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The Aśvakas (Sanskrit: अश्वक), also known as the Ashvakas, Aśvakayanas or Asvayanas and sometimes Latinised as Assacenii/Assacani, were a people who lived in what is now north-eastern Afghanistan and the Peshawar Valley.
Abdalonimus (Ἀβδαλώνιμος; literally "servant of the most high gods") was a gardener, but of royal descent, who was made king of Sidon by Alexander the Great in 332 BC.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
Ada of Caria (Ἄδα) (fl. 377 – 326 BC)377 BC is the date of her father's death: was a member of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) and ruler of Caria in the 4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and later as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III (the Great) of Macedon.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agis III (Greek: Ἄγις) was the eldest son of Archidamus III, and the 21st Eurypontid king of Sparta.
Ai-Khanoum (Aï Khānum, also Ay Khanum, lit. “Lady Moon” in Uzbek), possibly the historical Alexandria on the Oxus, also possibly later named اروکرتیه or Eucratidia) was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. Previous scholars have argued that Ai Khanoum was founded in the late 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great. Recent analysis now strongly suggests that the city was founded c. 280 BC by the Seleucid king Antiochus I. The city is located in Takhar Province, northern Afghanistan, at the confluence of the Panj river and the Kokcha river, both tributaries of the Amu Darya, historically known as the Oxus, and at the doorstep of the Indian subcontinent. Ai-Khanoum was one of the focal points of Hellenism in the East for nearly two centuries, until its annihilation by nomadic invaders around 145 BC about the time of the death of Eucratides. The site was excavated through archaeological work by a (DAFA) mission under between 1964 and 1978, as well as Russian scientists. The work had to be abandoned with the onset of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, during which the site was looted and used as a battleground, leaving very little of the original material.
Alcetas I (Ἀλκέτας) (390/385 – 370 BC) was a king of Epirus, the son of Tharrhypas.
Alexander is a common male given name, and a less common surname.
Alexander I of Epirus (Ἀλέξανδρος Α' τῆς Ἠπείρου, 370 BC – 331 BC), also known as Alexander Molossus (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μολοσσός), was a king of Epirus (350–331 BC) of the Aeacid dynasty.
Alexander IV (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Δ΄; 323–309 BC), erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus, was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Princess Roxana of Bactria.
The Alexander Mosaic, dating from circa 100 BC, is a Roman floor mosaic originally from the House of the Faun in Pompeii.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος), son of Aeropus of Lyncestis, was a native of the upper Macedonian district called Lyncestis, whence he is usually called Alexander of Lynkestis or Alexander Lyncestes.
The Romance of Alexander is any of several collections of legends concerning the exploits of Alexander the Great.
The Alexander Sarcophagus is a late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great.
The story of Dhul-Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين, literally "The Two-Horned One", also transliterated as Zul-Qarnain or Zulqarnain), mentioned in the Quran, may be a reference to Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BC), popularly known as Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great, a Dramatic Poem is a work by Irish poet and playwright Aubrey Thomas de Vere.
The Balkan campaign of '''Alexander''' the Great took place in 335 BC, against a number of rebellious vassals of the Macedonian kingdom.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexandria is a city in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great.
Alexandria Bucephalous (also variously known as Alexandria Bucephalus, Alexandria Bucephala, Bucephala, or Bucephalia), was a city founded by Alexander the Great in memory of his beloved horse Bucephalus.
Alexandria Eschate or Alexandria Eskhata (Greek Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη), literally "Alexandria the Farthest", was a city founded by Alexander the Great, at the south-western end of the Fergana Valley (modern Tajikistan) in August 329 BCE.
Alexandropolis in the Thracian region of Maedians, was the first town founded in 340 BC by Alexander the Great, after defeating a local Thracian tribe, as a regent (epitropos) of Macedon.
In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ἀμαζόνες,, singular Ἀμαζών) were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians.
Amfissa (Άμφισσα, also mentioned in classical sources as Amphissa) is a town in Phocis, Greece, part of the municipality of Delphi, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.
In the Archaic period of Greek history, an amphictyony (ἀμφικτυονία), a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient religious association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis.
Amphipolis (Αμφίπολη - Amfipoli; Ἀμφίπολις, Amphípolis) is best known for being a magnificent ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Amyntas III (Greek: Ἀμύντας Γ΄; died 370 BC) was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon in 393 BC, and again from 392 to 370 BC.
