288 relations: Abacus, Abstract machine, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Alexander of Villedieu, Alfred North Whitehead, Algorism, Algorithm, Algorithm characterizations, Algorithm engineering, Algorithmic composition, Algorithmic efficiency, Algorithmic entities, Algorithmic trading, Alonzo Church, Analog computer, Analysis of algorithms, Analytical Engine, Andrey Markov, Approximation algorithm, Arabic, Arithmetic, Array data structure, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Assembly language, Assignment (computer science), Association for Computing Machinery, Astronomer, Asymptotically optimal algorithm, Automata theory, Automated reasoning, Axiom, Babylonian astronomy, Backtracking, Baghdad, Baudot code, Benchmark (computing), Bertrand Russell, Big O notation, Binary search algorithm, Boolean algebra, Borůvka's algorithm, Brahmagupta, Branch and bound, Brute-force search, Bubble sort, Burali-Forti paradox, Busy beaver, ..., Calculation, Calculator, Calculus ratiocinator, Carl Benjamin Boyer, Charles Babbage, Chess, Church–Turing thesis, Claude Shannon, Clock, Cluster (spacecraft), Combinatorics, Communications of the ACM, Computability, Computability theory, Computation, Computational complexity theory, Computational geometry, Computer, Computer network, Computer program, Computer science, Control flow, Control table, Convex polytope, Coprime integers, Correctness (computer science), Cristopher Moore, Cryptography, Data compression, Data processing, Data structure, David Hilbert, Decidability (logic), Deductive reasoning, Determinism, Deterministic algorithm, Diamond v. Diehr, Difference engine, Differential equation, Distributed algorithm, Divide and conquer, Divide and conquer algorithm, Domain of a function, Donald Knuth, DRAKON, Dynamic programming, Effective method, Electrical network, Emil Leon Post, Empty string, Entscheidungsproblem, Euclid, Euclid's Elements, Euclidean algorithm, Execution (computing), Explainable Artificial Intelligence, Export of cryptography, Fast Fourier transform, Feedback, Finite-state machine, Flowchart, Floyd–Warshall algorithm, Formal system, Foundations of mathematics, Function (mathematics), Functional programming, Garbage in, garbage out, Genetic algorithm, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geographer, Georg Cantor, George Boole, George Dantzig, George Stibitz, Giuseppe Peano, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottlob Frege, Gottschalk v. Benson, Graph (discrete mathematics), Graph theory, Graph traversal, Greater Iran, Greatest common divisor, Greedy algorithm, Greek mathematics, Greenwood Publishing Group, Halting problem, Heuristic, Heuristic (computer science), High-level synthesis, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, House of Wisdom, Howard H. Aiken, Huffman coding, Human brain, Imperative programming, Inductive reasoning, Instance (computer science), Integer, Integer programming, Interpreter (computing), Introduction to Algorithms, Introduction to Arithmetic, Iteration, J. Barkley Rosser, Jacquard loom, Jacques Herbrand, John G. Kemeny, John Venn, John von Neumann, Jon Barwise, Joseph Marie Jacquard, Karnaugh map, Khwarezm, Kruskal's algorithm, Kurt Gödel, Lambda calculus, Las Vegas algorithm, Latin, Latinisation of names, Linear programming, List of algorithm general topics, List of algorithms, List of Indian mathematicians, List of Iranian mathematicians, Local optimum, Local search (optimization), Logic, Logic programming, London Mathematical Society, Lookup table, Machine code, Machine learning, Mathematical induction, Mathematical table, Mathematics, Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Maximum flow problem, Medical algorithm, Memoization, Memory, Merge algorithm, Merge sort, Methods of computing square roots, Modular arithmetic, Monte Carlo algorithm, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Natural language, Neural circuit, Nicomachus, Nondeterministic algorithm, Numerical analysis, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Operations research, Optimal substructure, Optimization problem, Overlapping subproblems, Oxford English Dictionary, P (complexity), P versus NP problem, Parallel algorithm, Parsing, Partial function, Persian people, Philosophy of mind, Pidgin code, Piotr Indyk, Post–Turing machine, Prim's algorithm, Principia Mathematica, Programming language, Pseudocode, Punched card, Quantity, Quantum algorithm, Quantum computing, Quantum entanglement, Quantum superposition, Randomized algorithm, Randomness, Recursion, Recursion (computer science), Reductio ad absurdum, Reduction (complexity), Register machine, Relay, Richard's paradox, Roman numerals, RP (complexity), Russell's paradox, Search algorithm, Selection algorithm, Semantics (computer science), Sieve of Eratosthenes, Simon & Schuster, Simplex algorithm, Simulated annealing, Software patent debate, Sorting algorithm, Spaghetti code, Stack (abstract data type), Stanford University, State diagram, State transition table, Stephen Cole Kleene, Stony Brook University, String (computer science), Structured program theorem, Syllogism, Synthetic rubber, Tabu search, Telegraphy, Teleprinter, The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, Theory of computation, Thomas E. Kurtz, Ticker tape, Time complexity, Tower of Hanoi, Turing completeness, Turing machine, Turing reduction, Unary numeral system, Unisys, United States Patent and Trademark Office, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Indianapolis, University of Iowa, University of Tennessee, Uzbekistan, Verge escapement, Volume, William Stanley Jevons, Yuri Gurevich, ZPP (complexity), 0, 7400 series. Expand index (238 more) »

## Abacus

The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

New!!: Algorithm and Abacus · See more »

## Abstract machine

An abstract machine, also called an abstract computer, is a theoretical model of a computer hardware or software system used in automata theory.

New!!: Algorithm and Abstract machine · See more »

## Ada Lovelace

Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.

New!!: Algorithm and Ada Lovelace · See more »

## Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

New!!: Algorithm and Alan Turing · See more »

## Alan Turing: The Enigma

Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983) is a biography of the British mathematician, codebreaker, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954) by Andrew Hodges.

New!!: Algorithm and Alan Turing: The Enigma · See more »

## Alexander of Villedieu

Alexander of Villedieu was a French author, teacher and poet, who wrote text books on Latin grammar and arithmetic, everything in verse.

New!!: Algorithm and Alexander of Villedieu · See more »

## Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

New!!: Algorithm and Alfred North Whitehead · See more »

## Algorism

Algorism is the technique of performing basic arithmetic by writing numbers in place value form and applying a set of memorized rules and facts to the digits.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorism · See more »

## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorithm · See more »

## Algorithm characterizations

Algorithm characterizations are attempts to formalize the word algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorithm characterizations · See more »

## Algorithm engineering

Algorithm engineering focuses on the design, analysis, implementation, optimization, profiling and experimental evaluation of computer algorithms, bridging the gap between algorithm theory and practical applications of algorithms in software engineering.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorithm engineering · See more »

## Algorithmic composition

Algorithmic composition is the technique of using algorithms to create music.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorithmic composition · See more »

## Algorithmic efficiency

In computer science, algorithmic efficiency is a property of an algorithm which relates to the number of computational resources used by the algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorithmic efficiency · See more »

## Algorithmic entities

Algorithmic entities are autonomous algorithms that operate without human control.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorithmic entities · See more »

## Algorithmic trading

Algorithmic trading is a method of executing a large order (too large to fill all at once) using automated pre-programmed trading instructions accounting for variables such as time, price, and volume to send small slices of the order (child orders) out to the market over time.

New!!: Algorithm and Algorithmic trading · See more »

## Alonzo Church

Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.

New!!: Algorithm and Alonzo Church · See more »

## Analog computer

An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

New!!: Algorithm and Analog computer · See more »

## Analysis of algorithms

In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the computational complexity of algorithms, that is the amount of time, storage and/or other resources necessary to execute them.

New!!: Algorithm and Analysis of algorithms · See more »

## Analytical Engine

The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

New!!: Algorithm and Analytical Engine · See more »

## Andrey Markov

Andrey (Andrei) Andreyevich Markov (Андре́й Андре́евич Ма́рков, in older works also spelled Markoff) (14 June 1856 N.S. – 20 July 1922) was a Russian mathematician.

New!!: Algorithm and Andrey Markov · See more »

## Approximation algorithm

In computer science and operations research, approximation algorithms are efficient algorithms that find approximate solutions to NP-hard optimization problems with provable guarantees on the distance of the returned solution to the optimal one.

New!!: Algorithm and Approximation algorithm · See more »

## Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

New!!: Algorithm and Arabic · See more »

## Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

New!!: Algorithm and Arithmetic · See more »

## Array data structure

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.

New!!: Algorithm and Array data structure · See more »

## Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

New!!: Algorithm and Artificial intelligence · See more »

## Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

New!!: Algorithm and Artificial neural network · See more »

## Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

New!!: Algorithm and Assembly language · See more »

## Assignment (computer science)

In computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable.

New!!: Algorithm and Assignment (computer science) · See more »

## Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

New!!: Algorithm and Association for Computing Machinery · See more »

## Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

New!!: Algorithm and Astronomer · See more »

## Asymptotically optimal algorithm

In computer science, an algorithm is said to be asymptotically optimal if, roughly speaking, for large inputs it performs at worst a constant factor (independent of the input size) worse than the best possible algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Asymptotically optimal algorithm · See more »

## Automata theory

Automata theory is the study of abstract machines and automata, as well as the computational problems that can be solved using them.

New!!: Algorithm and Automata theory · See more »

## Automated reasoning

Automated reasoning is an area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.

New!!: Algorithm and Automated reasoning · See more »

## Axiom

An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

New!!: Algorithm and Axiom · See more »

## Babylonian astronomy

The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.

New!!: Algorithm and Babylonian astronomy · See more »

## Backtracking

Backtracking is a general algorithm for finding all (or some) solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate ("backtracks") as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution.

New!!: Algorithm and Backtracking · See more »

## Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

New!!: Algorithm and Baghdad · See more »

## Baudot code

The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.

New!!: Algorithm and Baudot code · See more »

## Benchmark (computing)

In computing, a benchmark is the act of running a computer program, a set of programs, or other operations, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by running a number of standard tests and trials against it.

New!!: Algorithm and Benchmark (computing) · See more »

## Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

New!!: Algorithm and Bertrand Russell · See more »

## Big O notation

Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behaviour of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity.

New!!: Algorithm and Big O notation · See more »

## Binary search algorithm

In computer science, binary search, also known as half-interval search,logarithmic search, or binary chop, is a search algorithm that finds the position of a target value within a sorted array.

New!!: Algorithm and Binary search algorithm · See more »

## Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

New!!: Algorithm and Boolean algebra · See more »

## Borůvka's algorithm

Borůvka's algorithm is an algorithm for finding a minimum spanning tree in a graph for which all edge weights are distinct, or a minimum spanning forest in the case of a graph that is not connected.

New!!: Algorithm and Borůvka's algorithm · See more »

## Brahmagupta

Brahmagupta (born, died) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.

New!!: Algorithm and Brahmagupta · See more »

## Branch and bound

Branch and bound (BB, B&B, or BnB) is an algorithm design paradigm for discrete and combinatorial optimization problems, as well as mathematical optimization.

New!!: Algorithm and Branch and bound · See more »

## Brute-force search

In computer science, brute-force search or exhaustive search, also known as generate and test, is a very general problem-solving technique that consists of systematically enumerating all possible candidates for the solution and checking whether each candidate satisfies the problem's statement.

New!!: Algorithm and Brute-force search · See more »

## Bubble sort

Bubble sort, sometimes referred to as sinking sort, is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly steps through the list to be sorted, compares each pair of adjacent items and swaps them if they are in the wrong order.

New!!: Algorithm and Bubble sort · See more »

## Burali-Forti paradox

In set theory, a field of mathematics, the Burali-Forti paradox demonstrates that constructing "the set of all ordinal numbers" leads to a contradiction and therefore shows an antinomy in a system that allows its construction.

New!!: Algorithm and Burali-Forti paradox · See more »

## Busy beaver

The busy beaver game consists of designing a halting, binary-alphabet Turing machine which writes the most 1s on the tape, using only a limited set of states.

New!!: Algorithm and Busy beaver · See more »

## Calculation

A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change.

New!!: Algorithm and Calculation · See more »

## Calculator

An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

New!!: Algorithm and Calculator · See more »

## Calculus ratiocinator

The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language.

New!!: Algorithm and Calculus ratiocinator · See more »

## Carl Benjamin Boyer

Carl Benjamin Boyer (November 3, 1906 – April 26, 1976) was an American historian of sciences, and especially mathematics.

New!!: Algorithm and Carl Benjamin Boyer · See more »

## Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

New!!: Algorithm and Charles Babbage · See more »

## Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

New!!: Algorithm and Chess · See more »

## Church–Turing thesis

In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as computability thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis about the nature of computable functions.

New!!: Algorithm and Church–Turing thesis · See more »

## Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

New!!: Algorithm and Claude Shannon · See more »

## Clock

A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.

New!!: Algorithm and Clock · See more »

## Cluster (spacecraft)

Cluster was a constellation of four European Space Agency spacecraft which were launched on the maiden flight of the Ariane 5 rocket, Flight 501, and subsequently lost when that rocket failed to achieve orbit.

New!!: Algorithm and Cluster (spacecraft) · See more »

## Combinatorics

Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.

New!!: Algorithm and Combinatorics · See more »

## Communications of the ACM

Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

New!!: Algorithm and Communications of the ACM · See more »

## Computability

Computability is the ability to solve a problem in an effective manner.

New!!: Algorithm and Computability · See more »

## Computability theory

Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.

New!!: Algorithm and Computability theory · See more »

## Computation

Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Computation · See more »

## Computational complexity theory

Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.

New!!: Algorithm and Computational complexity theory · See more »

## Computational geometry

Computational geometry is a branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry.

New!!: Algorithm and Computational geometry · See more »

## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

New!!: Algorithm and Computer · See more »

## Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

New!!: Algorithm and Computer network · See more »

## Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

New!!: Algorithm and Computer program · See more »

## Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

New!!: Algorithm and Computer science · See more »

## Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

New!!: Algorithm and Control flow · See more »

## Control table

Control tables are tables that control the control flow or play a major part in program control.

New!!: Algorithm and Control table · See more »

## Convex polytope

A convex polytope is a special case of a polytope, having the additional property that it is also a convex set of points in the n-dimensional space Rn.

New!!: Algorithm and Convex polytope · See more »

## Coprime integers

In number theory, two integers and are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime (also written co-prime) if the only positive integer (factor) that divides both of them is 1.

New!!: Algorithm and Coprime integers · See more »

## Correctness (computer science)

In theoretical computer science, correctness of an algorithm is asserted when it is said that the algorithm is correct with respect to a specification.

New!!: Algorithm and Correctness (computer science) · See more »

## Cristopher Moore

Cristopher David Moore, known as Cris Moore, (born March 12, 1968 in New Brunswick, New Jersey), retrieved 2012-03-10.

New!!: Algorithm and Cristopher Moore · See more »

## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

New!!: Algorithm and Cryptography · See more »

## Data compression

In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

New!!: Algorithm and Data compression · See more »

## Data processing

Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer." Data processing is distinct from word processing, which is manipulation of text specifically rather than data generally.

New!!: Algorithm and Data processing · See more »

## Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.

New!!: Algorithm and Data structure · See more »

## David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

New!!: Algorithm and David Hilbert · See more »

## Decidability (logic)

In logic, the term decidable refers to the decision problem, the question of the existence of an effective method for determining membership in a set of formulas, or, more precisely, an algorithm that can and will return a boolean true or false value that is correct (instead of looping indefinitely, crashing, returning "don't know" or returning a wrong answer).

New!!: Algorithm and Decidability (logic) · See more »

## Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

New!!: Algorithm and Deductive reasoning · See more »

## Determinism

Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

New!!: Algorithm and Determinism · See more »

## Deterministic algorithm

In computer science, a deterministic algorithm is an algorithm which, given a particular input, will always produce the same output, with the underlying machine always passing through the same sequence of states.

New!!: Algorithm and Deterministic algorithm · See more »

## Diamond v. Diehr

Diamond v. Diehr, 450 U.S. 175 (1981), was a United States Supreme Court decision which held that controlling the execution of a physical process, by running a computer program did not preclude patentability of the invention as a whole.

New!!: Algorithm and Diamond v. Diehr · See more »

## Difference engine

A difference engine is an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions.

New!!: Algorithm and Difference engine · See more »

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

New!!: Algorithm and Differential equation · See more »

## Distributed algorithm

A distributed algorithm is an algorithm designed to run on computer hardware constructed from interconnected processors.

New!!: Algorithm and Distributed algorithm · See more »

## Divide and conquer

Divide and conquer or Divide and Conquer may refer to.

New!!: Algorithm and Divide and conquer · See more »

## Divide and conquer algorithm

In computer science, divide and conquer is an algorithm design paradigm based on multi-branched recursion.

New!!: Algorithm and Divide and conquer algorithm · See more »

## Domain of a function

In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the domain of definition (or simply the domain) of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined.

New!!: Algorithm and Domain of a function · See more »

## Donald Knuth

Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.

New!!: Algorithm and Donald Knuth · See more »

## DRAKON

DRAKON is an algorithmic visual programming language developed within the Buran space project following ergonomic design principles.

New!!: Algorithm and DRAKON · See more »

## Dynamic programming

Dynamic programming is both a mathematical optimization method and a computer programming method.

New!!: Algorithm and Dynamic programming · See more »

## Effective method

In logic, mathematics and computer science, especially metalogic and computability theory, an effective methodHunter, Geoffrey, Metalogic: An Introduction to the Metatheory of Standard First-Order Logic, University of California Press, 1971 or effective procedure is a procedure for solving a problem from a specific class.

New!!: Algorithm and Effective method · See more »

## Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

New!!: Algorithm and Electrical network · See more »

## Emil Leon Post

Emil Leon Post (February 11, 1897 – April 21, 1954) was an American mathematician and logician.

New!!: Algorithm and Emil Leon Post · See more »

## Empty string

In formal language theory, the empty string, or empty word is the unique string of length zero.

New!!: Algorithm and Empty string · See more »

## Entscheidungsproblem

In mathematics and computer science, the Entscheidungsproblem (German for "decision problem") is a challenge posed by David Hilbert in 1928.

New!!: Algorithm and Entscheidungsproblem · See more »

## Euclid

Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

New!!: Algorithm and Euclid · See more »

## Euclid's Elements

The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.

New!!: Algorithm and Euclid's Elements · See more »

## Euclidean algorithm

. EXAMPLES CAN BE FOUND BELOW, E.G., IN THE "Matrix method" SECTION.

New!!: Algorithm and Euclidean algorithm · See more »

## Execution (computing)

Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.

New!!: Algorithm and Execution (computing) · See more »

## Explainable Artificial Intelligence

An Explainable AI (XAI) or Transparent AI is an artificial intelligence (AI) whose actions can be easily understood by humans.

New!!: Algorithm and Explainable Artificial Intelligence · See more »

## Export of cryptography

The export of cryptography is the transfer from one country to another of devices and technology related to cryptography.

New!!: Algorithm and Export of cryptography · See more »

## Fast Fourier transform

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into its frequency components.

New!!: Algorithm and Fast Fourier transform · See more »

## Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

New!!: Algorithm and Feedback · See more »

## Finite-state machine

A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.

New!!: Algorithm and Finite-state machine · See more »

## Flowchart

A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process.

New!!: Algorithm and Flowchart · See more »

## Floyd–Warshall algorithm

In computer science, the Floyd–Warshall algorithm is an algorithm for finding shortest paths in a weighted graph with positive or negative edge weights (but with no negative cycles).

New!!: Algorithm and Floyd–Warshall algorithm · See more »

## Formal system

A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.

New!!: Algorithm and Formal system · See more »

## Foundations of mathematics

Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.

New!!: Algorithm and Foundations of mathematics · See more »

## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

New!!: Algorithm and Function (mathematics) · See more »

## Functional programming

In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.

New!!: Algorithm and Functional programming · See more »

## Garbage in, garbage out

In computer science, garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) is where flawed, or nonsense input data produces nonsense output or "garbage".

New!!: Algorithm and Garbage in, garbage out · See more »

## Genetic algorithm

In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).

New!!: Algorithm and Genetic algorithm · See more »

## Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

New!!: Algorithm and Geoffrey Chaucer · See more »

## Geographer

A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.

New!!: Algorithm and Geographer · See more »

## Georg Cantor

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (– January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician.

New!!: Algorithm and Georg Cantor · See more »

## George Boole

George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.

New!!: Algorithm and George Boole · See more »

## George Dantzig

George Bernard Dantzig (November 8, 1914 – May 13, 2005) was an American mathematical scientist who made important contributions to operations research, computer science, economics, and statistics.

New!!: Algorithm and George Dantzig · See more »

## George Stibitz

George Robert Stibitz (April 30, 1904 – January 31, 1995) was a Bell Labs researcher internationally recognized as one of the fathers of the modern first digital computer.

New!!: Algorithm and George Stibitz · See more »

## Giuseppe Peano

Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.

New!!: Algorithm and Giuseppe Peano · See more »

## Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

New!!: Algorithm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz · See more »

## Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

New!!: Algorithm and Gottlob Frege · See more »

## Gottschalk v. Benson

Gottschalk v. Benson, 409 U.S. 63 (1972), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that a process claim directed to a numerical algorithm, as such, was not patentable because "the patent would wholly pre-empt the mathematical formula and in practical effect would be a patent on the algorithm itself." That would be tantamount to allowing a patent on an abstract idea, contrary to precedent dating back to the middle of the 19th century.

New!!: Algorithm and Gottschalk v. Benson · See more »

## Graph (discrete mathematics)

In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a graph is a structure amounting to a set of objects in which some pairs of the objects are in some sense "related".

New!!: Algorithm and Graph (discrete mathematics) · See more »

## Graph theory

In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.

New!!: Algorithm and Graph theory · See more »

## Graph traversal

In computer science, graph traversal (also known as graph search) refers to the process of visiting (checking and/or updating) each vertex in a graph.

New!!: Algorithm and Graph traversal · See more »

## Greater Iran

Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).

New!!: Algorithm and Greater Iran · See more »

## Greatest common divisor

In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (gcd) of two or more integers, which are not all zero, is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers.

New!!: Algorithm and Greatest common divisor · See more »

## Greedy algorithm

A greedy algorithm is an algorithmic paradigm that follows the problem solving heuristic of making the locally optimal choice at each stage with the intent of finding a global optimum.

