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Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam. [1]

328 relations: 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf, 'Amr ibn al-'As, 'Aql, Abū Lahab, Abbas ibn Ali, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, Abdallah ibn Ali, Abdul-Muttalib, Abdullah ibn Masud, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abraham, Abraham in Islam, Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, Abu Mikhnaf, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Abu Turab, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahl al-Kisa, Aisha, Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, Al-Baydawi, Al-Farooq (title), Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Al-Jafr (book), Al-Jahiz, Al-Jamia, Al-Ma'mun, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Al-Sharif al-Radi, Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Al-Tabari, Al-Walid ibn Uqba, Al-Zamakhshari, Alawites, Aleph, Alevism, Ali (name), Ali al-Ridha, Ali Hujwiri, Ali ibn al-Athir, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Ali in Muslim culture, Ali in the Quran, Ali-Illahism, Allah, Alms, ..., Amir al-Mu'minin, Ammar ibn Yasir, Animals in Islam, Ansar (Islam), Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, Arab Christians, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic grammar, Arabic literature, Ashura, Asma bint Umais, Assassination of Ali, At-Tawba, Ayah, Banu Abd-Shams, Banu Aws, Banu Hashim, Banu Khazraj, Barnaby Rogerson, Basra, Battle of Badr, Battle of Hunayn, Battle of Karbala, Battle of Khaybar, Battle of Nahrawan, Battle of Siffin, Battle of the Camel, Battle of the Trench, Battle of Uhud, Bay'ah, Bayt al-mal, Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Brill Publishers, Brotherhood among the Sahabah, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Sasanian wars, Caliphate, Christian, Conquest of Mecca, Constitution of Medina, Deity, Divan, Druze, Dua, Early Muslim conquests, Edward Gibbon, Egypt, Election of Uthman, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Iranica, Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, Event of Mubahala, Expedition to Tabouk, Fadak, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Family tree of Ali, Farewell Pilgrimage, Father's Day, Fatima the Gracious, Fatimah, Fatimah bint Asad, Fiqh, First Fitna, Fitna (word), George Jordac, God, Great Mosque of Kufa, Greek language, Gregorian calendar, Hadith, Hadith of position, Hadith of the pen and paper, Hadith of the ten with glad tidings of paradise, Hadith of the Twelve Successors, Hadith of the two weighty things, Hadith of warning, Hadith studies, Hajj, Hakob Hovnatanyan, Hanif, Hasan ibn Ali, Hashemites, Haydar, Hegira, Hejaz, Hijri year, Hilal ibn Ali, Hindu, Historiography of early Islam, History of Islam, History of the Prophets and Kings, Hossein Nasr, Hudud, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Taymiyyah, Idris I of Morocco, Iʿtikāf, Imam, Imam Ali Mosque, Imamah (Ismaili doctrine), Imamah (Shia), Imamate, Incarnation, Iranian Plateau, Iraq, Ishmael, Ishmael in Islam, Islam, Islamic calendar, Islamic culture, Islamic philosophy, Isma'ilism, Ismail I, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jahiliyyah, Junayd of Baghdad, Kaaba, Kalam, Karbala, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Khatam an-Nabiyyin, Khawarij, Khawlah bint Ja'far, Khaybar, Kitab al-Irshad, Kufa, Leone Caetani, Letter (alphabet), Levant, Lion, List of expeditions of Muhammad, List of Ismaili imams, Malik al-Ashtar, Manqabat, Marwan I, Masjid-u-Shajarah, Mawla, Mazar-i-Sharif, Mecca, Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Mesopotamia, Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, Mosque, Muawiyah I, Mughira ibn Shu'ba, Muhajirun, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad at Mecca, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Muharram, Muhkam and Mutashabih (tafsir), Muhsin ibn Ali, Mulla Sadra, Murtaza, Mus'haf, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Musta'li, Nafs, Nahj al-Balagha, Najaf, Najran, Naqshbandi, Naskh (tafsir), Nass (Islam), Nepotism, Nizari, Numerology, Paganism, Peak of Eloquence with comments (Muhammad Abduh), Persecution of Muslims by Meccans, Philosophy, Polygamy, Polytheism, Pre-Islamic Arabia, Primary source, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qāriʾ, Qira'at, Qisas, Quran, Quraysh, Rajab, Rakat, Ramadan, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Raqqa, Rashidun, Rashidun Caliphate, Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, Reza Shah-Kazemi, Rhetoric, Richard Francis Burton, Roman–Persian Wars, Sadaqah, Safavid dynasty, Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Salafi movement, Salah, Salik, Saqifah, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Sayyid, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Secondary source, Sevener, Sharia, Sharif, Sheikh, Shia Islam, Shirk (Islam), Shrine of Ali, Shura, Siege of Uthman, Sources of sharia, Standard-bearer, Succession to Muhammad, Sufism, Sulaym ibn Qays, Sultan, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Syncretism, Tafsir, Tafsir al-Mizan, Tafsir al-Tabari, Talhah, Talut, Tawaf, Tawhid, Tayy, The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays, The event of Ghadir Khumm, The Fourteen Infallibles, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Twelve Imams, The verse of Mawadda, The verse of purification, Transcendent theosophy, Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Tribes of Arabia, Twelver, Umamah bint Zainab, Umar, Umar at Fatimah's house, Umar II, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Ayman, Umm Kulthum bint Ali, Umm ul-Banin, Ummah, Urdu, Uthman, Verse of Wilayah, Wahy, Wali, Walid ibn Utbah, Wilayah, Wilferd Madelung, William Chittick, Yemen, Zaidiyyah, Zakat, Zaynab bint Ali, Ziyarat, Ziyarat Amin Allah, Zubayr ibn al-Awam, Zulfiqar. Expand index (278 more) »

'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf

'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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'Amr ibn al-'As

'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.

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'Aql

‘Aql (عقل, meaning "intellect"), is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind.

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Abū Lahab

According to Islamic narrations and inline with Arabic history, Abū Lahab (أبو لهب) (c. 549 – 624) was Muhammad's paternal uncle.

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Abbas ibn Ali

Al-Abbas ibn Ali (العباس بن علي, عباس فرزند علی), also Qamar Banī Hāshim (the moon of Banu Hashim) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680), was the son of Imam Ali, the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims, and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons ('أم البنين'). Abbas is revered by Shia Muslims for his loyalty to his half-brother Hussein, his respect for the Households of Muhammad, and his role in the Battle of Karbala. Abbas is buried in the Shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq, where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura. He was praised for his "handsome looks".

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.

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Abd Allah ibn Abbas

Abd Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE.

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Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam

ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn Muljam al-Murādī (عبدالرحمن بن ملجم المرادي) was the Khariji assassin of Ali.

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Abdallah ibn Ali

Abdallah ibn al-Abbas (ca. 712 – 764 CE) was a member of the Abbasid dynasty, who played a leading role in its rise to power during the Abbasid Revolution.

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Abdul-Muttalib

Shaybah ibn Hāshim c. 497 – 578), better known as ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib, since he was raised by his uncle Muṭṭalib, was the grandfather of Islamic prophet Muḥammad.

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Abdullah ibn Masud

ʿAbdallāh ibn Masʿūd (عبدالله بن مسعود; c.594-c.653) was a companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

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Abdullah ibn Umar

Abdullah ibn Umar (عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (c.610–693 CE) was the son of the second Caliph Umar and a brother-in-law and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abraham

Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.

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Abraham in Islam

Ibrahim (ʾIbrāhīm), known as Abraham in the Hebrew Bible, is recognized as a prophet and messenger in Islam of God.

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Abu Dhar al-Ghifari

Abū Dharr al-Ghifari al-Kinani (أبو ذر الغفاري الكناني.), also Jundab ibn Junādah (جُنْدَب ابْنِ جُنَادَة), was the fourth or fifth person converting to Islam, and a Muhajirun.

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Abu Mikhnaf

Abu Mikhnaf (died 774) (Lut ibn Yahya ibn Sa'id ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) (لوط ابن يحيٰ ابن سعيد ابن مِخنَف الكوفي) was a classical Muslim historian from the 8th century.

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Abu Musa al-Ash'ari

Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (أبو موسى الأشعري) (d. ca. 662 or 672) was a companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history.

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Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib

Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.

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Abu Turab

Abu Turab or Father of Soil, is a title attributed to Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shia Caliph and Imam, and the fourth Sunni Caliph.

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Ahl al-Bayt

Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".

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Ahl al-Kisa

Ahl al-Kisa' (Ahl al-Kisā'), or the People of the Cloak, refers to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; his daughter, Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and his two grandsons Hassan and Husayn.

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Aisha

‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.

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Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays

Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays(d. 40 AH (about 661 CE)) was the chief of Kindah tribe of Yemen.

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Al-Baydawi

Nasir al-Din Abu al-Khair 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar al-Baydawi, also known as Baidawi, was a Muslim scholar, born in Fars, where his father was chief judge, in the time of the Atabek ruler Abu Bakr ibn Sa'd (1226–60).

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Al-Farooq (title)

Al-Farooq (Arabic: الفاروق, "discriminator") is the title called to one who distinguished between rights and wrong.

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Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah

Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).

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Al-Jafr (book)

Al-Jafr is a mystical Shia holy book compiled, according to Shia belief, by Ali and inherited by him from Muhammad.

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Al-Jahiz

al-Jāḥiẓ (الجاحظ) (full name Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري) (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics.

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Al-Jamia

According to Shia sources Al-Jamia (Also called al-Jami’a, al-Jámi'a, al-Jami'ah, al-Jamea, al-Jami‘, al-Jami, or al-Jama) (meaning “the encyclopedia” or “the comprehensive”).

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Al-Ma'mun

Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.

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Al-Masjid an-Nabawi

The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.

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Al-Sharif al-Radi

Abul-Hasan Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn Al-Musawi known in Arabic as al-Sharif al-Radi (الشريف الرضي) and in Persian as Sharif Razi (شريف رضی) or Seyyed Razi (سید رضی) was a Shi'ite Muslim scholar and poet, who was born in 359 AH/970 CE in Baghdad and died in the year 406/1015 in his hometown.

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Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid

Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Nu'man al-'Ukbari al-Baghdadi, known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Mu'allim (c.9481022 CE), was a prominent Twelver Shia theologian.

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Al-Tabari

Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.

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Al-Walid ibn Uqba

Walid ibn Uqba (وليد بن عقبة) was one of the companions of Muhammad.

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Al-Zamakhshari

Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Umar al-Zamakhshari, known widely as al-Zamakhshari (in محمود زمخشری), also called Jar Allah (Arabic for "God's neighbour") (18 March 1075 – 12 June 1144), was a medieval Muslim scholar of Persian origin, who subscribed to the Muʿtazilite theological doctrine, who was born in Khwarezmia, but lived most of his life in Bukhara, Samarkand, and Baghdad.

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Alawites

The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.

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Aleph

Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.

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Alevism

Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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Ali (name)

Ali (علي) is a male Arabic name derived from the Arabic root ʕ-l-w, which literally means "high", "elevated" or "champion".

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Ali al-Ridha

'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.

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Ali Hujwiri

Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAlī al-Ghaznawī al-Jullābī al-Hujwīrī (c. 1009-1072/77), known as ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, or Hajvery) for short, or reverentially as Shaykh Syed ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or as Dātā Ganj Bakhsh by Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was an 11th-century Ghaznian-Persian Sunni Muslim mystic, theologian, and preacher from what is now Afghanistan who became famous for composing the Kashf al-maḥjūb (Unveiling of the Hidden), which is considered the "earliest formal treatise" on Sufism in Persian.

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Ali ibn al-Athir

Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani, better known as Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (Arabic: علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري) (1233–1160) was an Arab or Kurdish historian and biographer who wrote in Arabic and was from the Ibn Athir family.

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Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin

Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.

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Ali in Muslim culture

Except for Muhammad, there is no one in Islamic history about whom as much has been written in Islamic languages as Ali.

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Ali in the Quran

The majority of Islamic commentators do not believe that Ali is mentioned explicitly in the Quran.

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Ali-Illahism

Ali Illahism (علی‌اللّهی) is a name attributed to a syncretic religion which has been practiced in parts of Iranian Luristan, Pakistan, and India which combines elements of Shia Islam with older religions.

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Allah

Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.

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Alms

Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.

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Amir al-Mu'minin

Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.

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Ammar ibn Yasir

ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.

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Animals in Islam

In Islam, God has a relationship with animals: according to the Qur'an, they praise Him, even if this praise is not expressed in human language.

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Ansar (Islam)

Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).

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Aqeel ibn Abi Talib

Aqeel ibn Abi Talib (عقيل بن أبي طالب) was a companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Arab Christians

Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Arabic grammar

Arabic grammar (اَلنَّحْو اَلْعَرَبِي or قَوَاعِد اَللُّغَة اَلْعَرَبِيَّة) is the grammar of the Arabic language.

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Arabic literature

Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.

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Ashura

Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.

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Asma bint Umais

Asmā’ binṫ ‘Umays (أَسْـمَـاء بِـنْـت عُـمَـيْـس) was a companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.

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Assassination of Ali

Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth (last) Rashidun caliph and first Imam was assassinated by a Kharijite called Ibn Muljam on 26 January 661 at the Great Mosque of Kufa, in present-day Iraq.

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At-Tawba

Sūrat Al-Tawbah (سورة التوبة, "The Repentance"), also known as al-Barā'ah ("The Repudiation"), is the ninth chapter of the Qur'an.

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Ayah

In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".

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Banu Abd-Shams

Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan tribe of Quraysh.

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Banu Aws

The Banū Aws (بنو أوس, "Sons of Aws") or simply Aws (أوس, also romanised as Aus) was one of the main Arab tribes of Medina.

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Banu Hashim

Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.

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Banu Khazraj

The Banu al-Khazraj (بنو الخزرج) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Prophet Muhammad's era.

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Barnaby Rogerson

Barnaby Rogerson (born 17 May 1960) is a British author, television presenter and publisher.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battle of Badr

The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.

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Battle of Hunayn

The Battle of Hunayn (غَـزوة حُـنـيـن, Ghazwat Hunayn) was fought by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif, in 630 CE, in the Hunayn valley, on the route from Mecca to At-Ta’if.

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Battle of Karbala

The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.

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Battle of Khaybar

The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia.

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Battle of Nahrawan

The Battle of Nahrawan (Ma'rakat an-Nahrawān) was a battle between Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Caliph and the Kharijites (followers of the extremist Khawarij sect of Islam) commanded by Abdullah ibn Wahb al-Rasibi, near Nahrawan, twelve miles from Baghdad.

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Battle of Siffin

The Battle of Siffin (وقعة صفين; May–July 657 occurred during the First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib who ruled as the Fourth Caliph and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Raqqa, Syria.

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Battle of the Camel

The Battle of the Camel, sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took place at Basra, Iraq on.

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Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.

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Battle of Uhud

The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula.

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Bay'ah

Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.

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Bayt al-mal

Bayt al-mal (بيت المال) is an Arabic term that is translated as "House of money" or "House of Wealth." Historically, it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states, particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate.

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Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib

Ali ibn Abi Talib (601-661 CE) was a prominent figure in early Islamic history.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Brotherhood among the Sahabah

Brotherhood among the Sahaba refers to the time after the Hijra when the Islamic prophet Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants, Muhajirun, and the helpers, Ansar, and he chose Ali as his own brother.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine–Sasanian wars

The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Conquest of Mecca

The conquest of Mecca (فتح مكة) refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad on 11 January, 630 AD, (Julian), 20 Ramadan, 8 AH.

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Constitution of Medina

The Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dustūr al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina (صحيفة المدينة, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), was drawn up on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the Hijra and the document was amended later, after the Battle of Badr (AH 2,.

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Deity

A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Divan

A divan or diwan (دیوان, dīvān) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or its chief official (see dewan).

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Druze

The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).

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Dua

In the terminology of Islam, (دُعَاء, plural: أدْعِيَة; archaically transliterated Doowa), literally meaning "invocation", is an act of supplication.

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Election of Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan, the third caliph, was chosen by a council meeting in Medina, in northwestern Arabia, in.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Online

Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Esoteric interpretation of the Quran

Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, taʾwīl (تأويل), is the allegorical interpretation of the Quran or the quest for its hidden, inner meanings.

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Event of Mubahala

The Event of Mubahala was a meeting between the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a Christian delegation from Najran (present-day Yemen), in the month of Dhu'l-Hijja, 10 AH (October 631, October 631-2, October 632-3), where Muhammad invoked a curse attempting to reveal who was lying about their religious differences.

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Expedition to Tabouk

The Expedition to Tabouk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630, 8 AH.

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Fadak

Fadak (فدك) was a garden oasis in Khaybar, a tract of land in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia.

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Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi (فخر الدين رازي) was an Iranian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-day Iran), and died in 1209 in Herat (in modern-day Afghanistan).

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Family tree of Ali

Alī ibn Abī Tālib (عَـلِي ابـن أَﺑِﻲ طَـالِـب, 599 – 661 ACE) was an early Islamic leader.

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Farewell Pilgrimage

The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: حجة الوداع) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad, prophet of Islam, participated in 632 CE (10 AH).

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Father's Day

Father's Day is a celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society.

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Fatima the Gracious

Fatima The Gracious (Arabic: Fatimah Zahra) is a book written by Shi'a scholar Abu Muhammad Ordoni and published by Ansariyan Publications.

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Fatimah

Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.

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Fatimah bint Asad

Fatimah bint Asad (68 BH – 4 AH; 555–626 CE) (فاطمة بنت أسد) was the mother of Ali bin Abi Talib.

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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First Fitna

The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.

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Fitna (word)

Fitna (or, pl.; فتنة, فتن: "temptation, trial; sedition, civil strife"Wehr (1976), p. 696.) is an Arabic word with extensive connotations of trial, affliction, or distress.

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George Jordac

George Jordac (جورج جرداق; 1931 – 2014) was a Christian author and poet from Lebanon.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Great Mosque of Kufa

The Great Mosque of Kufa, or Masjid al-Kūfa (مسجد الكوفة المعظم/الأعظم), or Masjid al-Mu'azam/al-A'azam located in Kūfa, Iraq, is one of the earliest mosques in the world.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Hadith

Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hadith of position

The Hadith of Position (حديث المنزلة, Hadith al-Manzilah) is a Sahih Hadith in Islamic traditions, in which Muhammad draws a parallel between himself and Musa (Moses) and Ali to Haroun (Aaron).

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Hadith of the pen and paper

The Hadith of the pen and paper is a hadith in Islam about an event when the Islamic prophet Muhammad expressed a wish to write something down but was refused and reportedly insulted by Umar.

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Hadith of the ten with glad tidings of paradise

The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, specified ten of his companions who were promised paradise.

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Hadith of the Twelve Successors

The hadith of the twelve successors, or twelve caliphs (ḥadīth al-ithnā ‘ashar khalīfah) is an Islamic prophecy, attributed to Muhammad.

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Hadith of the two weighty things

The Hadith al-Thaqalayn, also known as the Hadith of the two weighty things, refers to a saying (hadith) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hadith of warning

The Hadith of Warning or Yawm al-Inzar (یوْمُ الْاِنذار), also known as Invitation of the close families of Muhammad (دعوة ذو العشیرة - Da‘wat dhul-‘Ashīrah) is an event that took place in the fourth year of Islam.

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Hadith studies

Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "knowledge of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Muslim scholars.

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Hajj

The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Hakob Hovnatanyan

Hakob Hovnatanyan (Հակոբ Մկրտումի Հովնաթանյան; 1806—1881) was an Armenian artist.

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Hanif

Ḥanīf (حنيف,; plural: حنفاء) meaning "revert" refers to one who, according to Islamic belief, maintained the pure monotheism of the patriarch Abraham.

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Hasan ibn Ali

Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.

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Hashemites

The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.

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Haydar

Haydar (حيدر; also spelled Heidar, Haider, Haidar, Hyder, Hayder, Hajdar, Hidar, Hauldar, Haidhar, Heydar or Jaider) is an Arabic male given name, one of many names for "lion", each denoting some aspect of the animal, with "haydar" meaning "brave"; see Lions in Islam.

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Hegira

The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.

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Hejaz

The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Hijri year

The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.

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Hilal ibn Ali

Hilal ibn Ali (Arabic: هلال بن علي) known as Muhammad al-Awsat (Arabic:محمد الاوسط, the middle Muhammad) was one of the sons of Ali.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Historiography of early Islam

The historiography of early Islam refers to the study of the early history of Islam during the 7th century, from Muhammad's first revelations in AD 610 until the disintegration of the Rashidun Caliphate in AD 661, and arguably throughout the 8th century and the duration of the Umayyad Caliphate, terminating in the incipient Islamic Golden Age around the beginning of the 9th century.

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

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History of the Prophets and Kings

The History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk), more commonly known as Tarikh al-Tabari (تاريخ الطبري) or Tarikh-i Tabari (تاریخ طبری) is an Arabic-language historical chronicle written by the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923).

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Hossein Nasr

Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.

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Hudud

Hudud (Arabic: حدود Ḥudūd, also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural of hadd, حد) is an Arabic word meaning "borders, boundaries, limits".

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Husayn ibn Ali

Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.

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Ibn Abi'l-Hadid

‘Izz al-Dīn ‘Abu Hamīd ‘Abd al-Hamīd bin Hībat-Allah ibn Abi al-Hadīd al Mutazilī al-Mada'ini (ابو حامد عز الدین عبدالحمید بن ابی الحُسین ھبۃ اللہ بن محمد بن محمد بن الحُسین بن ابی الحَدِید المَدائنی المعتزلی) (30 December, 1190 – June, 1258) was a Shia Mutazili scholar of his era and a writer.

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Ibn Kathir

Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.

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Ibn Taymiyyah

Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.

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Idris I of Morocco

Idris I (إدريس الأول), also known as Idris ibn Abdillah, was the founder of the Idrisid dynasty in part of northern Morocco in alliance with the Berber tribe of Awraba.

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Iʿtikāf

Iʿtikāf (اعتكاف, also i'tikaaf or e'tikaaf) is an Islamic practice consisting of a period of staying in a mosque for a certain number of days, devoting oneself to ibadah during these days and staying away from worldly affairs.

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Imam

Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.

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Imam Ali Mosque

The Imam 'Ali Holy Shrine (Ḥaram al-Imām ‘Alī), also known as the Mosque of 'Ali (Masjid ‘Alī), located in Najaf, Iraq, is the Holy site for Shia Muslims.

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Imamah (Ismaili doctrine)

The doctrine of the Imamate in Isma'ilism differs from that of the Twelvers because the Isma'ilis had living Imams for centuries after the last Twelver Imam went into concealment.

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Imamah (Shia)

In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.

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Imamate

Imamate (إمامة imāmah) is a word derived from imam and meaning "leadership".

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Incarnation

Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Ishmael

Ishmael Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ʾIsmāʿīl; Ismael) is a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar).. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137. The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are said to be buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca.

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Ishmael in Islam

Ishmael (إسماعيل) is the figure known in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as Abraham's (Ibrahim) son, born to Hagar (Hajar).

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.

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Islamic culture

Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.

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Islamic philosophy

In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.

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Isma'ilism

Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.

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Ismail I

Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).

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Ja'far al-Sadiq

Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.

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Jahiliyyah

Jahiliyyah (جَاهِلِيَّة / "ignorance") is an Islamic concept of the period of time and state of affairs in Arabia before the advent of Islam.

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Junayd of Baghdad

Junayd of Baghdad (835-910) was a Persian mystic and one of the most famous of the early Saints of Islam.

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Kaaba

The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Kalam

ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.

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Karbala

Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.

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Khadija bint Khuwaylid

Khadijah, Khadījah bint Khuwaylid (خديجة بنت خويلد) or Khadījah al-Kubra (Khadijah the Great) 555 – 22 November 619 CE) was the first wife and follower of the Islamic Prophet (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad. She is commonly regarded by Muslims as the "Mother of the Believers". Khadijah is regarded as one of the most important female figures in Islam, like her daughter, Fatimah. Muhammad was monogamously married to her for 25 years. After the death of Khadijah, Muhammad married at least nine women. Khadijah was the closest to Muhammad and he confided in her the most out of all his following wives. It is narrated in many hadiths that Khadijah was Muhammad's most trusted and favorite among all his marriages. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim: The messenger of Allah said: "God Almighty never granted me anyone better in this life than her. She accepted me when people rejected me; she believed in me when people doubted me; she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me; and Allah granted me children only through her." ‘A’ishah narrated of Muhammed and Khadijah in Sahih Bukhari: "I did not feel jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did of Khadijah though I did not see her, but the Prophet used to mention her very often, and when ever he slaughtered a sheep, he would cut its parts and send them to the women friends of Khadijah. When I sometimes said to him, "(You treat Khadijah in such a way) as if there is no woman on Earth except Khadijah," he would say, "Khadijah was such-and-such, and from her I had children." It is also narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: "The best of its women is Khadijah bint Khuwailid, and the best of its women is Maryam bint ‘Imran." Muhammad said about her "She believed in me when the whole world refuted me and she attested to my veracity when the whole world accused me of falsehood. She offered me compassion and loyalty with her wealth when everyone else had forsaken me." Khadijah was the first female and person to become a follower of Muhammad. Muhammad was married to her until her death and Khadijah was the only wife to be married to Muhammad in monogamy, thus sometimes regarded as Muhammad's most beloved. She is regarded as one of the most important women in Islam, and in terms of the progression of Islam, the most important out of all of Muhammad's wives.

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Khatam an-Nabiyyin

Khatam an-Nabiyyin (خاتم النبيين, khātam an-nabīyīn; or Khātim an-Nabīyīn), translated as Seal of the Prophets, is a title used in the Qur'an to designate the prophet Muhammad.

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Khawarij

The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.

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Khawlah bint Ja'far

Khawlah bint Ja'far al-Hanafiyyah / (Umm e Muhammad) (خولة بنت جعفر الحنفية) was one of the wives of imam Ali.

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Khaybar

KhaybarOther standardized Arabic transliterations: /. Anglicized pronunciation:,. (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia.

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Kitab al-Irshad

Al-Irshad (ارشاد), also called the Book of Guidance into the Lives of the 12 Imams, is a biography of the lives of the 12 Shia Imams.

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Kufa

Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.

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Leone Caetani

Leone Caetani (September 12, 1869 – December 25, 1935), Duke of Sermoneta (also known as Prince Caetani), was an Italian scholar, politician and historian of the Middle East.

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Letter (alphabet)

A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Lion

The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).

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List of expeditions of Muhammad

The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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List of Ismaili imams

This is a list of the Imams recognized by the Ismaili Shia and their sub-branches.

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Malik al-Ashtar

Malik Al-Ashtar (مالك الأشتر) (also known as Malik bin al-Harith al-Nakha'i) was one of the most loyal companions of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Manqabat

A Manqabat (منقبت) is a Sufi devotional poem, in praise of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law of Muhammad, or of any Sufi saint.

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Marwan I

Marwān ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling for less than a year in 684–685, and founder of its Marwanid ruling house, which remained in power until 750.

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Masjid-u-Shajarah

Masjid-u-Shajarah (mosque of the tree) is one of several Miqats (place where ihram is put on) for Muslims on pilgrimage to Mecca for umrah or hajj.

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Mawla

Mawlā (مَوْلًى), plural mawālī (مَوَالِي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.

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Mazar-i-Sharif

Mazar-i-Sharif (Dari/مزار شریف), often called just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate between 577,500 and 693,000.

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Mecca

Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Meccan boycott of the Hashemites

The Maccan boycott of the Hashemites was a public boycott against the clan of Banu Hashim, declared in 617 by the leaders of Banu Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important clans of Quraysh.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah

Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (Arabic:منهاج السنة النبوية) is a work by Ibn Taymiyyah.

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Mosque

A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

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Mughira ibn Shu'ba

al-Mughīrah ibn Shuʿbah ibn Abī ʿĀmir ibn Masʿūd ath-Thaqafī (المغيرة بن شعبة بن أبي عامر بن مسعود الثقفي) was one of the more prominent companions of Muhammad and one of the four 'shrewds of the Arabs' (Duhat al-Arab).

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Muhajirun

Muhajirun (المهاجرون The Emigrants) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as ''The Hijra''.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad al-Baqir

Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.

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Muhammad at Mecca

Muhammad at Mecca is a book about the Islamic prophet Muhammad, specifically about the first phase of his public mission, which concern his years in Mecca until the hijra to Medina.

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Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i

Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabataba'i (علامه سید محمد حسین طباطبائی, 16 March 1903 – 15 November 1981) was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam.

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Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr

Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (محمد بن أبي بكر) was the son of Abu Bakr and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah

Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, also known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (15 AH – 81 AH; AD 636 – 700) and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim was an early Muslim leader.

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Muharram

Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.

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Muhkam and Mutashabih (tafsir)

Muhkam and Mutashabih (محکم و متشابه) are Arabic words that are used in the Quran.

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Muhsin ibn Ali

Mohsin ibn Ali, also spelled Moshin ibn Ali, (Arabic: محسن بن علي), was a son of Fatimah bint Muhammad and Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Mulla Sadra

Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī, also called Mulla Sadrā (ملا صدرا; also spelled Molla Sadra, Mollasadra or Sadr-ol-Mote'allehin; صدرالمتألهین) (c. 1571/2 – 1640), was an Iranian Shia Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century.

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Murtaza

Murtaza (also spelled Mortaza or Morteza) (مرتضى, مرتضى) is a common Arabic name, is a variant transcription of Murtadha, meaning "chosen".

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Mus'haf

A mus'haf (مصحف, with the ṣ and ḥ as two separate consonants, not, plural "suhuf") is a is an arabic word for a codex or collection of sheets, but also refers to a physical bound volume of the Quran.

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Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj

Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī (أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875) or Muslim Nīshāpūrī (مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was a Persian Islamic scholar, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith).

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Musta'li

The Musta‘lī (مستعلي) are a sect of Isma'ilism named for their acceptance of al-Musta'li as the legitimate nineteenth Fatimid caliph and legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir Billah.

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Nafs

Nafs (نَفْس) is an Arabic word occurring in the Qur'an and means "self", "psyche",Nurdeen Deuraseh and Mansor Abu Talib (2005), "Mental health in Islamic medical tradition", The International Medical Journal 4 (2), p. 76-79 "ego" or "soul".

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Nahj al-Balagha

The Nahj al-Balagha (نهج البلاغة,; "The Peak of Eloquence") is the most famous collection of sermons, letters, tafsirs and narrations attributed to Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.

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Najaf

Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.

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Najran

Najran (نجران), is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen.

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Naqshbandi

The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.

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Naskh (tafsir)

Naskh (نسخ) is an Arabic word usually translated as "abrogation"; It is a term used in Islamic legal exegesis for seemingly contradictory material within, or between, the two primary sources of Islamic law: the Quran and the Sunna.

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Nass (Islam)

Nass (نصّ.) is an Arabic word meaning "a known, or clear, legal injunction".

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Nepotism

Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.

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Nizari

The Nizaris (النزاريون al-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, the second-largest branch of Shia Islam (the largest being the Twelver).

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Numerology

Numerology is any belief in the divine or mystical relationship between a number and one or more coinciding events.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Peak of Eloquence with comments (Muhammad Abduh)

Sharh Nahj al-balaghah is a book authored by the Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh.

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Persecution of Muslims by Meccans

In the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Polygamy

Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.

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Polytheism

Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.

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Pre-Islamic Arabia

Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s.

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Primary source

In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

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Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).

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Qāriʾ

A qāriʾ (قَارِئ, plural قُرَّاء qurrāʾ; English: "reader") is a person who recites the Quran with the proper rules of recitation (tajwid).

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Qira'at

In Islam, Qira'at, which means literally the readings, terminologically means the method of recitation.

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Qisas

Qiṣāṣ (قصاص) is an Islamic term meaning "retaliation in kind" or "revenge",Mohamed S. El-Awa (1993), Punishment In Islamic Law, American Trust Publications, "eye for an eye", "nemesis" or retributive justice.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Quraysh

The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.

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Rajab

Rajab (رجب) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar.

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Rakat

A rakat, or rakʿah (ركعة,; plural: ركعات), consists of the prescribed movements and words followed by Muslims while offering prayers to God.

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Ramadan

Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Raqqa

Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.

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Rashidun

The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.

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Reza Shah-Kazemi

Reza Shah-Kazemi is an author who specializes in comparative mysticism, Islamic Studies, Sufism and Shi'ism.

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Richard Francis Burton

Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.

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Roman–Persian Wars

The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.

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Sadaqah

or Sadaka (صدقة,, "charity", "benevolence", plural صدقات) in the modern context has come to signify "voluntary charity".

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Sahabah

The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Sahih al-Bukhari

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.

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Sahih Muslim

Sahih Muslim (صحيح مسلم, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim; full title: Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) in Sunni Islam.

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Salafi movement

The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.

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Salah

Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.

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Salik

A sālik is a follower of Sufism, from the verb salaka which means to travel or follow, related to sulūk "pathway".

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Saqifah

The Saqīfah (السقيفة), also known as Saqīfah Banī Sā'idah (سقيفة بني ساعدة), was a roofed building used by a Jewish tribe called Banu Sa'idah, a faction of Banu Khazraj tribe of the city of Madinah in Hejaz, western Arabia.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sayyid

Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).

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Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas

Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.

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Secondary source

In scholarship, a secondary source"".

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Sevener

al-Ismāʿīliyya al-khāliṣa / al-Ismāʿīliyya al-wāqifa or Seveners (سبعية) was a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīʻa.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Sharif

Sharif (also transliterated Sharīf or Sherif) / Shareef, Alsharif, Alshareef (شريف), or Chérif (Darija: Chorfa) is a traditional Arab title.

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Sheikh

Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shirk (Islam)

In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.

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Shrine of Ali

The Blue Mosque is a mosque located in the center of Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan.

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Shura

Shura (شورى shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation".

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Siege of Uthman

The Third Rightly Guided Caliph, Uthman, was assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house.

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Sources of sharia

Various sources of sharia are used by Islamic jurisprudence to elucidate the body of Islamic law.

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Standard-bearer

A standard-bearer is a person (soldier or civilian) who bears an emblem called or standard, i.e. either a type of flag or an inflexible but mobile image, which is used (and often honoured) as a formal, visual symbol of a state, prince, military unit, etc.

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Succession to Muhammad

The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sulaym ibn Qays

Sulaym ibn Qays al-Hilālī al-ʿĀmirī (سليم بن قيس الهلالي العامري) was one of the companions of Ali towards the end of the latter's life.

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Sultan

Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Sunnah

Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Syncretism

Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Tafsir

Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.

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Tafsir al-Mizan

Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an (الميزان في تفسير القرآن, "The balance in interpretation of Quran"), more commonly known as Tafsir al-Mizan (تفسير الميزان) or simply Al-Mizan (الميزان), is a tafsir (exegesis of the Quran) written by the Shia Muslim scholar and philosopher Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (1892–1981).

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Tafsir al-Tabari

Jāmiʿ al-bayān ʿan taʾwīl āy al-Qurʾān (also written with fī in place of ʿan), popularly Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī (تفسير الطبري), is a Sunni tafsir by the Persian scholar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923).

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Talhah

Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (طلحة بن عبيدالله) (594-656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Talut

Talut (Ṭālūt) is considered to be the Qur’anic name for Saul, as he was the Malik (مَـلِـك, King) of Israel, or Gideon, with the reasoning that the Quran references the same incident of the drinking from the river as that found in the Book of Judges (7:5-7),Judges vii.

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Tawaf

Tawaf (طواف, Ṭawāf; literally going about) is one of the Islamic rituals of pilgrimage.

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Tawhid

Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.

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Tayy

Tayy (طيء/ALA-LC: Ṭayy), also known as Ṭayyi or Taiesʾ, is a large and ancient Arab tribe, whose descendants today are the tribe of Shammar, who continue to live throughout the Middle Eastern states of the Arab world and the rest of the world.

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The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays

The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays is a Hadith collection by Sulaym ibn Qays, who entrusted it to Aban ibn abi-Ayyash.

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The event of Ghadir Khumm

The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) is an event that took place in March 632.

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The Fourteen Infallibles

The Fourteen Infallibles (معصومون Ma‘sūmūn) (چهارده معصوم Chahar'dah Ma‘sūm) in Twelver Shia Islam are the Islamic prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatima Zahra; and the Twelve Imams.

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The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.

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The Twelve Imams

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.

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The verse of Mawadda

The verse of Mawadda (Arabic:آیه الْمَوَدَّةَ) is verse twenty three of sura Ash-Shura that Muhammad's wage of Resalat is introduced to love his near relatives.

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The verse of purification

The verse of purification (Arabic:آیه تطهیر) is verse (Ayah) in the Qur'an.

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Transcendent theosophy

Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’li (حكمت متعالي), the doctrine and philosophy developed by Persian philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of two main disciplines of Islamic philosophy that is currently live and active.

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Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) was an important event that took place during the formation of Islam.

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Tribes of Arabia

The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.

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Twelver

Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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Umamah bint Zainab

Umamah bint Abu al-'As bin al-Rabi' (Arabic: أمامة بنت ابو العاص بن الربيع) was a granddaughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadija bint Khuwaylid.She is numbered among his companions.

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Umar

Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umar at Fatimah's house

Umar at Fatimah's house refers to the event where Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his followers.

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Umar II

Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umm Ayman

Barakah (بَـرَكَـة) the daughter of Tha'alaba bin Amr, known as Umme Aymen (أمّ أيمن), was the Second Mother of the Prophet of Islam, she was an Abyssinian slave girl of Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, or his wife Aminah.

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Umm Kulthum bint Ali

Zaynab al-Sughra (Zaynab the Younger), also known by her kunya Umm Kulthum bint Ali, was the granddaughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the daughter of Imam Ali.

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Umm ul-Banin

Fāṭimah bint Ḥuzam al-Kulābīyya (فاطمة بنت حزام الكلابية - died 64 A.H. (683/684) or 69 A.H. (688/689)), commonly known as Umm ul-Banin ("mother of several sons"), was from the tribe of Banu Kilab a branch of Qais Ailan tribes.

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Ummah

(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".

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Urdu

Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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Verse of Wilayah

The Verse of Wilayah or Leadership (Āyat al-Wilāyah) is the 55th verse of the Al-Ma'ida Chapter (Surah 5) in the Quran.

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Wahy

Waḥy (وحي,; also spelled wahi) is the Arabic word for revelation or inspiration.

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Wali

Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".

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Walid ibn Utbah

Walid ibn Utbah (died 624) was the son of Utba ibn Rabi'ah and brother of Abu Hudhayfa ibn Utbah and Hind bint Utbah.

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Wilayah

A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".

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Wilferd Madelung

Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam.

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William Chittick

William C. Chittick (born 1943) is a philosoper, writer, translator and interpreter of classical Islamic philosophical and mystical texts.

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Yemen

Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zaidiyyah

Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.

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Zakat

Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.

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Zaynab bint Ali

Sayyidah Zaynab bint ʿAli (الـسَّـيّـدة زَيـنـب بـنـت عـلي, Also: 'Zainab') was one of the daughters of the fourth caliph and the first Shia imam, ‘Ali and his first wife Fatimah.

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Ziyarat

In Islam, ziyara(h) (زيارة ziyārah, "visit") or ziyarat (زیارت, ziyārat, "pilgrimage") is a form of pilgrimage to sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants (including the Shī‘ī Imāms), his companions and other venerated figures in Islam such as the prophets, Sufi Saints and Islamic scholars.

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Ziyarat Amin Allah

Zīyārat Amīn Allāh (Arabic: زیارة امین الله) is regarded as a piece of salutation which is a kind of Ziyarat text (visitation supplication), that is quoted from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that it was recited by Ali ibn Hussain as the fourth Imam of Shia Islam when he visited the holy shrine of Imam Ali.

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Zubayr ibn al-Awam

Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (594–656) was a companion of Muhammad and a commander in the Rashidun army.

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Zulfiqar

Zulfiqar (ذو الفقار Ḏū-l-Faqār or Ḏū-l-Fiqār) is the name of the sword of Ali ibn Abi Talib which is said to have been given to him by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, according to Shi'ite tradition.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali

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