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Alexander Shulgin

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Alexander Theodore "Sasha" Shulgin (June 17, 1925 June 2, 2014) was an American medicinal chemist, biochemist, organic chemist, pharmacologist, psychopharmacologist, and author. [1]

78 relations: Alameda County, California, Analytical chemistry, Ann Shulgin, Aortic valve, Berkeley, California, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Bioassay, Biochemist, Biochemistry, Biodegradation, Biology, California, Chemical synthesis, Chemistry, Controlled Substances Act, Dillapiole, Dow Chemical Company, DOx, Drug design, Drug Enforcement Administration, Empathogen–entactogen, Erowid, Harvard University, Illinois, Isoquinoline, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Lafayette, California, Leo Zeff, Los Angeles Times, MDMA, Medicinal chemistry, Mensa International, Merck Group, Mescaline, Mexacarbate, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Nature (journal), Oakland, California, Organic chemistry, Pharmacology, Phenethylamine, Philosophy of mind, PiHKAL, Placebo, Postdoctoral researcher, Psilocin, Psychedelic drug, Psychedelic experience, Psychedelic therapy, ..., Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychologist, Psychology, Psychopharmacology, Psychotherapy, Ronin Publishing, Russia, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco State University, Sedative, Shulgin Rating Scale, Substituted phenethylamine, Substituted tryptamine, Surgery, TiHKAL, Tryptamine, UCSF School of Medicine, United States Navy, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, San Francisco, USS Pope (DE-134), World War II, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, 2C (psychedelics), 2C-B, 5-MeO-DALT, 5-MeO-MALT. Expand index (28 more) »

Alameda County, California

Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States.

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Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.

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Ann Shulgin

Ann Shulgin (born 22 March 1931) is an American author and the widow of chemist Alexander Shulgin.

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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.

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Berkeley, California

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.

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Bio-Rad Laboratories

Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.

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Bioassay

A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues.

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Biochemist

Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biodegradation

Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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Dillapiole

Dillapiole is an organic chemical compound and essential oil commonly extracted from dill weed, though it can be found in a variety of other plants such as fennel root.

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Dow Chemical Company

The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.

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DOx

4-substituted-2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamines (DOx) is a chemical class of substituted amphetamine derivatives featuring methoxy groups at the 2- and 5- positions of the phenyl ring, and a substituent such as alkyl or halogen at the 4- position of the phenyl ring.

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Drug design

Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Empathogen–entactogen

Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

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Erowid

Erowid, also called Erowid Center, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals as well as activities and technologies that can produce altered states of consciousness such as meditation, lucid dreaming, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and electroceuticals.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Illinois

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Isoquinoline

Isoquinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound.

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Journal of Organic Chemistry

The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC or J Org, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice in organic and bioorganic chemistry.

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Lafayette, California

Lafayette (formerly, La Fayette) is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States.

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Leo Zeff

Leo Zeff (May 14, 1912 - April 13, 1988)https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/zeff_leo/zeff_leo.shtml was an American psychologist and psychotherapist in Oakland, California who pioneered the use of LSD, ecstasy (MDMA), and other psychoactive drugs in psychotherapy in the 1970s.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.

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Medicinal chemistry

Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

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Mensa International

Mensa is the largest and oldest high IQ society in the world.

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Merck Group

Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.

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Mescaline

Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.

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Mexacarbate

Mexacarbate is a carbamate pesticide developed by Alexander Shulgin and marketed in 1961 by Dow Chemical Company under the trade name Zectran.

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Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies

The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a membership-based 501(c)(3) organization working to raise awareness and understanding of psychedelic substances.

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N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Oakland, California

Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Phenethylamine

Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.

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Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.

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PiHKAL

PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story is a book by Dr.

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Placebo

A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Postdoctoral researcher

A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).

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Psilocin

Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.

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Psychedelic drug

Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.

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Psychedelic experience

A psychedelic experience (or 'trip') is a temporary altered state of consciousness induced by the consumption of psychedelic drugs (such as mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT).

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Psychedelic therapy

Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs, particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, MDMA, mescaline, and 2C-B, primarily to assist psychotherapy.

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Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.

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Psychologist

A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychopharmacology

Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.

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Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Ronin Publishing

Ronin Publishing, Inc. is a small press in Berkeley, California, founded in 1983 and incorporated in 1985, which publishes books as tools for personal development, visionary alternatives, and expanded consciousness.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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San Francisco General Hospital

Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center (SFGH) is a public hospital in San Francisco, California under the purview of the city's Department of Public Health.

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San Francisco State University

San Francisco State University (commonly referred to as San Francisco State, SF State and SFSU) is a public research university located in San Francisco, California, United States.

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Sedative

A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

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Shulgin Rating Scale

The Shulgin Rating Scale (or "quantitative potency scale") is a simple scale for reporting the subjective effect of psychoactive substances at a given dosage, and at a given time.

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Substituted phenethylamine

Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.

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Substituted tryptamine

Substituted tryptamines, or serotonin analogues, are organic compounds which may be thought of as being derived from tryptamine itself.

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Surgery

Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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TiHKAL

TIHKAL: The Continuation is a 1997 book written by Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about a family of psychoactive drugs known as tryptamines.

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Tryptamine

Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.

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UCSF School of Medicine

The UCSF School of Medicine, is the medical school of the University of California, San Francisco, United States, and is located in San Francisco.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of California, San Francisco

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a research university located in San Francisco, California and part of the University of California system.

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USS Pope (DE-134)

USS Pope (DE-134) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine.

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2C (psychedelics)

2C (2C-x) is a general name for the family of psychedelic phenethylamines containing methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of a benzene ring.

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2C-B

2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family.

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5-MeO-DALT

5-MeO-DALT or N,N-di allyl-5-methoxy tryptamine is a psychedelic tryptamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin.

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5-MeO-MALT

5-MeO-MALT (5-Methoxy-N-methyl-N-allyltryptamine) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug that is closely related to 5-MeO-DALT and has been sold online as a designer drug.

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Alexander ("Shasha") Shulgin, Dr. Alexander & Ann Shulgin, Dr. Alexander ("Sasha") Shulgin, Dr. Alexander Shulgin, Sasha Shulgin, Shuglin, Shulgin Research Institute, Shulgin, Alexander, The Simple Plant Isoquinolines.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Shulgin

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