Amyntas IV (Greek: Ἀμύντας Δ΄) was a titular king of Macedonia in 359 BC and member of the Argead dynasty.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world.
The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.
The Antigonid dynasty (Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antipater (Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
Aornos (Ἄορνος) was the Ancient Greek name for the site of Alexander the Great's last siege: "the climax to Alexander's career as the greatest besieger in history" according to Robin Lane Fox, a biographer of Alexander.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apoxyomenos (the "Scraper") is one of the conventional subjects of ancient Greek votive sculpture; it represents an athlete, caught in the familiar act of scraping sweat and dust from his body with the small curved instrument that the Romans called a strigil.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Macedonian Greek royal house.
Aria (Ἀρ(ε)ία Ar(e)ía, آريا; Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua) is the name of an Achaemenid region centered on the Herat city of present-day western Afghanistan.
Ariobarzanes (in Ἀριοβαρζάνης, in آریو برزن; also spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan (meaning "exalting the Aryans"); died 330 BC), also known as Ariobarzanes the Brave, was an Achaemenid prince, satrap and a Persian military commander who led a last stand of the Persian army at the Battle of the Persian Gate against Macedonian King Alexander the Great in the winter of 330 BC.
Aristobulus of Cassandreia (c. 375 BC – 301 BC), Greek historian, son of Aristobulus, probably a Phocian settled in Cassandreia, accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) (338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
Attalus (Greek: Ἄτταλος; c. 390 BC – 336 BC), important courtier of Macedonian king Philip II of Macedonia.
The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
The Attic talent (a talent of the Attic standard), also known as the Athenian talent or Greek talent (τάλαντον, talanton), is an ancient unit of mass equal to 26 kg, as well as a unit of value equal to this amount of pure silver.
Aubrey Thomas de Vere (10 January 181420 January 1902) was an Irish poet and critic.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
A banquet is a large meal or feast, complete with main courses and desserts, often served with ad libitum alcoholic beverages, such as wine or beer.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes.
The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, on November 5, 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Empire, led by Darius III, in the second great battle of Alexander's conquest of Asia.
The Battle of Jaxartes was a battle fought in 329 BC by Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army against the Scythians at the Syr Darya River, the modern name for the River Jaxartes.
The Battle of Megalopolis was fought in 331 BC between Spartan led forces and Macedonia.
The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire.
The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought in 326 BC between Alexander the Great and King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the river Jhelum (known to the Greeks as Hydaspes) in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent (modern-day Punjab, Pakistan).
The Battle of the Persian Gate was a military conflict between Achaemenid Persian army, commanded by the satrap of Persis, Ariobarzanes, and the invading Hellenic League, commanded by Alexander the Great.
The Battle of Uxian Defile was fought by Alexander the Great against the Uxian tribe of the Persian Empire.
The Battle of Thebes was a battle that took place between Alexander the Great and the Greek city state of Thebes in 335 BC immediately outside of and in the city proper in Boeotia.
Beas is a riverfront town in the Amritsar district of the Majha region of the Eastern Punjab (India).
The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bessus, also known as Artaxerxes V (died summer 329 BC), was a prominent Persian Satrap of Bactria in Persia, and later self-proclaimed King of Kings of Persia.
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Bucephalus or Bucephalas (Βουκέφαλος or Βουκεφάλας, from βούς bous, "ox" and κεφαλή kephalē, "head" meaning "ox-head") (– June 326 BC) was the horse of Alexander the Great, and one of the most famous horses of antiquity.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Buner District (د بونیر ولسوالی) is a district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
The calicheamicins are a class of enediyne antitumor antibiotics derived from the bacterium Micromonospora echinospora, with calicheamicin γ1 being the most notable.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
Callisthenes of Olynthus ((); Καλλισθένης; c. 360 – 328 BC) was a well-connected Greek historian in Macedon who accompanied Alexander the Great during the Asiatic expedition.
In architecture the capital (from the Latin caput, or "head") or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster).
Cappadocian Greeks also known as Greek Cappadocians (Έλληνες-Καππαδόκες, Ελληνοκαππαδόκες, Καππαδόκες; Kapadokyalı Rumlar) or simply Cappadocians are a Greek community native to the geographical region of Cappadocia in central-eastern Anatolia, roughly the Nevşehir Province and surrounding provinces of modern Turkey.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
Cassander (Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, Kassandros Antipatrou; "son of Antipatros": c. 350 BC – 297 BC), was king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, and de facto ruler of much of Greece from 317 BC until his death.