New!!: Algorithm and Greedy algorithm · See more »

## Greek mathematics

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts and advances written in Greek, developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

New!!: Algorithm and Greek mathematics · See more »

## Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

New!!: Algorithm and Greenwood Publishing Group · See more »

## Halting problem

In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running (i.e., halt) or continue to run forever.

New!!: Algorithm and Halting problem · See more »

## Heuristic

A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.

New!!: Algorithm and Heuristic · See more »

## Heuristic (computer science)

In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic (from Greek εὑρίσκω "I find, discover") is a technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution.

New!!: Algorithm and Heuristic (computer science) · See more »

## High-level synthesis

High-level synthesis (HLS), sometimes referred to as C synthesis, electronic system-level (ESL) synthesis, algorithmic synthesis, or behavioral synthesis, is an automated design process that interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior and creates digital hardware that implements that behavior.

New!!: Algorithm and High-level synthesis · See more »

## Hindu–Arabic numeral system

The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.

New!!: Algorithm and Hindu–Arabic numeral system · See more »

## House of Wisdom

The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة; Bayt al-Hikma) refers either to a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.

New!!: Algorithm and House of Wisdom · See more »

## Howard H. Aiken

Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist and a pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer.

New!!: Algorithm and Howard H. Aiken · See more »

## Huffman coding

In computer science and information theory, a Huffman code is a particular type of optimal prefix code that is commonly used for lossless data compression.

New!!: Algorithm and Huffman coding · See more »

## Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

New!!: Algorithm and Human brain · See more »

## Imperative programming

In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.

New!!: Algorithm and Imperative programming · See more »

## Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

New!!: Algorithm and Inductive reasoning · See more »

## Instance (computer science)

In object-oriented programming (OOP), an instance is a concrete occurrence of any object, existing usually during the runtime of a computer program.

New!!: Algorithm and Instance (computer science) · See more »

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

New!!: Algorithm and Integer · See more »

## Integer programming

An integer programming problem is a mathematical optimization or feasibility program in which some or all of the variables are restricted to be integers.

New!!: Algorithm and Integer programming · See more »

## Interpreter (computing)

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.

New!!: Algorithm and Interpreter (computing) · See more »

## Introduction to Algorithms

Introduction to Algorithms is a book by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein.

New!!: Algorithm and Introduction to Algorithms · See more »

## Introduction to Arithmetic

The book Introduction to Arithmetic (Ἀριθμητικὴ εἰσαγωγή, Arithmetike eisagoge) is the only extant work on mathematics by Nicomachus (60–120 AD).

New!!: Algorithm and Introduction to Arithmetic · See more »

## Iteration

Iteration is the act of repeating a process, to generate a (possibly unbounded) sequence of outcomes, with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.

New!!: Algorithm and Iteration · See more »

## J. Barkley Rosser

John Barkley Rosser Sr. (December 6, 1907 – September 5, 1989) was an American logician, a student of Alonzo Church, and known for his part in the Church–Rosser theorem, in lambda calculus.

New!!: Algorithm and J. Barkley Rosser · See more »

## Jacquard loom

The Jacquard machine is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade, damask and matelassé.

New!!: Algorithm and Jacquard loom · See more »

## Jacques Herbrand

Jacques Herbrand (12 February 1908 – 27 July 1931) was a French mathematician.

New!!: Algorithm and Jacques Herbrand · See more »

## John G. Kemeny

John George Kemeny; May 31, 1926 – December 26, 1992) was a Jewish-American mathematician, computer scientist, and educator best known for co-developing the BASIC programming language in 1964 with Thomas E. Kurtz. Kemeny served as the 13th President of Dartmouth College from 1970 to 1981 and pioneered the use of computers in college education. Kemeny chaired the presidential commission that investigated the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. According to György Marx he was one of The Martians.

New!!: Algorithm and John G. Kemeny · See more »

## John Venn

John Venn, FRS, FSA, (4 August 1834 – 4 April 1923) was an English logician and philosopher noted for introducing the Venn diagram, used in the fields of set theory, probability, logic, statistics, and computer science.

New!!: Algorithm and John Venn · See more »

## John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

New!!: Algorithm and John von Neumann · See more »

## Jon Barwise

Kenneth Jon Barwise (June 29, 1942 – March 5, 2000) was an American mathematician, philosopher and logician who proposed some fundamental revisions to the way that logic is understood and used.

New!!: Algorithm and Jon Barwise · See more »

## Joseph Marie Jacquard

Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834), was a French weaver and merchant.

New!!: Algorithm and Joseph Marie Jacquard · See more »

## Karnaugh map

The Karnaugh map (KM or K-map) is a method of simplifying Boolean algebra expressions.

New!!: Algorithm and Karnaugh map · See more »

## Khwarezm

Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.

New!!: Algorithm and Khwarezm · See more »

## Kruskal's algorithm

Kruskal's algorithm is a minimum-spanning-tree algorithm which finds an edge of the least possible weight that connects any two trees in the forest.

New!!: Algorithm and Kruskal's algorithm · See more »

## Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

New!!: Algorithm and Kurt Gödel · See more »

## Lambda calculus

Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.

New!!: Algorithm and Lambda calculus · See more »

## Las Vegas algorithm

In computing, a Las Vegas algorithm is a randomized algorithm that always gives correct results; that is, it always produces the correct result or it informs about the failure.

New!!: Algorithm and Las Vegas algorithm · See more »

## Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

New!!: Algorithm and Latin · See more »

## Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

New!!: Algorithm and Latinisation of names · See more »

## Linear programming

Linear programming (LP, also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.

New!!: Algorithm and Linear programming · See more »

## List of algorithm general topics

This is a list of algorithm general topics.

New!!: Algorithm and List of algorithm general topics · See more »

## List of algorithms

The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each.

New!!: Algorithm and List of algorithms · See more »

## List of Indian mathematicians

The chronology of Indian mathematicians spans from the Indus Valley Civilization and the Vedas to Modern India.

New!!: Algorithm and List of Indian mathematicians · See more »

## List of Iranian mathematicians

The following is a list of Iranian mathematicians including ethnic Iranian mathematicians.

New!!: Algorithm and List of Iranian mathematicians · See more »

## Local optimum

In applied mathematics and computer science, a local optimum of an optimization problem is a solution that is optimal (either maximal or minimal) within a neighboring set of candidate solutions.

New!!: Algorithm and Local optimum · See more »

## Local search (optimization)

In computer science, local search is a heuristic method for solving computationally hard optimization problems.

New!!: Algorithm and Local search (optimization) · See more »

## Logic

Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

New!!: Algorithm and Logic · See more »

## Logic programming

Logic programming is a type of programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic.

New!!: Algorithm and Logic programming · See more »

## London Mathematical Society

The London Mathematical Society (LMS) is one of the United Kingdom's learned societies for mathematics (the others being the Royal Statistical Society (RSS) and the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA)).

New!!: Algorithm and London Mathematical Society · See more »

## Lookup table

In computer science, a lookup table is an array that replaces runtime computation with a simpler array indexing operation.

New!!: Algorithm and Lookup table · See more »

## Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

New!!: Algorithm and Machine code · See more »

## Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

New!!: Algorithm and Machine learning · See more »

## Mathematical induction

Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique.

New!!: Algorithm and Mathematical induction · See more »

## Mathematical table

Mathematical tables are lists of numbers showing the results of calculation with varying arguments.

New!!: Algorithm and Mathematical table · See more »

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

New!!: Algorithm and Mathematics · See more »

## Max Planck Institute for Informatics

The Max Planck Institute for Informatics (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Informatik, abbreviated MPI-INF or MPII) is a research institute in computer science with a focus on algorithms and their applications in a broad sense.

New!!: Algorithm and Max Planck Institute for Informatics · See more »

## Maximum flow problem

In optimization theory, maximum flow problems involve finding a feasible flow through a single-source, single-sink flow network that is maximum.

New!!: Algorithm and Maximum flow problem · See more »

## Medical algorithm

A medical algorithm is any computation, formula, statistical survey, nomogram, or look-up table, useful in healthcare.

New!!: Algorithm and Medical algorithm · See more »

## Memoization

In computing, memoization or memoisation is an optimization technique used primarily to speed up computer programs by storing the results of expensive function calls and returning the cached result when the same inputs occur again.

New!!: Algorithm and Memoization · See more »

## Memory

Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

New!!: Algorithm and Memory · See more »

## Merge algorithm

Merge algorithms are a family of algorithms that take multiple sorted lists as input and produce a single list as output, containing all the elements of the inputs lists in sorted order.

New!!: Algorithm and Merge algorithm · See more »

## Merge sort

In computer science, merge sort (also commonly spelled mergesort) is an efficient, general-purpose, comparison-based sorting algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Merge sort · See more »

## Methods of computing square roots

In numerical analysis, a branch of mathematics, there are several square root algorithms or methods of computing the principal square root of a non-negative real number.

New!!: Algorithm and Methods of computing square roots · See more »

## Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).

New!!: Algorithm and Modular arithmetic · See more »

## Monte Carlo algorithm

In computing, a Monte Carlo algorithm is a randomized algorithm whose output may be incorrect with a certain (typically small) probability.

New!!: Algorithm and Monte Carlo algorithm · See more »

## Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.

New!!: Algorithm and Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi · See more »

## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

New!!: Algorithm and National Institute of Standards and Technology · See more »

## Natural language

In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

New!!: Algorithm and Natural language · See more »

## Neural circuit

A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.

New!!: Algorithm and Neural circuit · See more »

## Nicomachus

Nicomachus of Gerasa (Νικόμαχος; c. 60 – c. 120 AD) was an important ancient mathematician best known for his works Introduction to Arithmetic and Manual of Harmonics in Greek.

New!!: Algorithm and Nicomachus · See more »

## Nondeterministic algorithm

In computer science, a nondeterministic algorithm is an algorithm that, even for the same input, can exhibit different behaviors on different runs, as opposed to a deterministic algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Nondeterministic algorithm · See more »

## Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

New!!: Algorithm and Numerical analysis · See more »

## Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.

New!!: Algorithm and Oak Ridge National Laboratory · See more »

## Operations research

Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.

New!!: Algorithm and Operations research · See more »

## Optimal substructure

In computer science, a problem is said to have optimal substructure if an optimal solution can be constructed from optimal solutions of its subproblems.

New!!: Algorithm and Optimal substructure · See more »

## Optimization problem

In mathematics and computer science, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions.

New!!: Algorithm and Optimization problem · See more »

## Overlapping subproblems

In computer science, a problem is said to have overlapping subproblems if the problem can be broken down into subproblems which are reused several times or a recursive algorithm for the problem solves the same subproblem over and over rather than always generating new subproblems.

New!!: Algorithm and Overlapping subproblems · See more »

## Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

New!!: Algorithm and Oxford English Dictionary · See more »

## P (complexity)

In computational complexity theory, P, also known as PTIME or DTIME(nO(1)), is a fundamental complexity class.

New!!: Algorithm and P (complexity) · See more »

## P versus NP problem

The P versus NP problem is a major unsolved problem in computer science.

New!!: Algorithm and P versus NP problem · See more »

## Parallel algorithm

In computer science, a parallel algorithm, as opposed to a traditional serial algorithm, is an algorithm which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then combined together again at the end to get the correct result.

New!!: Algorithm and Parallel algorithm · See more »

## Parsing

Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.

New!!: Algorithm and Parsing · See more »

## Partial function

In mathematics, a partial function from X to Y (written as or) is a function, for some subset X ′ of X.

New!!: Algorithm and Partial function · See more »

## Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

New!!: Algorithm and Persian people · See more »

## Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.

New!!: Algorithm and Philosophy of mind · See more »

## Pidgin code

In computer programming, pidgin code is a mixture of several programming languages in the same program, or pseudocode that is a mixture of a programming language with natural language descriptions.

New!!: Algorithm and Pidgin code · See more »

## Piotr Indyk

Piotr Indyk is a Professor in the Theory of Computation Group at the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

New!!: Algorithm and Piotr Indyk · See more »

## Post–Turing machine

A Post–Turing machine is a "program formulation" of an especially simple type of Turing machine, comprising a variant of Emil Post's Turing-equivalent model of computation described below.

New!!: Algorithm and Post–Turing machine · See more »

## Prim's algorithm

In computer science, Prim's algorithm is a greedy algorithm that finds a minimum spanning tree for a weighted undirected graph.

New!!: Algorithm and Prim's algorithm · See more »

## Principia Mathematica

The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.

New!!: Algorithm and Principia Mathematica · See more »

## Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

New!!: Algorithm and Programming language · See more »

## Pseudocode

Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Pseudocode · See more »

## Punched card

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.

New!!: Algorithm and Punched card · See more »

## Quantity

Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.

New!!: Algorithm and Quantity · See more »

## Quantum algorithm

In quantum computing, a quantum algorithm is an algorithm which runs on a realistic model of quantum computation, the most commonly used model being the quantum circuit model of computation.

New!!: Algorithm and Quantum algorithm · See more »

## Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

New!!: Algorithm and Quantum computing · See more »

## Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

New!!: Algorithm and Quantum entanglement · See more »

## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

New!!: Algorithm and Quantum superposition · See more »

## Randomized algorithm

A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic.

New!!: Algorithm and Randomized algorithm · See more »

## Randomness

Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.

New!!: Algorithm and Randomness · See more »

## Recursion

Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.

New!!: Algorithm and Recursion · See more »

## Recursion (computer science)

Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).

New!!: Algorithm and Recursion (computer science) · See more »

## Reductio ad absurdum

In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.

New!!: Algorithm and Reductio ad absurdum · See more »

## Reduction (complexity)

In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a reduction is an algorithm for transforming one problem into another problem.

New!!: Algorithm and Reduction (complexity) · See more »

## Register machine

In mathematical logic and theoretical computer science a register machine is a generic class of abstract machines used in a manner similar to a Turing machine.

New!!: Algorithm and Register machine · See more »

## Relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch.

New!!: Algorithm and Relay · See more »

## Richard's paradox

In logic, Richard's paradox is a semantical antinomy of set theory and natural language first described by the French mathematician Jules Richard in 1905.

New!!: Algorithm and Richard's paradox · See more »

## Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

New!!: Algorithm and Roman numerals · See more »

## RP (complexity)

In computational complexity theory, randomized polynomial time (RP) is the complexity class of problems for which a probabilistic Turing machine exists with these properties.

New!!: Algorithm and RP (complexity) · See more »

## Russell's paradox

In the foundations of mathematics, Russell's paradox (also known as Russell's antinomy), discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901, showed that some attempted formalizations of the naïve set theory created by Georg Cantor led to a contradiction.

New!!: Algorithm and Russell's paradox · See more »

## Search algorithm

In computer science, a search algorithm is any algorithm which solves the search problem, namely, to retrieve information stored within some data structure, or calculated in the search space of a problem domain.

New!!: Algorithm and Search algorithm · See more »

## Selection algorithm

In computer science, a selection algorithm is an algorithm for finding the kth smallest number in a list or array; such a number is called the kth order statistic.

New!!: Algorithm and Selection algorithm · See more »

## Semantics (computer science)

In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.

New!!: Algorithm and Semantics (computer science) · See more »

## Sieve of Eratosthenes

In mathematics, the sieve of Eratosthenes is a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit.

New!!: Algorithm and Sieve of Eratosthenes · See more »

## Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

New!!: Algorithm and Simon & Schuster · See more »

## Simplex algorithm

In mathematical optimization, Dantzig's simplex algorithm (or simplex method) is a popular algorithm for linear programming.

New!!: Algorithm and Simplex algorithm · See more »

## Simulated annealing

Simulated annealing (SA) is a probabilistic technique for approximating the global optimum of a given function.

New!!: Algorithm and Simulated annealing · See more »

## Software patent debate

The software patent debate is the argument about the extent to which, as a matter of public policy, it should be possible to patent software and computer-implemented inventions.

New!!: Algorithm and Software patent debate · See more »

## Sorting algorithm

In computer science, a sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.

New!!: Algorithm and Sorting algorithm · See more »

## Spaghetti code

Spaghetti code is a pejorative phrase for unstructured and difficult to maintain source code, broadly construed.

New!!: Algorithm and Spaghetti code · See more »

## Stack (abstract data type)

In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.

New!!: Algorithm and Stack (abstract data type) · See more »

## Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

New!!: Algorithm and Stanford University · See more »

## State diagram

A state diagram is a type of diagram used in computer science and related fields to describe the behavior of systems.

New!!: Algorithm and State diagram · See more »

## State transition table

In automata theory and sequential logic, a state transition table is a table showing what state (or states in the case of a nondeterministic finite automaton) a finite semiautomaton or finite state machine will move to, based on the current state and other inputs.

New!!: Algorithm and State transition table · See more »

## Stephen Cole Kleene

Stephen Cole Kleene (January 5, 1909 – January 25, 1994) was an American mathematician.

New!!: Algorithm and Stephen Cole Kleene · See more »

## Stony Brook University

The State University of New York at Stony Brook (also known as Stony Brook University or SUNY Stony Brook) is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in the eastern United States.

New!!: Algorithm and Stony Brook University · See more »

## String (computer science)

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.

New!!: Algorithm and String (computer science) · See more »

## Structured program theorem

The structured program theorem, also called Böhm-Jacopini theorem, is a result in programming language theory.

New!!: Algorithm and Structured program theorem · See more »

## Syllogism

A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

New!!: Algorithm and Syllogism · See more »

## Synthetic rubber

A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.

New!!: Algorithm and Synthetic rubber · See more »

## Tabu search

Tabu search, created by Fred W. Glover in 1986 and formalized in 1989, is a metaheuristic search method employing local search methods used for mathematical optimization.

New!!: Algorithm and Tabu search · See more »

## Telegraphy

Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

New!!: Algorithm and Telegraphy · See more »

## Teleprinter

A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.

New!!: Algorithm and Teleprinter · See more »

## The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing

The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing (الكتاب المختصر في حساب الجبر والمقابلة, Al-kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-ğabr wa’l-muqābala; Liber Algebræ et Almucabola) is an Arabic treatise on mathematics written by Persian polymath Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī around 820 CE while he was in the Abbasid capital of Baghdad.

New!!: Algorithm and The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing · See more »

## Theory of computation

In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Theory of computation · See more »

## Thomas E. Kurtz

Thomas Eugene Kurtz (born February 22, 1928) is a retired Dartmouth professor of mathematics and computer scientist, who along with his colleague John G. Kemeny set in motion the then revolutionary concept of making computers as freely available to college students as library books were, by implementing the concept of time-sharing at Dartmouth College.

New!!: Algorithm and Thomas E. Kurtz · See more »

## Ticker tape

Ticker tape was the earliest digital electronic communications medium, transmitting stock price information over telegraph lines, in use between around 1870 through 1970.

New!!: Algorithm and Ticker tape · See more »

## Time complexity

In computer science, the time complexity is the computational complexity that describes the amount of time it takes to run an algorithm.

New!!: Algorithm and Time complexity · See more »

## Tower of Hanoi

The Tower of Hanoi (also called the Tower of Brahma or Lucas' Tower and sometimes pluralized) is a mathematical game or puzzle.

New!!: Algorithm and Tower of Hanoi · See more »

## Turing completeness

In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.

New!!: Algorithm and Turing completeness · See more »

## Turing machine

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.

New!!: Algorithm and Turing machine · See more »

## Turing reduction

In computability theory, a Turing reduction from a problem A to a problem B, is a reduction which solves A, assuming the solution to B is already known (Rogers 1967, Soare 1987).

New!!: Algorithm and Turing reduction · See more »

## Unary numeral system

The unary numeral system is the bijective base-1 numeral system.

New!!: Algorithm and Unary numeral system · See more »

## Unisys

No description.

New!!: Algorithm and Unisys · See more »

## United States Patent and Trademark Office

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

New!!: Algorithm and United States Patent and Trademark Office · See more »

## University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

New!!: Algorithm and University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign · See more »

## University of Indianapolis

The University of Indianapolis, or UIndy, is a university located in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, which is affiliated with the United Methodist Church.

New!!: Algorithm and University of Indianapolis · See more »

## University of Iowa

The University of Iowa (also known as the UI, U of I, UIowa, or simply Iowa) is a flagship public research university in Iowa City, Iowa.

New!!: Algorithm and University of Iowa · See more »

## University of Tennessee

The University of Tennessee (also referred to as The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, UT Knoxville, UTK, or UT) is a public sun- and land-grant university in Knoxville, Tennessee, United States.

New!!: Algorithm and University of Tennessee · See more »

## Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

New!!: Algorithm and Uzbekistan · See more »

## Verge escapement

The verge (or crown wheel) escapement is the earliest known type of mechanical escapement, the mechanism in a mechanical clock that controls its rate by allowing the gear train to advance at regular intervals or 'ticks'.

New!!: Algorithm and Verge escapement · See more »

## Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

New!!: Algorithm and Volume · See more »

## William Stanley Jevons

William Stanley Jevons FRS (1 September 1835 – 13 August 1882) was an English economist and logician.

New!!: Algorithm and William Stanley Jevons · See more »

## Yuri Gurevich

Yuri Gurevich is an American computer scientist and mathematician and the inventor of abstract state machines.

New!!: Algorithm and Yuri Gurevich · See more »

## ZPP (complexity)

In complexity theory, ZPP (zero-error probabilistic polynomial time) is the complexity class of problems for which a probabilistic Turing machine exists with these properties.

New!!: Algorithm and ZPP (complexity) · See more »

## 0

0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

New!!: Algorithm and 0 · See more »

## 7400 series

The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.

New!!: Algorithm and 7400 series · See more »

## Redirects here:

Algorhthym, Algorhythms, Algorithem, Algorithim, Algorithm design, Algorithm segment, Algorithmic method, Algorithmic problem, Algorithmically, Algorithms, Algoritmi De Numero Indorum, Algoritmi de Numero Indorum, Algoritmi de numero indorum, Algorthym, Algorythm, Computer algorithm, Computer algorithms, Continuous algorithm, Encoding Algorithm, Formalization of algorithms, Mathematical algorithm, Naive algorithm, Naïve algorithm, Properties of algorithms, Rule set, Software logic, Software-based, Алгоритм.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithm