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Algae fuel

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Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils. [1]

195 relations: Acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation, Algaculture, Algae, Algae fuel, Algae scrubber, AlgaePARC, Algal Research, Algenol, Alkenone, Alternative fuel, Anaerobic digestion, Andeavor, Animal feed, Ankistrodesmus, Aquatic Species Program, Arizona Public Service, Ateneo de Manila University, Autotroph, Basil, Biochemical engineering, Biochemical oxygen demand, Biodegradation, Biodiesel, BioFields (company), Biofuel, Biogas, Biogasoline, Biological hydrogen production (algae), Biomass, Bioreactor, Biorefinery, Biotechnology, Botryococcus braunii, Butanol fuel, By-product, Canadian Natural Resources, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon neutrality, Cedar Lake, Indiana, Chlorella, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Citronella oil, Clostridia, Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum, Cogeneration, Cosmetics, Craig Venter, Cranfield University, Crypthecodinium cohnii, ..., Culture Biosystems, Cyanobacteria, Cyanotoxin, Cymbopogon martinii, Diatom, Diesel fuel, Dietary supplement, Docosahexaenoic acid, Dodecane, Dunaliella, E85, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Energy density, Enzyme, Ethanol, Ethanol fuel, Euglena gracilis, European Algae Biomass Association, European Commission, Exelon, ExxonMobil, Fatty acid, Fatty acid methyl ester, Fishery, Flash point, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Fresh water, Gasification, Genetic engineering, Geraniol, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, Government of South Australia, Gracilaria, GreenFuel Technologies Corporation, Hans Günther Aach, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Heterotroph, Hexane, Hydrocarbon, Hydrothermal liquefaction, Imperial College London, Indianapolis, Internal combustion engine, International Renewable Energy Alliance, Jacobs University Bremen, Jatropha, Joule Unlimited, Ketch Harbour, Nova Scotia, Lipid, List of algal fuel producers, Lufthansa, Maine, Maize, Methane, Methanogenesis, Methanol fuel, Michael Evenari, Microalgae, Microorganism, Monounsaturated fat, Nannochloris, Nannochloropsis, Nannochloropsis and biofuels, National Algae Association, National Biodiesel Board, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Research Council (Canada), National Science Foundation, Natural gas, Neochloris oleoabundans, Newcastle University, Nitrogen, Nitzschia, Nutrient, Ocean Nutrition Canada, Ocean thermal energy conversion, Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station, Perthshire, Petroleum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Philippines, Phosphorus, Photobioreactor, Phycology, Phytoplankton, Pleurochrysis carterae, Polyunsaturated fat, Porphyridium cruentum, Potassium, Prymnesium parvum, Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Pyrolysis, Raw material, Reliance Industries, Renewable hydrocarbon fuels via decarboxylation/decarbonylation, Residual sodium carbonate index, Rex Tillerson, Rose oil, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salmon, Sandia National Laboratories, Sapphire Energy, Sargassum, Scenedesmus, Schizochytrium, Sea lettuce, Seaweed, Seville, Silicon dioxide, Sludge, Sonora, South San Francisco, California, Spanish National Research Council, Spirulina (dietary supplement), Spirulina (genus), Stichococcus, Synthetic Genomics (company), Tax credit, TerraVia, Tetraselmis suecica, Thalassiosira pseudonana, The Christian Science Monitor, The Famous Grouse, Thermal depolymerization, Transesterification, Triglyceride, Ukraine, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, University College London, University of Brighton, University of Cambridge, University of Georgia, University of Glasgow, University of Manchester, University of Sheffield, Vegetable oil refining, Virgin Atlantic, Wastewater, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Worldwatch Institute, Yeast, 2007–08 world food price crisis. Expand index (145 more) »

Acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation

Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a process that uses bacterial fermentation to produce acetone, n-Butanol, and ethanol from carbohydrates such as starch and glucose.

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Algaculture

Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae.

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Algae fuel

Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils.

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Algae scrubber

An algae scrubber is a water filtering device (not to be confused with a scrubber pad used to clean glass) which uses light to grow algae; in this process, undesirable chemicals are removed from the water.

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AlgaePARC

Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) has constructed AlgaePARC (Algae Production And Research Centre) at the Wageningen Campus.

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Algal Research

Algal Research is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on emerging technologies in algae biology, biomass production, cultivation, harvesting, extraction, bioproducts, and econometrics that was established in 2012.

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Algenol

Algenol, founded in 2006, headquartered in Fort Myers, Florida, Algenol is an industrial biotechnology company that is commercializing patented algae technology for production of ethanol and other fuels.

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Alkenone

Alkenones are long-chain unsaturated methyl and ethyl n-ketones produced by a few phytoplankton species of the class Prymnesiophyceae.

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Alternative fuel

Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional and advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels like; fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors.

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Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

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Andeavor

Andeavor, formerly known as Tesoro Corporation, or simply as Tesoro, is a Fortune 100 and a Fortune Global 500 company headquartered in Texas at San Antonio, with 2013 annual revenues of $37 billion, and over 13,000 employees worldwide.

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Animal feed

Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.

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Ankistrodesmus

Ankistrodesmus is a genus of green algae in the family Selenastraceae.

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Aquatic Species Program

The Aquatic Species Program was a research program in the United States launched in 1978 by President Jimmy Carter and was funded by the United States Department of Energy, which over the course of nearly two decades looked into the production of energy using algae.

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Arizona Public Service

Arizona Public Service Company is the largest electric utility in Arizona, United States and the principal subsidiary of publicly traded S&P 500 member Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, which in turn had been formerly named AZP Group, when Arizona Public Service reorganized as that holding company in 1985.

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Ateneo de Manila University

The Ateneo de Manila University (Filipino: Pamantasang Ateneo de Manila; Spanish: Universidad Ateneo de Manila) is a private research university in Quezon City, Philippines.

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Autotroph

An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).

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Basil

Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).

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Biochemical engineering

Biochemical engineering also bioprocess engineering, is a branch of chemical engineering or biological engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules, such as bioreactors.

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Biochemical oxygen demand

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.

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Biodegradation

Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Biodiesel

Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.

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BioFields (company)

BioFields is a Mexican industrial group that produces biofuels from blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).

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Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Biogas

Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

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Biogasoline

Biogasoline is gasoline produced from biomass such as algae.

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Biological hydrogen production (algae)

The biological hydrogen production with algae is a method of photobiological water splitting which is done in a closed photobioreactor based on the production of hydrogen as a solar fuel by algae.

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Biomass

Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Bioreactor

A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.

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Biorefinery

A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Botryococcus braunii

Botryococcus braunii (Bb) is a green, pyramid-shaped planktonic microalga that is of potentially great importance in the field of biotechnology.

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Butanol fuel

Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.

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By-product

A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Canadian Natural Resources

Canadian Natural Resources Limited, or CNRL or Canadian Natural, is a Canadian oil and gas exploration, development and production company, with its corporate head office in Calgary, Alberta.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality, or having a net zero carbon footprint, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference.

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Cedar Lake, Indiana

Cedar Lake is a town in Hanover and Center townships, Lake County, Indiana, United States.

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Chlorella

Chlorella is a genus of single-celled green algae belonging to the division Chlorophyta.

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Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a species of the freshwater green algae genus Chlorella.

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Citronella oil

Citronella oil Citronella oil is an essential oil obtained from the leaves and stems of different species of Cymbopogon (lemongrass).

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Clostridia

The Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera.

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Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum

Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum is an indole and notably butanol-producing bacteria, with type strain N1-4 (HMT) (.

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Cogeneration

Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.

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Cosmetics

Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.

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Craig Venter

John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman.

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Cranfield University

Cranfield University is a British postgraduate and research-based public university specialising in science, engineering, technology and management.

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Crypthecodinium cohnii

Crypthecodinium cohnii is a species of dinoflagellate microalgae.

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Culture Biosystems

Culture Biosystem, originally known as Culture Fuels, Inc.

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Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Cyanotoxin

Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae).

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Cymbopogon martinii

Cymbopogon martinii is a species of grass in the genus Cymbopogon (lemongrasses) native to India and Indochina, but widely cultivated in many places for its aromatic oil.

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Diatom

Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.

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Dodecane

Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series.

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Dunaliella

Dunaliella is a genus of the algae family Dunaliellaceae.

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E85

E85 is an abbreviation typically referring to an ethanol fuel blend of 85% ethanol fuel and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume.

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Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fuel

Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.

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Euglena gracilis

Euglena gracilis is a species of single-celled Eukaryote algae in the genus Euglena.

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European Algae Biomass Association

The European Algae Biomass Association, established on June 2, 2009, is the European association representing both research and industry in the field of algae technologies.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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Exelon

Exelon Corporation is an American Fortune 100 energy company headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

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ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fatty acid methyl ester

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are a type of fatty acid ester that are derived by transesterification of fats with methanol.

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Fishery

Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Flash point

The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.

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Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Gasification

Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Geraniol

Geraniol is a monoterpenoid and an alcohol.

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Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase

In enzymology, a glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two products are diphosphate and ADP-glucose.

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Government of South Australia

The Government of South Australia, also referred to as the South Australian Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of South Australia.

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Gracilaria

Gracilaria is a genus of red algae (Rhodophyta) notable for its economic importance as an agarophyte, as well as its use as a food for humans and various species of shellfish.

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GreenFuel Technologies Corporation

GreenFuel Technologies Corporation (GFT) was a startup that developed a process of growing algae using emissions from fossil fuels to produce biofuel from algae.

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Hans Günther Aach

Hans Günther Aach (born 2 October 1919) is a German botanist.

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Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute

Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University, also commonly referred to as HBOI or HBOI at FAU, is a non-profit oceanographic institution operated by Florida Atlantic University in Fort Pierce, Florida, United States.

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Heterotroph

A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.

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Hexane

Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrothermal liquefaction

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a thermal depolymerization process used to convert wet biomass into crude-like oil -sometimes referred to as bio-oil or biocrude- under moderate temperature and high pressure.

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Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.

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Indianapolis

Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.

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Internal combustion engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

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International Renewable Energy Alliance

International Renewable Energy Alliance (REN Alliance) is a formal partnership entered into on 4 June 2004 by five non-profit international renewable energy organisations.

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Jacobs University Bremen

Jacobs University Bremen (previously International University Bremen, IUB) is an international, private residential university in Vegesack in Bremen-Nord, Bremen, Germany.

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Jatropha

Jatropha is a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Joule Unlimited

Joule Unlimited, formerly known as Joule Biotechnologies, was a producer of alternative energy technologies based in Bedford, Massachusetts.

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Ketch Harbour, Nova Scotia

Ketch Harbour is a rural fishing and residential community on the Chebucto Peninsula in the Halifax Regional Municipality on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean on Route 349, 17 kilometers from Halifax.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of algal fuel producers

This is a list of algal fuel producers.

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Lufthansa

Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017.

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Maine

Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methanogenesis

Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens.

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Methanol fuel

Methanol is an alternative fuel for internal combustion and other engines, either in combination with gasoline or directly ("neat").

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Michael Evenari

Michael Evenari (hebr.: מיכאל אבן-ארי, even-ari meaning lion's stone; born as Walter Schwarz 9/10/1904 in Metz - 15/4/1989 in Jerusalem) was an Israeli botanist originally from Germany.

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Microalgae

Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems, living in both the water column and sediment.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Monounsaturated fat

In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.

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Nannochloris

Nannochloris is a genus of green algae in the family Chlorellaceae.

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Nannochloropsis

Nannochloropsis is a genus of algae comprising 6 known species.

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Nannochloropsis and biofuels

Nannochloropsis is a genus of alga within the heterokont line of eukaryotes, that is being investigated for biofuel production.

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National Algae Association

The National Algae Association is a United States non-profit algae production trade organization for commercially minded algae researchers, algae producers and equipment companies.

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National Biodiesel Board

The National Biodiesel Board (NBB) is an American commercial trade association representing the biodiesel industry as the unifying and coordinating body for research and development in the United States.

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National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, specializes in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development.

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National Research Council (Canada)

The National Research Council (NRC, Conseil national de recherches Canada) is the primary national research and technology organization (RTO) of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Neochloris oleoabundans

Neochloris oleoabundans is a microalga belonging in the class Chlorophyceae.

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Newcastle University

Newcastle University (officially, the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitzschia

Nitzschia is a common pennate marine diatom.

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Nutrient

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Ocean Nutrition Canada

Ocean Nutrition Canada is a manufacturer of Omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) nutritional supplements under the MEG-3 brand.

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Ocean thermal energy conversion

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface seawaters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity.

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Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station

Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, a nuclear power plant, is located southeast of Harrisburg in Peach Bottom Township, York County, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River three miles north of the Maryland border.

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Perthshire

Perthshire (Siorrachd Pheairt), officially the County of Perth, is a historic county and registration county in central Scotland.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Phaeodactylum tricornutum

Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a diatom.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Photobioreactor

A photobioreactor is a bioreactor that utilizes a light source to cultivate phototrophic microorganisms.

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Phycology

Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.

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Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.

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Pleurochrysis carterae

Pleurochrysis carterae is a marine species of unicellular coccolithophorid algae that has the ability to calcify subcellularly.

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Polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.

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Porphyridium cruentum

Porphyridium cruentum is a species of red alga in the family Porphyridiophyceae.

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Prymnesium parvum

Prymnesium parvum is a species of haptophytes (.

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Puerto Libertad, Sonora

Puerto Libertad is a town and port of the Mexican state of Sonora, Mexico located on the north coast of the Gulf of California, in the municipality of Pitiquito.

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Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

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Raw material

A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.

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Reliance Industries

Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is an Indian conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

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Renewable hydrocarbon fuels via decarboxylation/decarbonylation

Renewable hydrocarbon fuels via decarboxylation/decarbonylation.

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Residual sodium carbonate index

The residual sodium carbonate (RSC) index of irrigation water or soil water is used to indicate the alkalinity hazard for soil.

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Rex Tillerson

Rex Wayne Tillerson (born March 23, 1952) is an American former government official and former energy executive who served as the 69th United States Secretary of State from February 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018, under President Donald Trump.

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Rose oil

Rose oil (rose otto, attar of rose, attar of roses or rose essence) is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Sandia National Laboratories

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.

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Sapphire Energy

Sapphire Energy is a San Diego-based American energy company that produces crude oil made from algae.

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Sargassum

Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales.

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Scenedesmus

Scenedesmus is a genus of green algae, in the class Chlorophyceae.

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Schizochytrium

Schizochytrium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes in the family Thraustochytriaceae, which are found in coastal marine habitats.

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Sea lettuce

The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world's oceans.

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Seaweed

Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.

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Seville

Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Sludge

Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.

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Sonora

Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States.

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South San Francisco, California

South San Francisco is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States, located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Spanish National Research Council

The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.

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Spirulina (dietary supplement)

Spirulina represents a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals.

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Spirulina (genus)

Spirulina is a genus of cyanobacteria.

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Stichococcus

Stichococcus is a genus of green algae in the family Prasiolaceae.

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Synthetic Genomics (company)

Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI), is a private company located in La Jolla, California that is focused on the field of synthetic biology.

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Tax credit

A tax credit is a tax incentive which allows certain taxpayers to subtract the amount of the credit they have accrued from the total they owe the state.

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TerraVia

TerraVia Holdings, Inc. (formerly Solazyme) is a publicly held biotechnology company in the United States.

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Tetraselmis suecica

Tetraselmis suecica is a marine green alga.

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Thalassiosira pseudonana

Thalassiosira pseudonana is a species of marine centric diatoms.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.

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The Famous Grouse

The Famous Grouse is a brand of blended Scotch whisky, first produced by Matthew Gloag & Son in 1896, and currently produced and owned by The Edrington Group.

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Thermal depolymerization

Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a depolymerization process using hydrous pyrolysis for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often biomass and plastic) into light crude oil.

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Transesterification

In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.

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Triglyceride

A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Department of Energy national laboratories

The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of Brighton

The University of Brighton is a public university based on five campuses in Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings on the south coast of England.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Georgia

The University of Georgia, also referred to as UGA or simply Georgia, is an American public comprehensive research university.

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University of Glasgow

The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.

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University of Manchester

The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.

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University of Sheffield

The University of Sheffield (informally Sheffield University) is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.

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Vegetable oil refining

Vegetable oil refining is a process to transform vegetable oil into biofuel by hydrocracking or hydrogenation.

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Virgin Atlantic

Virgin Atlantic, a trading name of Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited, is a British airline with its head office in Crawley, United Kingdom.

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Wastewater

Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.

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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.

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Worldwatch Institute

The Worldwatch Institute is a globally focused environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C. Worldwatch was named as one of the top ten sustainable development research organizations by Globescan Survey of Sustainability Experts.

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Yeast

Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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2007–08 world food price crisis

World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, creating a global crisis and causing political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae_fuel

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