Chaeronea (or; Χαιρώνεια Khaironeia) is a village and a former municipality in Boeotia, Greece, located about 80 kilometers east of Delphi.
Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
The term charisma (pl. charismata, adj. charismatic) has two senses.
The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
This is a chronology of the early European exploration of Asia.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Cleitus (Ancient Greek: Κλεῖτος; ruled c. 356 – 335 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Dardanian State attested in 335 BC.
Cleitus (Clitus) the Black (Κλεῖτος ὁ μέλας; c. 375 BC – 328 BC) was an officer of the Macedonian army led by Alexander the Great.
Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη), born Cleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα) was a mid-4th century BC Macedonian noblewoman, niece of Attalus, and last of the seven wives of Philip II of Macedon.
Cleopatra of Macedonia (Κλεοπάτρα; c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was a Greek Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus.
Clinical Toxicology (until 2005, Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology) is a peer-reviewed medical journal of clinical toxicology.
Coenus (Greek: Koῖνος; died 326 BC), a son of Polemocrates and son-in-law of Parmenion, was one of the ablest and most faithful generals of Alexander the Great in his eastern expedition.
Contrapposto is an Italian term that means counterpoise.
The Cophen Campaign was conducted by Alexander the Great between May 327 BCDodge 1890, p. 509 and March 326 BC.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture.
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
Craterus or Krateros (Κρατερός; c. 370 BC – 321 BC) was an ancient Macedonian general under Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
The culture of Iran (Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world.
The Cyropaedia, sometimes spelled Cyropedia, is a largely fictional biography of Cyrus the Great the founder of Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.
The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece.
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.
For the Corinthian of the 7th century, see Demaratus of Corinth Demaratus was a Corinthian prominent amongst the pro-Macedonians and connected by hospitality with the family of Philip of Macedon.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
Dhul-Qarnayn, (ذو القرنين), or Zulqarnayn, "he of the two horns" (or figuratively “he of the two ages”), appears in Surah 18 verses 83-101 of the Quran as a figure empowered by Allah to erect a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog, the representation of chaos.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
The meeting of Diogenes of Sinope and Alexander the Great is one of the most well-discussed anecdotes from philosophical history.
Dion or Dio (Δίον, Díon; Δίο, Dío; Dium) is a village and a former municipality in the Pieria regional unit, Greece.
Dodona (Doric Greek: Δωδώνα, Dōdṓna, Ionic and Attic Greek: Δωδώνη, Dōdṓnē) in Epirus in northwestern Greece was the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus.
Drangiana or Zarangiana (Δραγγιανή, Drangianē; also attested in Old Western Iranian as Zranka was a historical region and administrative division of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around Hamun Lake, wetlands in endorheic Sistan Basin on the Iran-Afghan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in what is nowadays southwestern region of Afghanistan.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Ecbatana (𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", אַחְמְתָא, Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus,Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
Elateia (Ελάτεια) was an ancient Greek city of Phocis, and the most important place in that region after Delphi.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
Epirus (Northwest Greek: Ἄπειρος, Ápeiros; Attic: Ἤπειρος, Ḗpeiros) was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessaly and Macedonia to the east, and Illyrian tribes to the north. For a brief period (280–275 BC), the Epirote king Pyrrhus managed to make Epirus the most powerful state in the Greek world, and his armies marched against Rome during an unsuccessful campaign in Italy.
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse".
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Erigyius (in Greek Eριγυιoς; died 328 BC), a Mytilenaean, son of Larichus, was an officer in Alexander the Great's army.
In Greek mythology, Eros (Ἔρως, "Desire") was the Greek god of sexual attraction.
Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη – from ευρύς eurys, "wide" and δίκη dike, "right, custom, usage, law; justice", literally "wide justice") was an ancient Greek queen from Macedon, wife of king Amyntas III of Macedon.
Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.
The Fountain of Youth is a spring that supposedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks or bathes in its waters.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gangaridai (Γανγαρίδαι; Latin: Gangaridae) is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman writers to describe a people or a geographical region of the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
Gastrointestinal perforation, also known as ruptured bowel, is a hole in the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
Gedrosia (Γεδρωσία) is the Hellenized name of the part of coastal Baluchistan that roughly corresponds to today's Makran.
The Getae or or Gets (Γέται, singular Γέτης) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania.
Glaucias (Γλαυκίας; ruled 335 – c. 302 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Taulantii state which dominated Illyrian affairs in the second half of the 4th century BC.
