Lajos Steiner (14 June 1903, in Nagyvárad (Oradea) – 22 April 1975, in Sydney) was a Hungarian–born Australian chess master.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Levon Grigori Aronian (Լևոն Գրիգորի Արոնյան Levon Grigori Aronyan; born 6 October 1982) is an Armenian chess Grandmaster.
Lionel Adalbert Bagration Felix Kieseritzky (in Tartu – in Paris) was a Baltic German chess master, famous primarily for a game he lost against Adolf Anderssen, which because of its brilliance was named "The Immortal Game".
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Luděk Pachman (German: Ludek Pachmann, May 11, 1924 in Bělá pod Bezdězem, today Czech Republic – March 6, 2003 in Passau, Germany) was a Czechoslovak-German chess grandmaster, chess writer, and political activist.
Ludwig Engels (11 December 1905, Düsseldorf, Germany – 10 January 1967, São Paulo, Brazil) was a German–Brazilian chess master.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
The 19th DSB Congress (19. Kongreß des Deutschen Schachbundes), comprising several tournaments, began on 20 July 1914 in Mannheim.
Manuel Golmayo y de la Torriente (12 June 1883, Havana, Cuba – 7 March 1973, Madrid) was a Cuban-Spanish chess master.
Margate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in Kent, England.
Mario Napolitano (10 February 1910, Acquaviva delle Fonti – 31 October 1995, Florence) was an Italian chess master.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Machgielis "Max" Euwe, PhD (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author, and chess administrator.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник,; – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).
Mikhail Mikhailovich Yudovich (8 June 1911 in Roslavl – 19 September 1987 in Moscow) was a Russian chess master, journalist, and writer.
Milan Vidmar (22 June 1885 – 9 October 1962) was a Slovene electrical engineer, chess Grandmaster, chess theorist, chess arbiter, philosopher, and writer.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
The eighth South American Chess Championship (Torneo Sudamericano) took place in Montevideo, Uruguay, from 7th to 25th of March 1938.
Montparnasse Cemetery (Cimetière du Montparnasse) is a cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the city's 14th arrondissement.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
This is a list of the winners of the Moscow City Chess Championship from 1899 to date.
Movsas Feigins or Movša Feigin (28 February 1908 – 11 August 1950) was a Latvian chess master.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Second Europaturnier was held from 8 to 14 September 1941 in Munich.
New York 1924 was an elite chess tournament held in the Alamac Hotel in New York City from March 6 to April 18, 1924.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nicolaas (Nico) Cortlever (14 June 1915, Amsterdam – 5 April 1995) was a Dutch chess master.
Nikalai (Nikolay) Dmitrievich Grigoriev (Никола́й Дми́триевич Григо́рьев) was a Russian chess player and a composer of endgame studies.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Krylenko (p; May 2, 1885 – July 29, 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician.
Nikolay (Nikolai) M. Pavlov-Pianov (Pjanov, Pyanov) (Николай Павлов-Пьянов) was a Russian chess master.
The first Nordic Chess Championship (Nordiska Schackkongressen) took place in Stockholm in 1897.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Oldřich Duras (also Důras; 30 October 1882, Pchery, Bohemia, then Austria-Hungary – 5 January 1957, Prague, then Czechoslovakia) was a leading Czech chess master of the early 20th century.
Ossip Samoilovich Bernstein (20 September 1882 – 30 November 1962) was a Russian-French chess grandmaster and a financial lawyer.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
Paul Felix Schmidt (– 11 August 1984) was an Estonian chess International Master, chess writer, and chemist.
Paul F. Johner (10 September 1887, Zürich, Switzerland – 25 October 1938, Berlin, Germany) was a Swiss chess master.
Paul Keres (January 7, 1916June 5, 1975) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and chess writer.
Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 – July 10, 1884) was an American chess player.
Peter Petrovich Saburov (Sabouroff) (Saint Petersburg – 26 March 1932, Geneva) was a Russian diplomat, chess master and organizer, and musical composer.
Peter Arsenievich Romanovsky (Пётр Арсеньевич Романо́вский; 29 July 1892, Saint Petersburg – 1 March 1964, Moscow) was a Russian chess International Master, International Arbiter, and author.
The PIDE or International and State Defense Police (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) was a Portuguese security agency that existed during the Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar.
Piešťany (Pistyan, Pöstyén, Pieszczany, Píšťany) is a town in Slovakia.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
Poděbrady (Podiebrad) is a historical spa town in the Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
The British film-making partnership of Michael Powell (1905–1990) and Emeric Pressburger (1902–1988)—together often known as The Archers, the name of their production company—made a series of influential films in the 1940s and 1950s.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth to be immediately replaced by the player's choice of a queen, knight, rook, or bishop of the same.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
The queen (♕,♛) is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally.
The Queen's Gambit Accepted (or QGA) is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Queen's Gambit Accepted is the third most popular option on Black's second move, after 2...e6 (the Queen's Gambit Declined) and 2...c6 (the Slav Defense).
The Queen's Pawn Game is any chess opening starting with the move: It is the second most popular opening move after 1.e4.
Ramón Rey Ardid (20 December 1903, Zaragoza – 21 January 1988) was a Spanish chess master.
Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 – March 26, 1993) was an American chess grandmaster, psychologist, university professor, and author of many books on both chess and psychology.
Richard Selig Réti (28 May 1889, Bösing, now Pezinok – 6 June 1929, Prague) was an Austro-Hungarian, later Czechoslovak chess grandmaster, chess author, and composer of endgame studies.
Richard Teichmann (24 December 1868 – 15 June 1925) was a German chess master.
Robert Eugene Byrne (April 20, 1928 – April 12, 2013) was an American chess grandmaster and chess author.
Rolando Illa (6 September 1880, New York City – 3 May 1937, Buenos Aires) was a Cuban–Argentine chess master.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Rudolf Spielmann (5 May 1883 – 20 August 1942) was an Austrian-Jewish chess player of the romantic school, and chess writer.
The Russian Chess Championship has taken various forms.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura.
Sabadell (Latin: Sabatellum) is the second largest city in the comarca of the Vallès Occidental in Catalonia, Spain.
In chess, a sacrifice is a move giving up a piece with the objective of gaining tactical or positional compensation in other forms.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salomon Mikhailovich Flohr (November 21, 1908 – July 18, 1983) was a leading Czech chess grandmaster of the mid-20th century, who became a national hero in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s.
Salo (Salomon) Landau (1 April 1903, Bochnia, Galicia, Austria-Hungary – March 1944,Westerbork Cartotheek NIOD Amsterdam Grodziszcze, Świdnica County, Poland) was a Dutch chess player, who died in a Nazi concentration camp.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
The main organiser of Salzburg 1942, Ehrhardt Post, the Chief Executive of Nazi Grossdeutscher Schachbund, intended to bring together the six strongest players of Germany, the occupied and neutral European countries; world champion Alexander Alekhine, former champion Max Euwe, challenger Paul Keres, former challenger Efim Bogoljubov, winner of European tournament at Munich 1941 Gösta Stoltz, and German champion Paul Felix Schmidt.
Samuel Herman Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski; November 26, 1911 – April 4, 1992) was a Polish chess prodigy and later a leading American chess grandmaster.
Samuil Osipovich Vainshtein (Weinstein, Wainstein, Vainstein, Wajnsztejn) (1894–1942) was a Russian chess master, organizer, publisher and editor.
San Juan (Saint John) is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States.
San Remo 1930 was the first international chess tournament held in the famous San Remo casino.
Sanremo or San Remo (Sanrému, locally date The name of the city is a phonetic contraction of Sant'Eremo di San Romolo, which refers to Romulus of Genoa, the successor to Syrus of Genoa. It is often stated in modern folk stories that Sanremo is a translation of "Saint Remus", a deceased Saint. In Ligurian, his name is San Rœmu. The spelling San Remo is on all ancient maps of Liguria, the ancient Republic of Genoa, Italy in the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Italy. It was used in 1924 in official documents under Mussolini. This form of the name appears still on some road signs and, more rarely, in unofficial tourist information. It has been the most widely used form of the name in English at least since the 19th century.
Ksawery Tartakower (also known as Saviely or Savielly Tartakower in English, less often Xavier Tartacover or Xavier Tartakover; 1887–1956) was a leading Polish and French chess grandmaster.
Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England.
Scheveningen is one of the eight districts of The Hague, Netherlands, as well as a subdistrict (wijk) of that city.
Semmering is a town in the district of Neunkirchen in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.
Siegbert Tarrasch (5 March 1862 – 17 February 1934) was one of the strongest chess players and most influential chess teachers of the late 19th and early 20th century.
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.
A simultaneous exhibition or simultaneous display is a board game exhibition (commonly chess or Go) in which one player (typically of high rank, such as a grandmaster or dan-level player) plays multiple games at a time with a number of other players.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sir George Alan Thomas, 7th Baronet (14 June 1881 – 23 July 1972) was a British badminton, tennis and chess player.
The Slav Defense is a chess opening that begins with the moves: The Slav is one of the primary defenses to the Queen's Gambit.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stepan (Stefan) Levitsky (Levitski, Lewitzki) (25 April 1876, Serpukhov – 21 March 1924, Glubokaya) was a Russian chess master and national chess champion.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Swiss Chess Championship is held annually during two weeks of July.
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.
Teodor (Theodor, Theodore) Regedziński (Regedzinski, Reger) (28 April 1894 – 2 August 1954) was a Polish of German origin chess master.
Ternopil (Ternopil',; Tarnopol; Ternopol'; Tarnopol; Ternepol/Tarnopl; Tarnopol) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on the game of chess, written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
A tournament is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a sport or game.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
Triberg im Schwarzwald is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, located in the Schwarzwald-Baar district in the Black Forest.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The USSR Chess Championship was played from 1921 to 1991.
Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Василий Васильевич Смыслов; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, who was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958.
Vasily Osipovich Smyslov (1881–1943) was a Russian chess master, and the father of Vasily Vasilievich Smyslov, World Chess Champion from 1957–58.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna Game is an opening in chess that begins with the moves: White's second move is less common than 2.Nf3, and is also more recent.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Влади́мир Бори́сович Кра́мник; born 25 June 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Vladimir Ivanovich Nenarokov (January 4, 1880 – December 13, 1953) was a Russian chess master and theoretician.
Vladimirs Petrovs or Vladimir Petrov (27 September 1907 – 26 August 1943) was a Latvian chess master.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The 1927 World Chess Championship was played between José Raúl Capablanca and Alexander Alekhine, in Buenos Aires from September 16 to November 29, 1927.
The World Chess Championship 1984 was a match between challenger Garry Kasparov and defending champion Anatoly Karpov in Moscow from 10 September 1984 to 15 February 1985 for the World Chess Championship title.
Yakov Vilner (1899, Odessa – 29 June 1931, Leningrad) was a Ukrainian chess master.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zandvoort is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
1909 Alekhin, provisional designation, is a stony asteroid and slow rotator from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 17 kilometers in diameter.
The 8th Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE), comprised an 'open' tournament, as well as a Women's World Championship contest.
Alekhine, Alekhine, Alexander, Alekhine, Alexander Alexandrovich, Aleksandr Alekhine, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin, Aleksandr Aloykhin, Aleksandr Alyohin, Aleksandr alehin, Aleksandr alekhine, Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine, Alexander Aljechin, Alexandre Alekhine, Aljechin, Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин.