288 relations: A. J. Ayer, Abiogenesis, Abstract and concrete, Abstraction, Academic library, Albert Einstein, Alexander Bard, Alexander Macfarlane, Algebraic structure, American Mathematical Monthly, Americans, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Analytic philosophy, Andrew Forsyth, Anthropologist, Anti-intellectualism, Antithesis, Aristotelian Society, Aristotle, Arthur Eddington, Asymptote, Augustus De Morgan, Axiom, Øystein Ore, B. F. Skinner, Bernard Loomer, Bertrand Russell, Boundary (topology), Bruce G. Epperly, Bruno Latour, Buddhism, Business administration, Business ethics, C. D. Broad, C. H. Waddington, C. Robert Mesle, Cambridge Apostles, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cartesianism, Catherine Keller (theologian), Causality, Causation (law), Center for Process Studies, Character structure, Charles Birch, Charles Hartshorne, Charles Sanders Peirce, Chatham House Grammar School, Claremont Graduate University, ..., Claremont School of Theology, Claremont, California, Clifford Martin Will, Commerce, Computer science, Confucianism, Consciousness, Continental philosophy, Cosmology, Creativity, Criticism of Christianity, Critique of Pure Reason, Daniel Day Williams, David Bohm, David Hume, David Lloyd George, David Ray Griffin, Dorion Sagan, Dorset, Ecological civilization, Ecological economics, Ecology, Economics, Edmund F. Robertson, Education reform, Educational sciences, Edward Routh, Electron, Emergent evolution, Emotion, Empirical evidence, Empirical research, Environmental ethics, Epistemology, Eric Voegelin, Ervin László, Essence, Eternity, European Graduate School, Event (philosophy), Experience, F. H. Bradley, F. S. C. Northrop, Faith, Feeling, Fellow, Feminism, First principle, Franklin I. Gamwell, Garrett Birkhoff, Gary Dorrien, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, General relativity, Geneticist, George Ballard Mathews, George Boole, George Santayana, Gifford Lectures, Gilles Deleuze, God, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Graduate school, Gravitational constant, Gravitational wave, Grawemeyer Award, Great Books of the Western World, Gregory Vlastos, Harvard University, Henri Bergson, Henry Murray, Henry Nelson Wieman, Henry Osborn Taylor, Henry Stapp, Herman Daly, Hermann Grassmann, History of mathematics, Hyperbolic quaternion, Ilya Prigogine, Imagination, Immanence, Immanuel Kant, Immutability (theology), Impassibility, Imperial College London, Industrialisation, Inert knowledge, Interdisciplinarity, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Interpretation (philosophy), Isaac Newton, Isabelle Stengers, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, James Joseph Sylvester, Jan Söderqvist, Jay McDaniel, John B. Cobb, John Dewey, John Lighton Synge, John Locke, John Searle, Jules Vuillemin, Julius Caesar, Kent, Kurt Gödel, Libertarianism, Library of Living Philosophers, Lie algebra, List of metaphysicians, Logic, Lowell Institute, Ludwig Wittgenstein, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, Management, Marjorie Hewitt Suchocki, Mary Parker Follett, Mathematical Association, Mathematical logic, Mathematical proof, Mathematician, Mathematics, Matter, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Mechanism (philosophy), Mereotopology, Metaphysics, Michel Weber, Milič Čapek, Mind, Mind–body dualism, Modern Library, Modernization theory, Monica Coleman, Morality, Nachlass, Nancy R. Howell, Nature (journal), Nature (philosophy), Neopragmatism, Nicholas Rescher, NPR, Ontology, Organizational behavior, Organizational theory, Panentheism, Panpsychism, Participatory culture, Paul Arthur Schilpp, Paul Cohn, Paul Weiss (philosopher), Pedagogy, Perception, Personal identity, Philosopher, Philosophy, Philosophy Now, Philosophy of Management, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of science, Physics, Plato, Post-structuralism, Postcolonialism, Pragmatism, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Principia Mathematica, Process and Reality, Process philosophy, Process theology, Progressive Christianity, Public school (United Kingdom), Quantum mechanics, Quaternion, Ramsgate, Raphael Demos, Reification (fallacy), Relationalism, Religion, Religious experience, René Descartes, Richard Rorty, Roland Faber, Royal Flying Corps, Royal Society, Rule of inference, Rupert Sheldrake, Self-consciousness, Sense, Sewall Wright, Shailer Mathews, Sherborne School, Slavery, Social liberalism, Social science, Sociology, Spatial relation, Spirituality, Standardized test, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State University of New York, Stephen Cole Kleene, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Susanne Langer, Sustainability, Symbol, Talcott Parsons, Taoism, Tarner Lectures, Teleology, The New York Times, The Vancouver Sun, Theism, Theocracy, Theology, Thomas North Whitehead, Transdisciplinarity, Trinity College, Cambridge, Unconscious mind, Undergraduate education, Universal algebra, Universe, University College London, University of Chicago Divinity School, University of London, University of Saskatchewan, University of St Andrews, War, Western canon, Western philosophy, Whitehead Research Project, Whitehead's theory of gravitation, Wilfred Eade Agar, Willard Van Orman Quine, William James, William Rowan Hamilton, William Temple (bishop), Wolfgang Smith, Wrangler (University of Cambridge), 20th-century philosophy. 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Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander Bengt Magnus Bard (born 17 March 1961) is a Swedish songwriter, record producer, TV personality and religious and political activist.
Prof Alexander Macfarlane FRSE LLD (21 April 1851 – 28 August 1913) was a Scottish logician, physicist, and mathematician.
In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure on a set A (called carrier set or underlying set) is a collection of finitary operations on A; the set A with this structure is also called an algebra.
The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894.
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Prof Andrew Russell Forsyth, FRS, FRSE (18 June 1858, Glasgow – 2 June 1942, South Kensington) was a British mathematician.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Anti-intellectualism is hostility to and mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectualism commonly expressed as deprecation of education and philosophy, and the dismissal of art, literature, and science as impractical and even contemptible human pursuits.
Antithesis (Greek for "setting opposite", from ἀντί "against" and θέσις "placing") is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect.
The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy, more generally known as the Aristotelian Society, was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880, at 17 Bloomsbury Square.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.
In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.
Augustus De Morgan (27 June 1806 – 18 March 1871) was a British mathematician and logician.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
Øystein Ore (7 October 1899 – 13 August 1968) was a Norwegian mathematician known for his work in ring theory, Galois connections, graph theory, and the history of mathematics.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
Bernard MacDougall Loomer (March 5, 1912 – August 15, 1985) was an American professor and theologian.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S. More precisely, it is the set of points in the closure of S not belonging to the interior of S. An element of the boundary of S is called a boundary point of S. The term boundary operation refers to finding or taking the boundary of a set.
Bruce Gordon Epperly (born 1952 in California) is a theologian, minister, and author.
Bruno Latour (born 22 June 1947) is a French philosopher, anthropologist and sociologist.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Business administration is management of a business.
Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.
Charlie Dunbar Broad (30 December 1887 – 11 March 1971), usually cited as C. D. Broad, was an English epistemologist, historian of philosophy, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, and writer on the philosophical aspects of psychical research.
Conrad Hal Waddington CBE FRS FRSE (8 November 1905 – 26 September 1975) was a British developmental biologist, paleontologist, geneticist, embryologist and philosopher who laid the foundations for systems biology, epigenetics, and evolutionary developmental biology.
The Cambridge Apostles is an intellectual society at the University of Cambridge founded in 1820 by George Tomlinson, a Cambridge student who went on to become the first Bishop of Gibraltar.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Cartesianism is the philosophical and scientific system of René Descartes and its subsequent development by other seventeenth century thinkers, most notably Nicolas Malebranche and Baruch Spinoza.
Catherine Keller (born 1953) is a contemporary Christian theologian and Professor of Constructive Theology at Drew University's Graduate Division of Religion.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Causation is the "causal relationship between conduct and result".
The Center for Process Studies was founded in 1973 by John B. Cobb and David Ray Griffin to encourage exploration of the relevance of process thought to many fields of reflection and action.
A character structure is a system of secondary traits that are manifested in the specific ways that an individual relates and reacts to others, to various kinds of stimuli, and to the environment.
Louis Charles Birch FAA (8 February 1918 in Melbourne – 19 December 2009) was an Australian geneticist specialising in population ecology and was also well known as a theologian, writing widely on the topic of science and religion, winning the Templeton Prize in 1990.
Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was an American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
Chatham House Grammar School was an all boys grammar school in Ramsgate, Kent, England, that was merged in September 2011 with its sister school Clarendon House Grammar School to become the Chatham & Clarendon Grammar School.
Claremont Graduate University (CGU) is a private, all-graduate research university located in Claremont, California, a city east of downtown Los Angeles.
Claremont School of Theology (CST) is a graduate school located in Claremont, California, offering Master of Art, Masters of Divinity, Doctorate of Ministry and Ph.D. degrees in religion and theology.
Claremont is a city on the eastern edge of Los Angeles County, California, United States, east of downtown Los Angeles.
Clifford Martin Will (born 1946) is a Canadian born mathematical physicist who is well known for his contributions to the theory of general relativity.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
Criticism of Christianity has a long history stretching back to the initial formation of the religion during the Roman Empire.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Daniel Day Williams (1910 – December, 1973) was a process theologian, professor, and author.
David Joseph Bohm FRS (December 20, 1917 – October 27, 1992) was an American scientist who has been described as one of the most significant theoretical physicists of the 20th centuryF.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
David Ray Griffin (born August 8, 1939 in Wilbur, Washington) is a retired American professor of philosophy of religion and theology, and a political writer.
Dorion Sagan (born 1959) is an American author, essayist, fiction writer, and theorist from Madison, Wisconsin.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
Ecological civilization is the final goal of environmental reform within a given society.
Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edmund Frederick Robertson (born 1 June 1943 in St Andrews, Scotland) is a Professor emeritus of pure mathematics at the University of St Andrews.
Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education.
Education sciences (traditionally often called pedagogy) and education theory seek to describe, understand, and prescribe educational policy and practice.
Edward John Routh FRS (20 January 1831 – 7 June 1907), was an English mathematician, noted as the outstanding coach of students preparing for the Mathematical Tripos examination of the University of Cambridge in its heyday in the middle of the nineteenth century.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Emergent evolution was the hypothesis that, in the course of evolution, some entirely new properties, such as mind and consciousness, appear at certain critical points, usually because of an unpredictable rearrangement of the already existing entities.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Eric Voegelin (born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin;; January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a German-born American political philosopher.
Ervin László (born 12 June 1932) is a Hungarian philosopher of science, systems theorist, integral theorist, originally a classical pianist.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Eternity in common parlance is an infinitely long period of time.
The European Graduate School (EGS) is a cross-disciplinary institution of higher education awarding Masters and Doctoral degrees within its two divisions: Arts, Health and Society (AHS), and Philosophy, Art and Critical Thought (PACT).
In philosophy, events are objects in time or instantiations of properties in objects.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Francis Herbert Bradley OM (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British idealist philosopher.
Filmer Stuart Cuckow Northrop (November 27, 1893 in Janesville, Wisconsin – July 21, 1992 in Exeter, New Hampshire) was an American philosopher.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
A fellow is a member of a group (or fellowship) that work together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
A first principle is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption.
Franklin I. Gamwell is a scholar of the philosophy of religion, Christian theology, and philosophical ethics.
Garrett Birkhoff (January 19, 1911 – November 22, 1996) was an American mathematician.
Gary John Dorrien (born March 21, 1952) is an American social ethicist and theologian.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms.
George Ballard Mathews, FRS (23 February 1861 — 19 March 1922) was an English mathematician.
George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
The Gifford Lectures are an annual series of lectures which were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (died 1887).
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
The Grawemeyer Awards are five awards given annually by the University of Louisville.
Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952, by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., to present the Great Books in a 54-volume set.
Gregory Vlastos (Γρηγόριος Βλαστός; July 27, 1907 – October 12, 1991) was a scholar of ancient philosophy, and author of several works on Plato and Socrates.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Henry Alexander Murray (May 13, 1893 – June 23, 1988) was an American psychologist at Harvard University.
Henry Nelson Wieman (1884–1975) was an American philosopher and theologian.
Henry Osborn Taylor (1856 – April 13, 1941) was an American historian and legal scholar.
Henry Pierce Stapp (born March 23, 1928 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American mathematical physicist, known for his work in quantum mechanics, particularly the development of axiomatic S-matrix theory, the proofs of strong nonlocality properties, and the place of free will in the "orthodox" quantum mechanics of John von Neumann.
Herman Edward Daly (born July 21, 1938) is an American ecological and Georgist economist and emeritus professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States.
Hermann Günther Grassmann (Graßmann; April 15, 1809 – September 26, 1877) was a German polymath, known in his day as a linguist and now also as a mathematician.
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
In abstract algebra, the algebra of hyperbolic quaternions is a nonassociative algebra over the real numbers with elements of the form where multiplication is determined with rules that are similar to (but different from) multiplication in the quaternions.
Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.
Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The Immutability of God is an attribute that "God is unchanging in his character, will, and covenant promises." The Westminster Shorter Catechism says that " is a spirit, whose being, wisdom power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth are infinite, eternal, and unchangeable." Those things do not change.
Impassibility (from Latin in-, "not", passibilis, "able to suffer, experience emotion") describes the theological doctrine that God does not experience pain or pleasure from the actions of another being.
Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inert knowledge is information which one can express but not use.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
A philosophical interpretation is the assignment of meanings to various concepts, symbols, or objects under consideration.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isabelle Stengers (born 1949) is a Belgian philosopher, noted for her work in the philosophy of science.
Ivor Owen Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941 – 12 December 2014) was a historian of mathematics and logic.
James Joseph Sylvester FRS (3 September 1814 – 15 March 1897) was an English mathematician.
Jan Söderqvist (born 1961) is an author, lecturer, writer and consultant, and among other things also working as a literary and film critic for the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet.
Jay B. McDaniel is an American philosopher and theologian.
John B. Cobb Jr. (Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, born February 9, 1925) is an American theologian, philosopher, and environmentalist.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Lighton Synge (23 March 1897 – 30 March 1995) was an Irish mathematician and physicist, whose seven decade career included significant periods in Ireland, Canada, and the USA.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.
Jules Vuillemin (15 February 1920 – 16 January 2001) was a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy of Knowledge at the prestigious Collège de France, in Paris, from 1962 to 1990, succeeding Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Professor emeritus from 1991 to 2001.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
The Library of Living Philosophers is a series of books conceived of and started by Paul Arthur Schilpp in 1939; Schilpp remained editor until 1981.
In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.
This is a list of metaphysicians, philosophers who specialize in metaphysics.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The Lowell Institute is a United States educational foundation located in Boston, Massachusetts, providing both free public lectures, and also advanced lectures.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson and hosted by the University of St Andrews in Scotland.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Marjorie Hewitt Suchocki (born 1933) is an author and United Methodist professor emerita of theology at Claremont School of Theology.
Mary Parker Follett (September 3, 1868 – December 18, 1933) was an American social worker, management consultant, philosopher, and pioneer in the fields of organizational theory and organizational behavior.
The Mathematical Association is a professional society concerned with mathematics education in the UK.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
In formal ontology, a branch of metaphysics, and in ontological computer science, mereotopology is a first-order theory, embodying mereological and topological concepts, of the relations among wholes, parts, parts of parts, and the boundaries between parts.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.
Milič Čapek, (26 January 1909 – 17 November 1997) was a Czech–American philosopher.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
The Modern Library is an American publishing company.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Monica A. Coleman (born 1974) is a contemporary theologian associated with process theology and womanist theology.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Nachlass (older spelling Nachlaß) is a German word, used in academia to describe the collection of manuscripts, notes, correspondence, and so on left behind when a scholar dies.
Nancy R. Howell (b. ca. 1955) is an American educator.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.
Neopragmatism, sometimes called linguistic pragmatism, is the philosophical tradition that infers that the meaning of words is a function of how they are used, rather than the meaning of what people intend for them to describe.
Nicholas Rescher (born 15 July 1928) is a German-American philosopher at the University of Pittsburgh.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is "the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself".
Organizational theory consists of approaches to organizational analysis.
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
In philosophy, panpsychism is the view that consciousness, mind, or soul (psyche) is a universal and primordial feature of all things.
Participatory culture is an opposing concept to consumer culture — in other words a culture in which private individuals (the public) do not act as consumers only, but also as contributors or producers (prosumers).
Paul Arthur Schilpp (February 6, 1897 – September 6, 1993) was an American educator.
Paul Moritz Cohn FRS (8 January 1924 – 20 April 2006) was Astor Professor of Mathematics at University College London, 1986-9, and author of many textbooks on algebra.
Paul Weiss (May 19, 1901 – July 5, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy Now is a bimonthly philosophy magazine sold from news-stands and book stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada; it is also available on digital devices, and online.
Philosophy of Management is a peer-reviewed academic journal that examines philosophical issues of management in theory and practice.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.
Process and Reality is a book by Alfred North Whitehead, in which Whitehead propounds a philosophy of organism, also called process philosophy.
Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.
Process theology is a type of theology developed from Alfred North Whitehead's (1861–1947) process philosophy, most notably by Charles Hartshorne (1897–2000) and John B. Cobb (b. 1925).
Progressive Christianity is a "post-liberal movement" within Christianity "that seeks to reform the faith via the insights of post-modernism and a reclaiming of the truth beyond the verifiable historicity and factuality of the passages in the Bible by affirming the truths within the stories that may not have actually happened." Progressive Christianity represents a post-modern theological approach, and is not necessarily synonymous with progressive politics.
A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC).
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.
Ramsgate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in east Kent, England.
Raphael Demos (January 23, 1892 – August 8, 1968) was Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy and Civil Polity, emeritus, at Harvard University and an authority on the work of the Greek philosopher Plato.
Reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete real event or physical entity.
Relationalism is any theoretical position that gives importance to the relational nature of things.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Roland Faber (born 1960) is an author and Kilsby Family/John B. Cobb, Jr., Professor of Process Studies at Claremont School of Theology and Professor of Religion and Philosophy at Claremont Graduate University.
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
In logic, a rule of inference, inference rule or transformation rule is a logical form consisting of a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a conclusion (or conclusions).
Alfred Rupert Sheldrake (born 28 June 1942) is an English author, and researcher in the field of parapsychology, who developed the concept of "morphic resonance".
Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of self-awareness.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
Shailer Mathews (May 26, 1863 – October 23, 1941) was a liberal Christian theologian, involved with the Social Gospel movement.
Sherborne School is a British independent boys' school, located in the town of Sherborne in north-west Dorset, England.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
A spatial relation,D.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
The State University of New York (SUNY) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States.
Stephen Cole Kleene (January 5, 1909 – January 25, 1994) was an American mathematician.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.
Susanne Katherina Langer (née Knauth; December 20, 1895 – July 17, 1985) was an American philosopher, writer, and educator and was well known for her theories on the influences of art on the mind.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Tarner lectures are a series of public lectures in the philosophy of science given at Trinity College, Cambridge since 1916.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on 12 February 1912.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Thomas North Whitehead (31 December 1891, Cambridge, England – 22 November 1969, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an early English human relations theorist and researcher, best known for The Industrial Worker, a two-volume statistical analysis of the Hawthorne experiments.
Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach.
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of Chicago Divinity School is a private graduate institution at the University of Chicago dedicated to the training of academics and clergy across religious boundaries.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Saskatchewan (U of S) is a Canadian public research university, founded on March 19, 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The Whitehead Research Project (WRP) is dedicated to the research of, and scholarship on, the texts, philosophy, and life of Alfred North Whitehead.
In theoretical physics, Whitehead's theory of gravitation was introduced by the mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead in 1922.
Wilfred Eade Agar FRS (27 April 1882 – 14 July 1951) was an Anglo-Australian zoologist.
Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.
William Temple (15 October 1881 – 26 October 1944) was a bishop in the Church of England.
Wolfgang Smith (born 1930) is a mathematician, physicist, philosopher of science, metaphysician, Roman Catholic and member of the Traditionalist School.
At the University of Cambridge in England, a "Wrangler" is a student who gains first-class honours in the third year of the University's undergraduate degree in mathematics.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.