Gog and Magog (גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) in the Hebrew Bible may be individuals, peoples, or lands; a prophesied enemy nation of God's people according to the Book of Ezekiel, and according to Genesis, one of the nations descended from Japheth, son of Noah.
The Gordian Knot is a legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great.
Gordium (Γόρδιον, Górdion; Gordion or Gordiyon) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia.
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons, Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature.
Grandiose delusions (GD), delusions of grandeur, expansive delusions also known as megalomania are a subtype of delusion that occur in patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including two-thirds of patients in manic state of bipolar disorder, half of those with schizophrenia, patients with the grandiose subtype of delusional disorder, and a substantial portion of those with substance abuse disorders.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greco-Buddhism, or Graeco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD in Bactria and the Indian subcontinent, corresponding to the territories of modern-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, India, and Pakistan.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.
The role of Greek Buddhist monks in the development of the Buddhist faith under the patronage of Emperor Ashoka around 260 BCE and subsequently during the reign of the Indo-Greek king Menander (r. 165/155–130 BCE) is described in the Mahavamsa, an important non-canonical Theravada Buddhist historical text compiled in Sri Lanka in the 6th century in the Pali language.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
In earlier times, the Balkan Mountains were known as the Haemus Mons.
Halicarnassus (Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός, Halikarnāssós or Ἀλικαρνασσός, Alikarnāssós, Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city which stood on the site of modern Bodrum in Turkey.
Hamadān or Hamedān (همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Harpalus (Greek: Ἅρπαλος) son of Machatas was an aristocrat of Macedon and boyhood friend of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Hegesias of Magnesia (Ἡγησίας ὁ Μάγνης), Greek rhetorician, and historian, flourished about 300 BC.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Hellenistic influence on Indian art reflects the artistic influence of the Greeks on Indian art following the conquests of Alexander the Great, from the end of the 4th century BCE to the first centuries of our era.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hephaestion (Ἡφαιστίων Hephaistíon; c. 356 BC – 324 BC), son of Amyntor, was an ancient Macedonian nobleman and a general in the army of Alexander the Great.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Heracles of Macedon (Ἡρακλῆς; c. 327 – 309 BC) was a reputed illegitimate son of Alexander the Great of Macedon by Barsine, daughter of Satrap Artabazus of Phrygia.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
Heterochromia is a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The history of Syria covers events which occurred on the territory of the present Syrian Arab Republic and events which occurred in Syria (region).
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
The House of the Faun (Casa del Fauno), built during the 2nd century BC, was one of the largest and most impressive private residences in Pompeii, Italy, and housed many great pieces of art.
Hund is a small village in Swabi district, situated on the right bank of the Indus River about 15 km upstream of Attock Fort and at a distance of about 80 km to the east of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, of Pakistan.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, and usually combine Hellenistic and Indian elements.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.
Jandial near the city of Taxila in Pakistan is the site of an ancient temple well known for its Ionic columns.
A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
Johann Gustav Bernhard Droysen (6 July 180819 June 1884) was a German historian.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus Frontinus; century) was a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire.
The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Karagiozis or Karaghiozis (Καραγκιόζης, Turkish; Karagöz) is a shadow puppet and fictional character of Greek folklore, originating in the Turkish shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat.
The Kasta Tomb, also known as the Amphipolis Tomb (Τάφος της Αμφίπολης), is an ancient Macedonian tomb that was discovered inside the Kasta mound (or tumulus) near Amphipolis, Central Macedonia, in northern Greece in 2012 and first entered in August 2014.
Kerman Province (استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
Kunar Valley is a valley in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Lanike or Lanice (Greek: Λανίκη), also called Hellanike or Alacrinis, daughter of Dropidas, was the sister of Cleitus the Black and the nurse of Alexander the Great.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός Hellenikos, "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after the battle of Chaeronea and succeeded by Alexander the Great at 336 BC, to facilitate the use of military forces in the war of Greece against Persia.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Leonidas of Epirus or Leuconides, was a kinsman of Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, who was entrusted with the main superintendence of Alexander's education in his earlier years, apparently before he became a student of Aristotle.
Leonnatus (Λεοννάτος; 356 BC – 322 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi. He was a member of the royal house of Lyncestis, a small kingdom that had been included in Macedonia by King Philip II of Macedon.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of the Ancient Macedonians.
The Milesians were the inhabitants of Miletus, an ancient Greek city in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey, near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and at the mouth of the Meander River.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This is a list of people known as "the Great".
This is a list of tributaries of the Danube by order of entrance.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
Lord of Asia (Κύριος της Ασίας) was the title given to Alexander the Great after the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC.
Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Λυκία, Lykía; Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland.
Lynkestis (also Lyncestis, Λυγκηστίς meaning "land of the lynx") or Lyncus (Λύγκος) was a region, and in earlier times a Greek kingdom of Upper Macedonia, located on the southern borders of Illyria and Paeonia.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos; c. 360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("King") in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.
Lysimachus of Acarnania (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos) was one of the tutors of Alexander the Great.
Lysippos (Λύσιππος) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies.
Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; – June 218) was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218.
The Maedi (also Maidans, Maedans, or Medi; Ancient Greek Μαῖδοι) were a Thracian tribe in antiquity.
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Makran (مکران), (pronounced) is a semi-desert coastal strip in Balochistan, in Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malhi is a surname native to the Punjab region of India and Pakistan.
The Mallian Campaign was conducted by Alexander the Great from November 326 to February 325 BC, against the Malli of the Punjab.
A man-at-arms was a soldier of the High Medieval to Renaissance periods who was typically well-versed in the use of arms and served as a fully armoured heavy cavalryman.
Marmara Ereğlisi is a town, located in a district bearing the same name, in Tekirdağ Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus (Μαυσωλεῖον τῆς Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ; Halikarnas Mozolesi) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene. The Mausoleum was approximately in height, and the four sides were adorned with sculptural reliefs, each created by one of four Greek sculptors—Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus. The finished structure of the mausoleum was considered to be such an aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was destroyed by successive earthquakes from the 12th to the 15th century, the last surviving of the six destroyed wonders. The word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb.
Mavronéri (Greek: “Black Water”) is a river identified with the River Styx of Greek mythology according to Hesiod’s description in Theogony.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
Medius or Medeios (Μήδιος, Mήδειoς), son of Oxythemis, was a native of Larissa in Thessaly, an officer and friend of Alexander the Great, and a senior commander under Antigonus I Monophthalmus.
Meleager (Mελέαγρος Meleagros; died 323 BC) was a Macedonian officer who served Alexander the Great with distinction.
Memnon of Rhodes (Μέμνων ὁ Ῥόδιος, 380 – 333 BC) was a prominent Greek commander in the service of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Mieza (Μίεζα), "shrine of the Nymphs", was a village in Ancient Macedon, where Aristotle taught the boy Alexander the Great between 343 BC and 340 BC.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
The Molossians were an ancient Greek tribe and kingdom that inhabited the region of Epirus since the Mycenaean era.
Mong or Mung (مونگ) is a town and Union Council of Mandi Bahauddin District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
Mount Ossa (Όσσα), alternative Kissavos (Κίσσαβος, from South Slavic kisha "wet weather, rain"), is a mountain in the Larissa regional unit, in Thessaly, Greece.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
Nearchus or Nearchos (Νέαρχος; – 300 BC) was one of the officers, a navarch, in the army of Alexander the Great.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian Nḫt-Ḥr-(n)-Ḥbyt, "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360—342 BC) was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt. Under Nectanebo II, Egypt prospered. During his reign, the Egyptian artists delivered a specific style that left a distinctive mark on the reliefs of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Like his indirect predecessor Nectanebo I, Nectanebo II showed enthusiasm for many of the cults of the gods within ancient Egyptian religion, and more than a hundred Egyptian sites bear evidence of his attentions. Nectanebo II, however, undertook more constructions and restorations than Nectanebo I, commencing in particular the enormous Egyptian temple of Isis (the Iseum). For several years, Nectanebo II was successful in keeping Egypt safe from the Achaemenid Empire. However, betrayed by his former servant, Mentor of Rhodes, Nectanebo II was ultimately defeated by the combined Persian and Greek forces in the Battle of Pelusium (343 BC). The Persians occupied Memphis and then seized the rest of Egypt, incorporating the country into the Achaemenid Empire. Nectanebo fled south and preserved his power for some time; his subsequent fate is unknown.
Neoptolemus I of Epirus (Νεοπτόλεμος Α' Ηπείρου) (370–357 BC) was a Greek king of Epirus and son of Alcetas I, and father of Troas, Alexander I of Epirus and Queen Olympias.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nicaea was a city in what is now the Punjab, one of the two cities founded by Alexander the Great on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river.
The Nine Worthies are nine historical, scriptural, and legendary personages who personify the ideals of chivalry as were established in the Middle Ages.
In Buddhism, symbolic offerings are made to the Triple Gem, giving rise to contemplative gratitude and inspiration.
Olympias (Ὀλυμπιάς,, c. 375–316 BC) was a daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, sister to Alexander I of Epirus, fourth wife of Philip II, the king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia, and mother of Alexander the Great.
Olynthus (Ὄλυνθος Olynthos, named for the ὄλυνθος olunthos, "the fruit of the wild fig tree") was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, about 2.5 kilometers from the sea, and about 60 stadia (c. 9–10 kilometers) from Poteidaea.
Onesicritus (Ὀνησίκριτος; c. 360 BC – c. 290 BC), a Greek historical writer, who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns in Asia.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Opis (Akkadian Upî or Upija; Ὦπις) was an ancient Babylonian city near the Tigris, not far from modern Baghdad.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
Orontobates (in Greek Ὀρoντoβάτης. Old Persian Aurandabad, lived 4th century BC) was a Persian, who married the daughter of Pixodarus, the usurping satrap of Caria, and was sent by the king of Persia to succeed him.
Oxyartes (Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼, Greek: Oxyártēs, in Persian: وخشارد (Vaxš-ard), from an unattested form in an Old Iranian language: *Huxšaθra-) was a Sogdian or Bactrian nobleman of Bactria, father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander of Macedon.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
A page or page boy is traditionally a young male attendant or servant, but may also have been used for a messenger at the service of a nobleman.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Pamphylia (Παμφυλία, Pamphylía, modern pronunciation Pamfylía) was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).
The Panjkora River (دریائے پنجکوڑہ) is a river in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwestern Pakistan.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Parmenion (also Parmenio; Παρμενίων; c. 400 – Ecbatana, 330 BC) was an ancient Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories of Alexander the Great between his generals after his death in 323 BC.
The Partition of Triparadisus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 321 BCE between the generals (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and arranged the repartition of the satrapies of Alexander's empire among themselves.
Parysatis, the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III of Persia, married Alexander the Great in 324 BC at the Susa weddings.
Pasargadae (from Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian Pāθra-gadā, "protective club" or "strong club"; Modern Persian: پاسارگاد Pāsārgād) was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC); it was also the location of his tomb.
The Pataliputra capital is a monumental rectangular capital with volutes and Classical Greek designs, that was discovered in the palace ruins of the ancient Mauryan Empire capital city of Pataliputra (modern Patna, northeastern India).
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Patroclus (Πάτροκλος, Pátroklos, "glory of the father") was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus.
The Pauliśa Siddhānta (literally, "The scientific-treatise of Pauliśa Muni") refers to multiple Indian astronomical treatises, at least one of which is based on a Western source.
Pauravas or Paurav Rashtra was an ancient Indian kingdom in the northwest Indian subcontinent (present-day Pakistan and India).
Pausanias of Orestis (Greek: Παυσανίας ἐκ τῆς Ὀρεστίδος) was a member of Philip II of Macedon's somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
Pederasty in ancient Greece was a socially acknowledged romantic relationship between an adult male (the erastes) and a younger male (the eromenos) usually in his teens.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Perdiccas (Περδίκκας, Perdikkas; c. 355 BC – 321/320 BC) became a general in Alexander the Great's army and participated in Alexander's campaign against Persia.
Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Persian Gates was the ancient name of the pass now known as Tang-e Meyran, connecting Yasuj with Sedeh to the east, crossing the border of the modern Kohgiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad and Fars provinces of Iran, passing south of the Kuh-e-Dinar massif, part of the Zagros Mountains.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Peter Morris Green (born 22 December 1924), Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series.
The phalanx (φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Philip (Φίλιππoς; died 326 BC), son of Machatas and brother of Harpalus, was an officer in the service of Alexander the Great, who was appointed by him in 327 BC satrap of India, including the provinces westward of the Hydaspes, as far south as the junction of the Indus with the Acesines.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Philip III Arrhidaeus (Φίλιππος Γ΄ ὁ Ἀρριδαῖος; c. 359 BC – 25 December, 317 BC) reigned as king of Macedonia from after 11 June 323 BC until his death.
Philotas (Greek: Φιλώτας, died October 330 BC) was the eldest son of Parmenion, one of Alexander the Great's most experienced and talented generals.
Pisidia (Πισιδία, Pisidía; Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, bordering Caria, Lydia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, and corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey.
Pixodarus (in Greek Πιξώδαρoς; ruled 340–335 BC), was a ruler of Caria, nominally the Persian Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polyaenus or Polyenus (see ae (æ) vs. e; Πoλύαινoς, Polyainos, "much-praised") was a 2nd-century Macedonian author, known best for his Stratagems in War (in Greek, Στρατηγήματα), which has been preserved.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Potidaea (Ποτίδαια, Potidaia) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point of the peninsula of Pallene, the westernmost of three peninsulas at the southern end of Chalcidice in northern Greece.
Priene (Priēnē; Prien) was an ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about north of the then course of the Maeander (now called the Büyük Menderes or "Big Maeander") River, from ancient Anthea, from ancient Aneon and from ancient Miletus.
The Priene Inscription is a dedicatory inscription by Alexander the Great that was discovered at the Temple of Athena Polias, in the city of Priene in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) in the nineteenth century.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
Proskynesis or proscynesis (Greek προσκύνησις, proskúnēsis) refers to the traditional Persian act of bowing or prostrating oneself before a person of higher social rank.
The Ptolemaic cult of Alexander the Great was an imperial cult in Hellenistic Egypt in the 3rd–1st centuries BC, promoted by the Ptolemaic dynasty.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Ptolemy IX Soter IIAll male Ptolemaic rulers were titled Ptolemy in honor of their great Macedonian ancestor, Ptolemy I Soter, with Ptolemy IX also taking the same title Soter as the original Ptolemy.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjabi University is a state university located in Patiala, Punjab, India.
A pyre (πυρά; pyrá, from πῦρ, pyr, "fire"), also known as a funeral pyre, is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution.
Pythius, also known as Pytheos or Pythis, was a Greek architect of the 4th century BC.
Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historian, probably of the 1st century, author of his only known and only surviving work, Historiae Alexandri Magni, "Histories of Alexander the Great", or more fully Historiarum Alexandri Magni Macedonis Libri Qui Supersunt, "All the Books That Survive of the Histories of Alexander the Great of Macedon." Much of it is missing.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The rack is a torture device consisting of a rectangular, usually wooden frame, slightly raised from the ground, with a roller at one or both ends.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world (and beyond), occurred in the span of just 25 years, between 359 and 336 BC.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Roxana (Ῥωξάνη; Old Iranian Raoxshna; sometimes Roxanne, Roxanna, Rukhsana, Roxandra and Roxane) was a SogdianChristopoulos, Lucas (August 2012), "Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China (240 BC – 1398 AD)," in Victor H. Mair (ed), Sino-Platonic Papers, No.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The Royal Road was an ancient highway, part of the Silk Road and the Uttara Path built in ancient South Asia and Central Asia, reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
The sarissa or sarisa (σάρισα) was a long spear or pike about in length.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
A scimitar is a backsword or sabre with a curved blade, originating in the Middle East.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control, is the ability to regulate one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior in the face of temptations and impulses.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
Cyropolis was the largest of seven towns in the region that Alexander the Great targeted for conquest in 329 BC.
The Siege of Gaza was an incident in the Egyptian campaign of Alexander the Great in 332 BC.
The Siege of Halicarnassus was fought between Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Persian Empire in 334 BC.
The Siege of Miletus was Alexander the Great's first siege and naval encounter with the Achaemenid Empire.
The Siege of Pelium was undertaken by Alexander the Great against the Illyrian tribes of what is modern-day Albania.
The Siege of Tyre was orchestrated by Alexander the Great in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Persians.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sirras or Sirrhas (Σίρρας; d. 390 BC) was a prince, royal member and perhaps prince-regent of Lynkestis (Lyncestis) in Upper Macedonia for his father-in-law King Arrhabaeus (423–393 BC).
Sisygambis (died 323 BC) was the mother of Darius III of Persia, whose reign was ended during the wars of Alexander the Great.
The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes, a fortress located north of Bactria in Sogdiana (near Samarkand), was captured by the forces of Alexander the Great in the early spring of 327 BC as part of his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire.
Somatophylakes (Σωματοφύλακες; singular: somatophylax, σωματοφύλαξ), in its literal English translation from Greek, means "bodyguards".
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Speusippus (Σπεύσιππος; c. 408 – 339/8 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher.
The earliest reliably documented mention of the spherical Earth concept dates from around the 6th century BC when it appeared in ancient Greek philosophy but remained a matter of speculation until the 3rd century BC, when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the Earth as a physical given.
A sphinx (Σφίγξ, Boeotian: Φίξ, plural sphinxes or sphinges) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion.
Spitamenes (in old Persian Spitamaneh; Greek Σπιταμένης; 370 BC – 328 BC) was a Sogdian warlord, leader of the uprising in Sogdiana and Bactria against Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, in 329 BC.
Spondylitis is an inflammation of the vertebra.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stagira, Stagirus, or Stageira (Στάγειρα or Στάγειρος) was an ancient Greek city, located in central Macedonia, near the eastern coast of the peninsula of Chalkidice, and is chiefly known for being the birthplace of Aristotle, who was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
Stateira II (Στάτειρα; died 323 BC), possibly also known as Barsine, was the daughter of Stateira I and Darius III of Persia.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
The Susa weddings was a mass wedding arranged by Alexander of Macedon in 324 BC in the Persian city of Susa.
Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Taulantii or Taulantians (Greek: Ταυλάντιοι) was the name of a cluster of Illyrian tribes.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Taxiles (in Greek Tαξίλης or Ταξίλας; lived 4th century BC) was the Greek chroniclers' name for a prince or king who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Jhelum (Hydaspes) Rivers in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent at the time of Alexander the Great's expedition.
The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis.
Termessos (Greek Τερμησσός) was a Pisidian city built at an altitude of more than 1000 metres at the south-west side of the mountain Solymos (modern-day Güllük Dağı) in the Taurus Mountains (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).
According to the mythological Greek Alexander Romance, Queen Thalestris (Θάληστρις) of the Amazons brought 300 women to Alexander the Great, hoping to breed a race of children as strong and intelligent as he.
Tharrhypas (Greek: Θαρύπας, 430 - 392 BC) was a king of the Molossians and ancestor of Alexander the Great.
The Anabasis of Alexander (Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἀνάβασις, Alexándrou Anábasis; Anabasis Alexandri) was composed by Arrian of Nicomedia in the second century AD, most probably during the reign of Hadrian.
Polybius’ Histories (Ἱστορίαι Historíai) were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety.
The Mahabharata Quest: The Alexander Secret is the second novel by Indian author Christopher C. Doyle and was released on 9 October 2014 by Westland Publishers.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Thermopylae (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek: Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic: Θερμοπύλες: "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.
Thessalus was an eminent tragic actor (hypocrites) in the time of Alexander the Great, whose especial favour he enjoyed, and whom he served before his accession to the throne, and afterwards accompanied on his expedition into Asia.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
The Tomb of Cyrus (Persian: آرامگاه کوروش بزرگ translit. ārāmgāh-e kuroş-e bozorg) is the monument of Cyrus the Great approximately 1 km southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
The Triballi (Τριβαλλοί, Triballoí) were an ancient tribe whose dominion was around the plains of modern southern SerbiaGeorge Grote: History of Greece: I. Legendary Greece.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
A tutor is a person who provides assistance or tutelage to one or more people on certain subject areas or skills.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Uxii were a tribal confederation of non-Iranian semi-nomadic people who lived somewhere in the Zagros Mountains.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
Veratrum Album (commonly known as false helleborine, white hellebore, European white hellebore, or white veratrum; syn. Veratrum lobelianum Bernh) is a poisonous medicinal plant of the Liliaceae or Melanthiaceae.
Vergina (Βεργίνα) is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
The Wars of the Diadochi (Πόλεμοι των Διαδόχων), or Wars of Alexander's Successors, were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire after his death.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes West Nile fever.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
The Yavanajātaka (Sanskrit: yavana 'Greek' + jātaka 'nativity'.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Aleksandar ī Hrōmāyīg, Aleksander the Great, Alex the great, Alexander III of Macedon, Alexander Macedonian, Alexander Magnus, Alexander The Great, Alexander of Macedonia, Alexander the Macedonian, Alexander the graet, Alexander the great, Alexander-the-great, AlexanderTheGreat, Alexandrian Empire, Alexandrian era, Alexandrian period, Alexandros III of Macedon, Alexandros the Great, Alexnader the great, Aléxandros ho Mégas, Great Alexander, Iskandar Zulkarnain, Iskander the Accursed, Letter to Darius II, Letter to Darius III, Megas aleksandros, Sikandar Mahan, Sikandar-e-Azam, Sikunder, Αλέξανδρος ο Μέγας, Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος, Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας.